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Articles 1 - 30 of 1041

Full-Text Articles in International Humanitarian Law

Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic Sep 2020

Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

Are there are any special rules of attribution in international law? Are there, in other words, imputational rules that are not recognized as such in general international law, but are specific to particular branches of international law? This is the first article to systematically analyze the notion of special rules of attribution in international law. In particular, it searches for such rules in international humanitarian law, the law on the use of force, and European human rights law.

The article argues that, to the extent special rules of attribution exist, they are rare and never uncontroversial. In most situations, putative ...


Trafficking To The Rescue?, Julie Dahlstrom Sep 2020

Trafficking To The Rescue?, Julie Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

Since before the dawn of the #MeToo Movement, civil litigators have been confronted with imperfect legal responses to gender-based harms. Some have sought to envision and develop innovative legal strategies. One new, increasingly successful tactic has been the deployment of federal anti-trafficking law in certain cases of domestic violence and sexual assault. In 2017, for example, victims of sexual assault filed federal civil suits under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (“TVPRA”) against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein. Plaintiffs argued that the alleged sexual assault conduct amounted to “commercial sex acts” and sex trafficking. Other plaintiffs’ lawyers have similarly invoked trafficking ...


Protecting The Flores And Hutto Settlements: A Look At The History Of Migrant Children Detention And Where Immigration Policies Are Headed, Megan Kauffman Aug 2020

Protecting The Flores And Hutto Settlements: A Look At The History Of Migrant Children Detention And Where Immigration Policies Are Headed, Megan Kauffman

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

The Flores and Hutto settlement agreements established basic standards the government must meet when detaining minor children. This comment discusses the history and importance of the Flores and Hutto agreement and the current administration’s attempt to limit and circumvent both agreements.


Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese Aug 2020

Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Populist nationalist movements have been on the rise around the world in recent years. These movements have tapped into, and fueled, a deep anger among many members of the public. Especially in the face of stagnant or declining economic prospects—as well as expanding inequality—much anger has been directed at minorities and migrants. Politicians with authoritarian tendencies have sought to leverage such public anger by reinforcing tendencies to scapegoat others for their society’s problems. In this paper, I show that laws and regulations—like migrants—can be framed as “the other” too and made into scapegoats. With reference ...


Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi Aug 2020

Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi

Michigan Journal of International Law

Human trafficking falls within the jurisdictional competence of the International Criminal Court (“ICC”) as one of the article 7 crimes against humanity, whether committed in an atmosphere of conflict or in times of relative peace. Despite the ICC’s jurisdiction, as well as the globally pervasive nature of peacetime trafficking in particular, the ICC has not yet heard a human trafficking case.

Accountability at the international level, however, is crucial, and the ICC’s oversight has the potential to fill gaps in the current anti-trafficking regime. This note explores this potential, and then examines whether the text of the Rome ...


Nazi-Confiscated Art: Eliminating Legal Barriers To Returning Stolen Treasures, Stephanie J. Beach Aug 2020

Nazi-Confiscated Art: Eliminating Legal Barriers To Returning Stolen Treasures, Stephanie J. Beach

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

World War II ended over three-quarters of a century ago, but there still remain prisoners of war. Before and during the war, the Nazis confiscated approximately 650,000 works of art—an “art theft” orchestrated by Adolf Hitler to rid society of Jewish art and artists and to collect worthy works to build his own art capital. Seventy-five years later, looted Holocaust-era artworks are still either undiscovered or in the possession of museums across the globe without proper ownership attribution or payment to Holocaust survivors or their heirs. There are modern remedies, such as the 1998 Washington Conference on Holocaust ...


Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health Aug 2020

Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health

Northwestern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine Jul 2020

Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

A fundamental tenet of the legal profession is that lawyers and judges are uniquely responsible—individually and collectively—for protecting the Rule of Law. This Article considers the failings of the legal profession in living up to that responsibility during Germany’s Third Reich. The incremental steps used by the Nazis to gain control of the German legal system—beginning as early as 1920 when the Nazi Party adopted a party platform that included a plan for a new legal system—turned the legal system on its head and destroyed the Rule of Law. By failing to uphold the integrity ...


The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan Jul 2020

The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan

Indiana Law Journal

In this Article, I take up one slice of what should be a broad re-examination of

U.S. law and policy. I argue that the new attacks have been undertaken by entities

that can and should be designated as foreign terrorist organizations. Doing this would

permit prosecutors to target those who support these entities with tools that are not

currently available. This Article is both a doctrinal argument that directly addresses

the many legal hurdles that make designating groups, such as foreign hackers and

troll farms, terrorist organizations a complicated endeavor, and a policy argument

about how U.S. law ...


Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn Jun 2020

Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn

International Law Studies

Few violations of the law of armed conflict (LOAC) are as pernicious as using civilians to shield military objectives from attack. This unlawful tactic unfortunately seems to be an all too common practice of organized armed groups, especially in conflicts against tactically superior conventional state armed forces. The very term "human shielding" presupposes, however, the ultimate objective is to prevent an opponent from attacking the shielded military objective or, in the alternative, substantially complicate that attack decision. But is a shielding effect always the ultimate objective of such civilian exploitation? This article argues that the answer is no; that there ...


Strategic Proportionality: Limitations On The Use Of Force In Modern Armed Conflicts, Noam Lubell, Amichai Cohen Jun 2020

Strategic Proportionality: Limitations On The Use Of Force In Modern Armed Conflicts, Noam Lubell, Amichai Cohen

International Law Studies

The nature of modern armed conflicts, combined with traditional interpretations of proportionality, poses serious challenges to the jus ad bellum goal of limiting and controlling wars. In between the jus ad bellum focus on decisions to use force, and the international humanitarian law (IHL) regulation of specific attacks, there is a far-reaching space in which the regulatory role of international law is bereft of much needed clarity. Perhaps the most striking example is in relation to overall casualties of war. If the jus ad bellum is understood as applying to the opening moments of the conflict, then it cannot provide ...


Holocaust, Genocide, And The Law: A Quest For Justice In A Post-Holocaust World By Michael J. Bazyler, Irina Samborski May 2020

Holocaust, Genocide, And The Law: A Quest For Justice In A Post-Holocaust World By Michael J. Bazyler, Irina Samborski

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

LAW IS COMMONLY THOUGHT OF as an antidote to genocide rather than its facilitator. In Holocaust, Genocide, and the Law, Professor Michael Bazyler of Chapman University’s Fowler School of Law refutes the notion that the Holocaust was an extralegal event—instead, he isolates the law as the preferred instrument of wholesale murder and destruction. The book traces the long shadow that the Holocaust has cast on the contemporary corpus of international law and many legal systems across the world. While it tells the unfolding catastrophe of the Holocaust as a legal history, the book considers the legal triumphs that ...


Implementing Undrip In Canada: Any Role For Corporations?, Basil Ugochukwu May 2020

Implementing Undrip In Canada: Any Role For Corporations?, Basil Ugochukwu

The Transnational Human Rights Review

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) offers guidance on how the rights of indigenous populations could be protected in the context of member states of the United Nations. While the Declaration prescribes what states need to do to effectively realize its objective, question is whether there are expectations on non-state actors such as corporations to contribute towards attaining those objectives. Though on the one hand the UNDRIP is textually not directed at corporations, on the other hand, corporations are routinely implicated in environments where massive violations of indigenous rights have occurred in various regions of ...


Opening The Doors To Justice In Africa: Analyzing State Acceptance Of The Right Of Individual Application To The African Court On Human And Peoples' Rights, Simon Zschirnt May 2020

Opening The Doors To Justice In Africa: Analyzing State Acceptance Of The Right Of Individual Application To The African Court On Human And Peoples' Rights, Simon Zschirnt

The Transnational Human Rights Review

The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights took its place as the youngest of the three regional human rights courts with its establishment in 2006. However, the Court’s jurisdiction remains a work in progress. Thirty of the African Union’s fifty-five member states have ratified the protocol allowing the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights to refer cases to the Court but only ten have made the optional declaration allowing individuals direct access. Previous research has indicated that transitional states desirous of “locking in” new commitments to democracy and human rights have been particularly likely to ratify ...


The Honduran Exodus: Understanding The Migrant Crisis At The Southwest Border, Ashley Saul May 2020

The Honduran Exodus: Understanding The Migrant Crisis At The Southwest Border, Ashley Saul

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Child Marriage In The U.S.: Loopholes In State Marriage Laws Perpetuate Child Marriage, Sarah Ochieng May 2020

Child Marriage In The U.S.: Loopholes In State Marriage Laws Perpetuate Child Marriage, Sarah Ochieng

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

The practice of child marriage is often discussed in the context of developing countries and many people find it unthinkable that child marriage also occurs in developed countries such as the United States of America. However, child marriage is a serious problem in the United States that affects thousands of children each year. This comment reviews the loopholes in state marriage laws. Part II considers the scope of child marriage as a human rights violation and the effects of child marriage. It also provides a background of the loopholes in state marriage laws, and a focus on the marriage laws ...


Rodriguez V. Swartz: Civil Lawsuit Immunity In Border Shootings, Alexis Woolison May 2020

Rodriguez V. Swartz: Civil Lawsuit Immunity In Border Shootings, Alexis Woolison

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

When federal agents exhibit conduct that violates the United States Constitution, the Supreme Court has held that those agents should be held civilly liable for their actions, as shown by its decision in Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Applicable constitutional violations include those which infringe on any individuals’ constitutional rights. This includes violations of the constitutional rights of noncitizens. Although the Supreme Court disfavors expansion of Bivens claims and has only extended this remedy twice, in Davis v. Passman and Carlson v. Green, the Ninth Circuit Court recently approved such expansion in a ...


Grounds For Asylum: How Victims' Rights Laws Confer Particular Social Group Status To Domestic Violence Victims, Jordan Cotleur May 2020

Grounds For Asylum: How Victims' Rights Laws Confer Particular Social Group Status To Domestic Violence Victims, Jordan Cotleur

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

Despite an uptake in legislation criminalizing domestic violence since the 1990’s, women in Latin America still face the highest rates of gender-based and domestic violence of any region in the world. In Central America, two-thirds of female homicide victims are killed because of their status as a woman (also known as “femicide”) and half of women face this fate at the hands of a current or former partner. The violence perpetuates at such an alarming rate because investigations into gender-based violence are nearly non-existent in the region. In 2016, it was reported that up to ninety-eight percent of cases ...


Detention Of Asylum-Seekers: Comparison Of The Asylum And Detention Practices In United States And Sweden, Yuliia Pohorilets May 2020

Detention Of Asylum-Seekers: Comparison Of The Asylum And Detention Practices In United States And Sweden, Yuliia Pohorilets

International Studies (MA) Theses

Refugees are both an urgent humanitarian issue and the subject of much political debate in the U.S. and Europe. This research paper compares and contrasts the asylum process in US and Sweden. It analyzes the similarities and differences in their refugee policies and how asylumseeker rights are undermined or supported in the detention centers. The research discusses the historical origin of the contemporary asylum/immigration policies, international standards on detention, their implication, and key contemporary policy trends in US and Sweden. The selection of US and Sweden was not random. Both countries are highly influential in different ways in ...


The Language Of International Human Rights Law As A Foundation For The Prevention, And Peaceful Resolution Of Ethnic, And Political Conflicts In Bolivia, Yuri Mantilla Apr 2020

The Language Of International Human Rights Law As A Foundation For The Prevention, And Peaceful Resolution Of Ethnic, And Political Conflicts In Bolivia, Yuri Mantilla

Pace International Law Review

Since the Spanish conquest of the New World, the systematic dehumanization of indigenous communities has been part of a culture of economic exploitation and ethnic discrimination against indigenous peoples such as the Aymara, Quechua, and Guarani. In Bolivia, indigenous people successfully resisted the efforts to undermine their cultural identities. As a result, Bolivia is one of the most indigenous countries in the world and its indigenous cultures are one of its greatest assets. Despite this reality, indigenous people have been marginalized and discriminated against in a country that has embraced ethnic stereotypes regarding the supposed “superiority” of people of Spanish ...


Exploring The Overlap: Women Now’S Feminist Humanitarian Support And The Community Of Practice, Judith Bruce, Aisha Dennis Apr 2020

Exploring The Overlap: Women Now’S Feminist Humanitarian Support And The Community Of Practice, Judith Bruce, Aisha Dennis

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This conversation took place between Judith Bruce, Senior Associate and Policy Analyst of the Population Council, and Aisha Dennis, former Program Director for Women Now for Development. Women Now for Development’s mission is to initiate programs led by Syrian women that protect Syrian women and children across socioeconomic backgrounds and empower women to find their political voice and participate in building a new, peaceful Syria that respects and safeguards equal rights for all its citizens. Aisha’s impressive breadth of expertise includes conflict resolution and the application of international law through strategic litigation, as well as practical experience in ...


The Permanent Liminality Of Pakistan's Northern Areas- The Case Of Gilgit-Baltistan, Hamna Tariq Apr 2020

The Permanent Liminality Of Pakistan's Northern Areas- The Case Of Gilgit-Baltistan, Hamna Tariq

Senior Theses and Projects

Since Pakistan’s inception, Gilgit-Baltistan, a sprawling region in Northern Pakistan, has not been granted provincial status due to its colonial association with the disputed region of Kashmir. Gilgit-Baltistan refutes its forceful integration with Kashmir, an unfortunate remnant of British divide-and-rule strategy, and demands provincial recognition and constitutional rights. Pakistan unfairly claims that it awaits the UN-sanctioned plebiscite in Kashmir to determine the region’s status. However, the likelihood of a plebiscite is little to none, since the Indian government officially annexed Indian-held Kashmir in August 2019, breaching the UN resolution on the plebiscite. A region that has been at ...


Comment On Us Trade And Investment Agreements Submitted To Ustr, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment Apr 2020

Comment On Us Trade And Investment Agreements Submitted To Ustr, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Comments to USTR Re: U.S.-Kenya Trade Agreement (April 28, 2020): CCSI, in response to the United States Trade Representative’s request for public comment to inform its approach to a U.S.-Kenya Trade Agreement, submitted Comments elaborating on our main points that (1) investor-state dispute settlement should not be included in any U.S.-Kenya agreement and (2) principles that should guide an investment chapter or investment provisions in any such agreement should (a) strategically support cross-border investment that produces positive development outcomes for the U.S. and Kenya, (b) facilitate and support good governance of investment ...


The (Erroneous) Requirement For Human Judgment (And Error) In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Eric Talbot Jensen Mar 2020

The (Erroneous) Requirement For Human Judgment (And Error) In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Eric Talbot Jensen

International Law Studies

One of the most intriguing and important discussions in international law is the potential impact of emerging technologies on the law of armed conflict (LOAC), including weapons that incorporate machine learning and/or artificial intelligence. Because one of the likely characteristics of these advanced weapons would be the ability to make decisions implicating life and death on the battlefield, these discussions have highlighted a fundamental question concerning the LOAC: Does the law regulating armed conflict require human input in selecting and engaging targets or can that decision be made without human input? This article analyzes views expressed by scholars and ...


The Unlawfulness Of A “Bloody Nose Strike” On North Korea, Kevin Jon Heller Feb 2020

The Unlawfulness Of A “Bloody Nose Strike” On North Korea, Kevin Jon Heller

International Law Studies

The United States has reportedly been debating whether to "react to some nuclear or missile test with a targeted strike against a North Korean facility to bloody Pyongyang’s nose and illustrate the high price the regime could pay for its behavior." This article asks a simple question: would such a “bloody nose strike” (BNS) violate the jus ad bellum?

Providing a coherent answer is complicated by the lack of clarity surrounding the United States’ planning. In particular, the U.S. government has not specified what kind of provocation it believes would justify launching a BNS, has not identified precisely ...


The Proof Is In The Process: Self-Reporting Under International Human Rights Treaties, Cosette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons Feb 2020

The Proof Is In The Process: Self-Reporting Under International Human Rights Treaties, Cosette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent research has shown that state reporting to human rights monitoring bodies is associated with improvements in rights practices, calling into question earlier claims that self-reporting is inconsequential. Yet little work has been done to explore the theoretical mechanisms that plausibly account for this association. This Article systematically documents—across treaties, countries, and years—four mechanisms through which reporting can contribute to human rights improvements: elite socialization, learning and capacity building, domestic mobilization, and law development. These mechanisms have implications for the future of human rights treaty monitoring.


The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski Jan 2020

The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Twelve Key Questions On Self-Defense Against Non-State Actors, Terry D. Gill, Kinga Tibori-Szabó Jan 2020

Twelve Key Questions On Self-Defense Against Non-State Actors, Terry D. Gill, Kinga Tibori-Szabó

International Law Studies

This article examines the most pertinent questions relating to the applicability of the right of self-defense to attacks conducted by non-State armed groups (NSAGs) acting independently of State control from the territory of one or more States against the territory of another State. These questions are approached from the perspective of legality (does the right of self-defense apply to attacks not mounted by or under the control of a State) and modality (assuming the applicability of self-defense to such attacks; how do the principles of necessity, proportionality and immediacy affect its application)? Starting with an assessment of the place of ...


Sexual Slavery And Customary International Law, Patricia Viseur Sellers, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum Jan 2020

Sexual Slavery And Customary International Law, Patricia Viseur Sellers, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum

Book Chapters

The Hissène Habré trial and appellate judgments represent watershed legal decisions rendering long-denied justice to victims of the brutal Chadian regime. Delayed charges of credible sexual violence inflicted upon both males and females challenged the judges of the Extraordinary African Court (“EAC”) in Senegal. Legal characterizations of sexual assaults ultimately attributed to Habré represent significant jurisprudential advancements on rape, sexual slavery and torture as international crimes.

The EAC’s observations acknowledge that sexual slavery constitutes part of the actus reus of enslavement as crime against humanity and of slavery as a war crime. While agreeing with the Chambers that sexual ...


Children In Armed Conflict, In Oxford Handbook Of Children’S Rights Law (Jonathan Todres & Shani M. King Eds., 2020), Mark A. Drumbl Jan 2020

Children In Armed Conflict, In Oxford Handbook Of Children’S Rights Law (Jonathan Todres & Shani M. King Eds., 2020), Mark A. Drumbl

Books and Chapters

This chapter addresses a particularly vulnerable population of children, namely, children associated with armed forces or armed groups. These children are colloquially known as child soldiers. This chapter begins by surveying the prevalence of child soldiering globally. It then sets out the considerable amount of international law that addresses children in armed conflict, in particular, the law that allocates responsibility for child soldiering and the law that sets out the responsibility of child soldiers for their conduct. The chapter identifies significant gaps between the law and the securing of positive outcomes for former child soldiers, notably when it comes to ...