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Full-Text Articles in International Humanitarian Law

Invisibility And Dis-Identification Of Algerian Women: Feminist Jurisprudence Eyes On The Legal Provisions Related To Personal Status And Criminal, Sophia Lina Meziane Feb 2023

Invisibility And Dis-Identification Of Algerian Women: Feminist Jurisprudence Eyes On The Legal Provisions Related To Personal Status And Criminal, Sophia Lina Meziane

Theses and Dissertations

Much of the debate around women’s rights in legal systems focuses on the increase of protection as a legal mechanism for approaching and guaranteeing gender equality. Yet, what extensive or comprehensive analysis has been done on how effective such laws are when applied? This thesis discusses the extent to which a feminist legal theory, separate and distinct from the patriarchal legal system, can demonstrate how an Islamic or Napoleonic order is conceptually another male rationality. While one could possibly identify inefficiencies of laws proclaiming equality and protection for women, the context of the question is inevitably entrenched in the very …


Bittersweet: A Potential Avenue To International Tort Liability For American Companies In The Cocoa Supply Chain, Sara Leonhartsberger Dec 2022

Bittersweet: A Potential Avenue To International Tort Liability For American Companies In The Cocoa Supply Chain, Sara Leonhartsberger

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla Dec 2022

Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Comments On The International Criminal Court Office Of The Prosecutor's Draft Policy On The Crime Of Gender Persecution Under The Rome Statute, Milena Sterio Nov 2022

Comments On The International Criminal Court Office Of The Prosecutor's Draft Policy On The Crime Of Gender Persecution Under The Rome Statute, Milena Sterio

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

The Draft Policy promises to be a seminal contribution not only to the Office of the Prosecutor's (OTP) policy and practice and the International Criminal Court's (ICC) jurisprudence on gender persecution, but also to the development of international criminal law generally. Building on its prior work, including the 2014 Policy Paper, the OTP is well placed to develop policies and procedures that protect historically marginalized and oppressed groups, deliver justice that accurately reflects the depth and breadth of the gender persecution suffered, and shed light on a crime that has to date received only limited attention.

As it finalizes the …


Speculations On Criminal Justice Mechanisms To Address The North Korean Regime's Human Rights Violations: Icc, Ad Hoc Tribunals, Or Something Else?, Yun Ju Kang Nov 2022

Speculations On Criminal Justice Mechanisms To Address The North Korean Regime's Human Rights Violations: Icc, Ad Hoc Tribunals, Or Something Else?, Yun Ju Kang

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Manual On International Humanitarian Law For The Armed Forces Of The Russian Federation (2002) Nov 2022

Manual On International Humanitarian Law For The Armed Forces Of The Russian Federation (2002)

International Law Studies

A translation of the Manual on International Humanitarian Law for the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, 2002, by Aleksei Romanovski. This translation was originally published as Appendix 1 in Evan J. Wallach, The Law of War in the 21st Century (2017).


Some Reflections On The Threshold For International Armed Conflict And On The Application Of The Law Of Armed Conflict In Any Armed Conflict, T.D. Gill Oct 2022

Some Reflections On The Threshold For International Armed Conflict And On The Application Of The Law Of Armed Conflict In Any Armed Conflict, T.D. Gill

International Law Studies

This essay discusses the threshold of application of international humanitarian law (IHL) in both international (IAC) and non-international armed conflicts (NIAC). In relation to IAC it questions whether the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) “first shot” approach is the most appropriate, since it opens the way for the intensification of conflicts beyond what is necessary in relation to relatively minor armed incidents and argues that the humanitarian protection clauses of IHL should be separated from the rules governing hostilities and makes a case for the application of ad bellum considerations of necessity and proportionality to act as a …


Racecraft And Identity In The Emergence Of Islam As A Race, Cyra Akila Choudhury Oct 2022

Racecraft And Identity In The Emergence Of Islam As A Race, Cyra Akila Choudhury

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Can a religion, over time and through its social and legal resignification, come to be a race? Drawing on Critical Race Theory (“CRT”), Critical Discourse Theory, the work of Karen E. and Barbara J. Fields and Cedric Robinson, this article argues that Islam has emerged as a race and Muslims as a racial group. To support the claim, Part I examines the theoretical basis for the argument. Applying the concept of “racecraft,” the article theorizes that racism produces both the racial group and race. As many have already argued, race is not based in biology; it is not a fact …


The Legal Requirement For Command And The Future Of Autonomous Military Platforms, Rain Liivoja, Eve Massingham, Simon Mckenzie Sep 2022

The Legal Requirement For Command And The Future Of Autonomous Military Platforms, Rain Liivoja, Eve Massingham, Simon Mckenzie

International Law Studies

Technologically advanced armed forces extensively use platforms that can be controlled remotely and do not require an on-board crew. Increasingly, these systems have the capacity to function with some degree of autonomy. The use of autonomous functionality is not specifically prohibited or regulated by the law of armed conflict but the use of autonomous functions in military systems remains governed by the general principles and rules of international law.

One existing international law concept may constrain the use of autonomous capabilities in military vessels and aircraft. This is the notion that military units must be “under the command” of an …


Free Yezidi Foundation Public Memo – Lafarge Case, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Patricia Viseur Sellers Sep 2022

Free Yezidi Foundation Public Memo – Lafarge Case, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Patricia Viseur Sellers

Online Publications

This memorandum supports the Free Yezidi Foundation’s (FYF) filing in the Lafarge Case concerning allegations of complicity in crimes against humanity, including genocide. The Lafarge Corporation continuously operated its factory and, moreover, financially contributed to the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (IS, ISIS, Daesh) between 2013 and 2014, inclusive of the period between 3 August 2014 and 19 September 2014. During those weeks, and represented in a timeline annexed to this memorandum, international and French media, international organizations, and governments extensively reported on and condemned IS acts committed against the Yezidi population that could constitute crimes against humanity under …


International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann Sep 2022

International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann

International Law Studies

The Ukraine-Russia conflict has wreaked disproportionate harms upon children. Hundreds reportedly were killed or wounded within the opening months of the conflict, thousands lost loved ones, and millions left their homes, their schools, and their communities. Yet public discussions of how to settle the conflict contain very little at all about children. This article seeks to change that dynamic. It builds on a relatively recent trend, one that situates human rights within the structure of peace negotiations, to push for particularized treatment of children’s experiences, needs, rights, and capacities in eventual negotiations. The article draws upon twenty-first century projects that …


Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert Aug 2022

Decolonizing The Corpus: A Queer Decolonial Re-Examination Of Gender In International Law's Origins, David Eichert

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article builds upon queer feminist and decolonial/TWAIL interventions into the history of international law, questioning the dominant discourses about gender and sexual victimhood in the laws of armed conflict. In Part One, I examine how early European international law writers (re)produced binary and hierarchical ideas about gender in influential legal texts, discursively creating a world in which wartime violence only featured men and women in strictly defined roles (a construction which continues to influence the practice of law today). In Part Two, I decenter these dominant discourses by looking outside Europe, questioning what a truly “international” law would look …


Regional Immigration Enforcement, Fatma Marouf Aug 2022

Regional Immigration Enforcement, Fatma Marouf

Faculty Scholarship

Regional disparities in immigration enforcement have existed for decades, yet they remain largely overlooked in immigration law scholarship. This Article theorizes that bottom-up pressure from states and localities, combined with top-down pressures and policies established by the President, produce these regional disparities. The Article then provides an empirical analysis demonstrating enormous variations in how Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s twenty-four field offices engage in federal enforcement around the United States. By analyzing data related to detainers, arrests, removals, and detention across these field offices, the Article demonstrates substantial differences between field offices located in sanctuary and anti-sanctuary regions, as well as …


Feminism And The Birth Of Sexual Crime As International Crime And The Challenge Of Its Implementation In The Future, Zunnuraeni Zunnuraeni, Rehulina Tarigan, Erlies Septiana Nurbani, Aisyah Wardatul Jannah Jul 2022

Feminism And The Birth Of Sexual Crime As International Crime And The Challenge Of Its Implementation In The Future, Zunnuraeni Zunnuraeni, Rehulina Tarigan, Erlies Septiana Nurbani, Aisyah Wardatul Jannah

Indonesian Journal of International Law

The existence of international sexual crimes in international court jurisprudence and the international law instruments have evolve as an extensive crime from the abundance crime of outrages upon personal dignity, yet still have to front some challenges to attain triumph in its enforcement. This article aims to observe the sexual crimes as international crime in some aspect, namely, its development and the contribution of feminism, the challenges on the law enforcement against international criminal law and the position of feminism in addressing those challenges. In every stage of sexual crimes evolution as international crimes, feminism hold important contribution. Their impact …


Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons Jul 2022

Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons

Washington and Lee Law Review

Rurality intersects with other identities, power dynamics, and structural inequalities—including those related to gender, race, disability, and age—to create unique patterns of human rights deprivations, violations, and challenges in rural spaces. Therefore, accurately assessing human rights and duties in rural spaces requires attention to the dynamics of rurality in a particular context, the unique nature of diverse rural identities and livelihoods, the systemic forces operating in and on those spaces, and the intersections with other forms of structural discrimination and inequality.

Although much of the work of the U.N. treaty bodies has in fact addressed human rights situations in rural …


Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva Jul 2022

Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

The 2002 film ‘City of God’ tells an anecdotal story of violence in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, and is a reminder that the societies we tend to take for granted can actually be a luxury. The film portrays the daily life of the peripheries of Rio and its relation with drug trafficking, crime, and poverty, and how it has deteriorated into a war zone so dangerous that anyone risk being shot to death. Thousands of miles away from the Brazilian slums there is another so-called city of God, or the city chosen by God to be the home’s …


Memoria, Verdad Y Justicia: Situacion Y Perspectivas Etudes: Premiere Partie: Justice Transitionnelle Et Reconciliation, Juan Mendez Jun 2022

Memoria, Verdad Y Justicia: Situacion Y Perspectivas Etudes: Premiere Partie: Justice Transitionnelle Et Reconciliation, Juan Mendez

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

La evolucion de los principios de justicia transicional en el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos debe verse con un enfoque juridico que ponga de manifiesto la frondosa jurisprudencia que se ha poducido en respuesta a las trabas y obstAculos en diversos paises para la realizacibn de la justicia. Esto es especialmente cierto en America Latina, donde el sistenma interamericano de proteccion ha establecido con firmeza varias de estas obLigaciones internacionales del Estado. Pern no se trata de reglas aplicables solamente en el mbito interamericano, sino que se irproducen de diversas formas en otros sistemas regionales y tambidn en la …


Taking Responsibility Under International Law: Human Trafficking And Colombia’S Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Luz Estella Nagle, Juan Manuel Zarama May 2022

Taking Responsibility Under International Law: Human Trafficking And Colombia’S Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Luz Estella Nagle, Juan Manuel Zarama

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

For more than six million Venezuelans, crossing international borders has become imperative to ensuring security and a livelihood that their country has failed to assure. These migrants and refugees, particularly young women and children, are vulnerable to many depredations, criminal acts, and the risk of becoming trafficking victims for forced labor and sexual slavery. This article focuses on State responsibility for migrant populations and analyzes conditions in Venezuela that caused a massive migration, the conditions in Colombia as a host State, the uncertain status of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia, and human trafficking and its impact on the migrant population.


Epidemics And International Law: The Need For International Regulation, Claudio Grossman May 2022

Epidemics And International Law: The Need For International Regulation, Claudio Grossman

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

This article presents comments by the author made to open the Miami Law Review conference on Epidemics1 and International Law.2 Its main purpose is to refer to the impact of COVID-19 on different norms and legal regimes, focusing mainly on the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR), addressing areas of reform as well as the interactions of those norms with international human rights law. This will include the proposals of change for the 2005 IHR, designed to better protect vulnerable peoples in future global health crises. Some of the ideas presented in this contribution are included in a proposal that I …


The Effectiveness Of Inter-American Commission’S Reports On Capital Punishment Petitions Against The United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Alexandria Faura May 2022

The Effectiveness Of Inter-American Commission’S Reports On Capital Punishment Petitions Against The United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Alexandria Faura

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Balancing Precautions In Attacks Versus Precautions Againstnthe Effects Of Attacks In Urban Armed Conflict, Andrew Navarro May 2022

Balancing Precautions In Attacks Versus Precautions Againstnthe Effects Of Attacks In Urban Armed Conflict, Andrew Navarro

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt Apr 2022

The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The people of Maine recently exercised an opportunity no citizen of this country has ever had before: the ability to vote on whether to enshrine a right to food in their state constitution. This Essay provides an overview of Maine’s experience with food rights in order to explain how the state came to occupy this unique position.


Transnational Migration Deterrence, Anita Sinha Apr 2022

Transnational Migration Deterrence, Anita Sinha

Boston College Law Review

The governance of global migration increasingly relies on what critical migration scholarship refers to as externalized control. Externalization encompasses limiting human mobility through the imposition of migration control measures by transit states, as well as by states that are geographically proximate to destination states. Destination states are at a minimum complicit in the creation and operation of these externalized migration control systems. To capture this phenomenon, this Article offers a reconceptualization of externalization as transnational migration deterrence. The objective of this nomenclature is to provide a framework that highlights the role of destination states, to build a lexicon of accountability …


On Protecting Internally Displaced Persons In Non-International Armed Conflicts, Specifically Regarding The Civilian Population Of The Rohingya People Of Burma, Elizabeth Tonkin Apr 2022

On Protecting Internally Displaced Persons In Non-International Armed Conflicts, Specifically Regarding The Civilian Population Of The Rohingya People Of Burma, Elizabeth Tonkin

Helm's School of Government Conference

No abstract provided.


No Refuge For The Sick: How The Eu's Health-Based Non-Refoulement Standard Compounds The Exclusionary Nature Of International Refugee Law, Cassandra Baker Apr 2022

No Refuge For The Sick: How The Eu's Health-Based Non-Refoulement Standard Compounds The Exclusionary Nature Of International Refugee Law, Cassandra Baker

Washington International Law Journal

The COVID-19 pandemic poses grave threats to the life and health of asylum seekers in Europe. Many potential asylees are forced to reside in cramped, unsanitary facilities and do not have adequate access to medical treatment. On top of these dangers, many are likely to be denied asylum due to the stringency of international refugee law and European Union (“EU”) asylum procedures. As a result, a number of these asylum seekers will turn to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides broader non-refoulement protections. However, even Article 3, as currently interpreted by the European Court of …


Non-State Actors "Under Color Of Law": Closing A Gap In Protection Under The Convention Against Torture, Anna R. Welch, Sangyeon Kim Apr 2022

Non-State Actors "Under Color Of Law": Closing A Gap In Protection Under The Convention Against Torture, Anna R. Welch, Sangyeon Kim

Faculty Publications

The world is experiencing a global restructuring that poses a serious threat to international efforts to prevent and protect against torture. The rise of powerful transnational non-state actors such as gangs, drug cartels, militias, and terrorist organizations is challenging states’ authority to control and govern torture committed within their territory.

In the United States, those seeking protection against deportation under the Convention Against Torture (“CAT”) must establish a likelihood of torture at the instigation of or by consent or acquiescence of a public official acting in an official capacity or other person acting in an official capacity. However, what is …


Louis Henkin Memorial Lecture University Of Miami Law School, Juan Mendez Apr 2022

Louis Henkin Memorial Lecture University Of Miami Law School, Juan Mendez

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

I am deeply honored to be invited to deliver this year's version of a lecture series honoring Professor Louis Henkin whose contributions to the development of international law-and very specifically to international human rights law - are and very long will continue to be remembered. I am also a bit overwhelmed as I notice that the organizers have put me in the company of wonderful colleagues and masters of this field, several of them my friends and persons whose work I admire. It is also especially gratifying for me to have the occasion of renewing contact with the Henkin family …


Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha Apr 2022

Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The governance of global migration increasingly relies on what critical migration scholarship refers to as externalized control. Externalization encompasses limiting human mobility through the imposition of migration control measures by transit states, as well as by states that are geographically proximate to destination states. Destination states are at a minimum complicit in the creation and operation of these externalized migration control systems. To capture this phenomenon, this Article offers a reconceptualization of externalization as transnational migration deterrence. The objective ofthis nomenclature is to provide a framework that highlights the role of destination states, to build a lexicon of accountability for …


Canadian Corporations Bound By The Phoenix: Setting The Path For The United States, Kelly Brickman Mar 2022

Canadian Corporations Bound By The Phoenix: Setting The Path For The United States, Kelly Brickman

The Global Business Law Review

This Note argues that the United States courts have jurisdiction to consider corporate liability for international law violations of human rights under the reasoning of the Supreme Court of Canada, in Nevsun Resources Ltd. v. Araya. The United States Supreme Court has escaped holding such liability exists, but Canada has outlined how countries, such as the United States, no longer can avoid holding corporations liable under customary international law. Corporate liability for human rights violations committed abroad is a cutting-edge issue. The United States Supreme Court has considered the issue before, but the Court used different analyses and was …


The Human Rights Due Diligence Standard-Setting In The European Union: Bridging The Gap Between Ambition And Reality, Jernej Letnar Černič Mar 2022

The Human Rights Due Diligence Standard-Setting In The European Union: Bridging The Gap Between Ambition And Reality, Jernej Letnar Černič

The Global Business Law Review

Globalization has, over the past decades, erased borders between continents and countries. It has propelled international trade to previously unforeseen heights. Nonetheless, it has brought about not only positive impact, but also negative consequences for individuals and communities worldwide. Businesses have often been alleged to have been directly or indirectly involved in human rights violations. On the other hand, rights-holders have often found it difficult to enforce corporate human rights obligations and accountability either at home or abroad. Nonetheless, the field of business and human rights has in recent years witnessed seminal developments from the adoption of binding laws in …