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Full-Text Articles in International Humanitarian Law

Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2019

Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the years since the 1999 NATO airstrikes on Serbia to prevent ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians, international law has been moving in fits and starts toward recognition of a limited right of humanitarian intervention in the absence of Security Council approval. But all the ingredients necessary for the crystallization of customary international law were not present until the April 14, 2018 U.S./French/U.K. airstrikes on Syrian chemical weapons facilities. This article examines the unique features of the April 2018 airstrikes – the context of a crisis of historic proportions, the focus on preventing the use of ...


Freedom Of Research And The Right To Science: From Theory To Advocacy, Andrea Boggio, Romano P.R. Cesare Oct 2018

Freedom Of Research And The Right To Science: From Theory To Advocacy, Andrea Boggio, Romano P.R. Cesare

History and Social Sciences Faculty Journal Articles

While international law recognizes a human right to science, the binding normative content of this right needs to be better clarified and specified. To advance our understanding of this understudied right, this chapter offers a theoretical analysis of ways in which the right to science can be realized. The chapter is divided in three sections: the first section discusses the recognition of the right to science under international and regional legal instruments; the second presents a literature review; and the third discusses how judicial and political mobilisation as paths to contribute to our understating of this right and defining its ...


We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman Oct 2018

We Are All Farkhunda: An Examination Of The Treatment Of Women Within Afghanistan's Formal Legal System, Ashley Lenderman

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

In this paper, I will examine three cases of violence against women that went through the Afghan formal legal system: the case of Farkhunda, the Paghman district gang rape case, and the case of Sahar Gul. In the first Part, I will discuss the formal legal system framework on which the cases are based. In the second Part, I will discuss the cases in detail. In the third Part, I will describe neo-liberal, reformist, and neo-fundamentalist approaches to interpretation of Islamic law, and I will then draw out pieces of the decisions from the three cases that closely match these ...


Much Ado About Nothing?: Local Resistance And The Significance Of Sanctuary Laws, Alyssa Garcia Oct 2018

Much Ado About Nothing?: Local Resistance And The Significance Of Sanctuary Laws, Alyssa Garcia

Seattle University Law Review

This Comment explores the current constitutional discourse of sanctuary laws and compares their various components. Part I provides background on the basic policy components of sanctuary laws and modern policies. Part II explores and compares the substantive legal and political value of sanctuary laws. This section will first assess the impact of sanctuary policies on existing immigration and constitutional law. In doing so, specific sanctuary jurisdictions involved in litigation, Seattle, San Francisco, and Chicago, and their likelihood of withstanding preemption under existing doctrine will be compared. The impact sanctuary laws may have on the Tenth Amendment will next be discussed ...


A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, Ziang Zhou Oct 2018

A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, Ziang Zhou

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

In a legally transitory category, irregular refugees- experience a double precariousness. They risk their lives to travel across treacherous seas to Europe for a better life. However, upon the long-awaited embarkation on the European land, they are exposed once again to the precariousness of the asylum application. They are “powerless”, “with no rights” and “to be sacrificed” as Giorgio Agamben and Hannah Arendt suggested in their respective understanding of a “bare life”, la nuda vita. In light of the administrative difficulties in managing asylum application, the European Union introduced the “Dublin Agreement”, which stipulates mandatory biometric data collection for irregular ...


Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, Sarah Federman Oct 2018

Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, Sarah Federman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Moral Disarmament: Reviving A Legacy Of The Great War, James D. Fry, Saroj Nair Oct 2018

Moral Disarmament: Reviving A Legacy Of The Great War, James D. Fry, Saroj Nair

Michigan Journal of International Law

In short, this Article examines the concept of moral disarmament using a broad-spectrum definition of humanity rather than the traditional IHL perspective. Rather than referring to human rights that are impacted by armaments, this Article looks at methods through which human initiative can create a society that truly hungers for disarmament. In other words, this Article points out that the extent of change that society can bring about through education, intellectual cooperation, peace initiatives, international affairs awareness, and intercultural communication can be reflected in the economic growth, social growth, and development of states. The aim is to help the reader ...


Weapons Review Obligation Under Customary International Law, Natalia Jevglevskaja Sep 2018

Weapons Review Obligation Under Customary International Law, Natalia Jevglevskaja

International Law Studies

Under Article 36 of the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, States are required to review new weapons for their compliance with international law. While recent discussions on the regulation of lethal autonomous weapons systems under the auspices of the UN Certain Conventional Weapons Convention increasingly emphasize the importance of national weapons review mechanisms, Article 36 is known to be implemented only by a handful of States. Some legal scholars have nonetheless argued that the Article 36 obligation has attained customary international law status. Remarkably, substantive analysis of State practice and opinio juris required to evidence that certain ...


Alien Tort Cases Will Survive Supreme Court Trim, Write Commentators, Peter B. Rutledge, Michael Baker Sep 2018

Alien Tort Cases Will Survive Supreme Court Trim, Write Commentators, Peter B. Rutledge, Michael Baker

Popular Media

For over four decades, the Alien Tort Statute has served as a central battleground in some of the country’s (and world’s) most significant international human rights litigation. Following a trend in its ATS jurisprudence that started with its opinion in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, the Supreme Court recently trimmed the statute’s scope yet further. In Jesner v. Arab Bank PLC, the Court held that suits arising under the ATS did not extend to claims against corporations (at least some of them, a nuance explained below). Once again, postdecisional commentary decried the demise of ATS suits and a blow ...


Decriminalization Of Prostitution Policy: Amnesty International Punishes A Dissenting Member, Marcia R. Lieberman Sep 2018

Decriminalization Of Prostitution Policy: Amnesty International Punishes A Dissenting Member, Marcia R. Lieberman

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

In 2016, Marcia Lieberman, a local group coordinator for Amnesty International, USA, was expelled by the board of directors for speaking out publicly against the new Policy on the Decriminalization of Sex Work. Amnesty used a little-known rule that prohibits a member from publicly opposing a position that Amnesty has taken. Lieberman writes about her experience and her view that Amnesty violated its fundamental principle of protecting free speech to silence her dissent.


The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers Aug 2018

The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers

Pace International Law Review

This Article analyzes the difficulties African male victims of sexual violence experience when seeking asylum in homophobic host countries and the lack of attention they receive from international and national governments and organizations. It concludes by recommending that male victims of sexual violence be able to seek asylum in host countries due to lack of medical care that they receive in their countries on account of imputed homosexual status.


Humanitarian Islam, Engy Abdelkader Aug 2018

Humanitarian Islam, Engy Abdelkader

Pace International Law Review

In the aftermath of mass shootings by violent extremists and amid increasing anti-Muslim prejudice and discrimination, many Muslim Americans have responded to these and other social, legal, and political developments with philanthropic initiatives inspired by orthodox Islamic teachings. This humanitarian impulse in Islam, which has shaped the religion since its founding, is relatively unknown to non-Muslim Americans. Humanitarian Islam is defined here in largely oppositional terms to so-called the “radical Islam.” In contrast to the violence, aggression, death, and destruction commonly associated with “radical Islam,” selfless volunteerism, benevolence, altruism, and charitable giving in service to others are characteristic of humanitarian ...


Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo Aug 2018

Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


The Updated Icrc Commentary On The Second Geneva Convention: Demystifying The Law Of Armed Conflict At Sea, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Heleen Hiemstra, Ellen Nohle Aug 2018

The Updated Icrc Commentary On The Second Geneva Convention: Demystifying The Law Of Armed Conflict At Sea, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Heleen Hiemstra, Ellen Nohle

International Law Studies

Since their publication in the 1950s and 1980s respectively, the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 have become a major reference for the application and interpretation of those treaties. The International Committee of the Red Cross, together with a team of renowned experts, is currently updating these Commentaries in order to document developments and provide up-to-date interpretations of the treaty texts. Following a brief overview of the methodology and process of the update as well as a historical background to the Second Geneva Convention, this article addresses the scope of applicability of the ...


Re-Victimization And The Asylum Process: Jimenez Ferreira V. Lynch: Re-Assessing The Weight Placed On Credible Fear Interviews In Determining Credibility, Alana Mosley Jul 2018

Re-Victimization And The Asylum Process: Jimenez Ferreira V. Lynch: Re-Assessing The Weight Placed On Credible Fear Interviews In Determining Credibility, Alana Mosley

Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice

No abstract provided.


Decriminalization And Expanding Safe Harbor To Adults, Dave Pinto, Rep Jun 2018

Decriminalization And Expanding Safe Harbor To Adults, Dave Pinto, Rep

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Sex Trafficking And Child Welfare, Jamie Cork Jun 2018

Sex Trafficking And Child Welfare, Jamie Cork

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Sex Buyers: The "Demand Side" Of Sex Trafficking, Lauren Martin, Ph.D Jun 2018

Sex Buyers: The "Demand Side" Of Sex Trafficking, Lauren Martin, Ph.D

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Duty To Render Assistance To Mariners In Distress During Armed Conflict At Sea: A U.S. Perspective, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo Jun 2018

Duty To Render Assistance To Mariners In Distress During Armed Conflict At Sea: A U.S. Perspective, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo

International Law Studies

In 2017, the International Committee of the Red Cross published an updated Commentary on the Second Geneva Convention. One question left unanswered by the new Commentary is the relationship between international humanitarian law and other international treaties applicable to the maritime domain, such as the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and treaties adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The Second Geneva Convention establishes a legal framework for the humane treatment and protection of victims of armed conflict at sea—the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. There are circumstances, however, in which the belligerents do not ...


Prosecuting U.N. Peacekeepers For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence In The Central African Republic, Sophia Genovese Jun 2018

Prosecuting U.N. Peacekeepers For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence In The Central African Republic, Sophia Genovese

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Women and children living in armed conflict are amongst the most vulnerable populations at-risk of sexual and gender-based violence. When U.N. peacekeepers arrive to help dispel conflict; these populations believe that the soldiers in blue helmets will protect them. Instead; hundreds of women and children in the Central African Republic have reported being raped and sexually violated by U.N. peacekeepers. Despite compelling evidence to validate these claims; U.N. peacekeepers who commit these crimes are seldom held accountable. This Note discusses how to hold U.N. peacekeepers accountable for their human rights violations. This Note argues that troop-contributing ...


Pull And Push'- Implementing The Complementarity Principle Of The Rome Statute Of The Icc Within The Au: Opportunities And Challenges, Sascha Dominik Dov Bachmann, Eda Luke Nwibo Jun 2018

Pull And Push'- Implementing The Complementarity Principle Of The Rome Statute Of The Icc Within The Au: Opportunities And Challenges, Sascha Dominik Dov Bachmann, Eda Luke Nwibo

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The complementarity principle of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is an international legal principle that governs the relationship between two; sometimes; contrasting international principles of law; namely sovereign equality of States and the international community’s duty to end impunity for international core crimes. Article 17 of the Rome Statute envisages that States maintain primary jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute international crimes; while the ICC’s jurisdiction to prosecute when States are unwilling or genuinely unable to carry out such investigations or prosecutions constitutes the exception. This article provides an analysis of this principle in the ...


The International Legal Implications Of Military Space Operations: Examining The Interplay Between International Humanitarian Law And The Outer Space Legal Regime, Dale Stephens May 2018

The International Legal Implications Of Military Space Operations: Examining The Interplay Between International Humanitarian Law And The Outer Space Legal Regime, Dale Stephens

International Law Studies

In the contemporary period, many military forces rely heavily on space-based assets to conduct operations across a wide spectrum of contexts. Such reliance necessarily exposes a correlative vulnerability that such assets may be degraded or destroyed, especially in a time of armed conflict. However, the legal framework that governs military action in space during a time of armed conflict is not well explored. This article examines the interaction between International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and the Outer Space legal regime. Harmonization of legal regimes is a goal of any reconciliation project, although such harmonization may not always be readily possible. In ...


Armed Conflict-Related Detention Of Particularly Vulnerable Persons: Challenges And Possibilities, Sandesh Sivakumaran May 2018

Armed Conflict-Related Detention Of Particularly Vulnerable Persons: Challenges And Possibilities, Sandesh Sivakumaran

International Law Studies

Persons detained for reasons related to an armed conflict are in a vulnerable position. Deprived of their liberty, they are at the mercy of their captors. Certain groups of detainees are particularly vulnerable. Additionally, the way in which non-international armed conflicts are fought can make it difficult for some parties to the conflict to comply with the rules benefiting particularly vulnerable detainees. This Article identifies groups of particularly vulnerable detainees and analyzes the general and special protections that are afforded to them under the conventional and customary international law of armed conflict. It then considers the realities of detention in ...


The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention--A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Bruno Demeyere, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lakner May 2018

The Updated Commentary On The First Geneva Convention--A New Tool For Generating Respect For International Humanitarian Law, Lindsey Cameron, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Bruno Demeyere, Eve La Haye, Heike Niebergall-Lakner

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

This Article was originally published in 97 Int’l Rev. Red Cross, no. 900, 2015, at 1209– 26. It is reprinted with permission.


Contorting Common Article 3: Reflections On The Revised Icrc Commentary, Michael A. Newton May 2018

Contorting Common Article 3: Reflections On The Revised Icrc Commentary, Michael A. Newton

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Targeting The Targeted Killings Case - International Lawmaking In Domestic Contexts, Yahli Shereshevsky May 2018

Targeting The Targeted Killings Case - International Lawmaking In Domestic Contexts, Yahli Shereshevsky

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article offers three complementary explanations for the decision of the Israeli administration to deviate from the ruling in the Targeted Killings case. The first explanation relates to the ISC’s willingness to apply judicial review in military operations cases. In addition to its significance for the debate over the substantive rules of asymmetric warfare, the Targeted Killings case serves as a symbol of the willingness to engage in extensive judicial review of a state’s conduct of hostilities policy. The activist role of the ISC in such cases from the late 1990s to 2008 was widely recognized, celebrated, and ...


Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab May 2018

Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab

Michigan Journal of International Law

Seven years have passed since revolution broke out in Syria in March of 2011. During those six years, hundreds of thousands of Syrians lost their lives, millions of Syrians were internally displaced or left the country seeking refuge, and a beautiful and diverse country was hijacked and terrorized by civil war. Every day in Syria, people are detained, tortured, raped, and killed. Attacks on homes, hospitals, markets, and schools are common occurrences. At this stage of the conflict, there is little doubt that it is the most horrific and dire humanitarian crisis since World War II. The conflict began as ...


The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore May 2018

The Failure Of International Law In Palestine, Svetlana Sumina, Steven Gilmore

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


The Unsuspected Francis Lieber, Richard Salomon May 2018

The Unsuspected Francis Lieber, Richard Salomon

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

"The Unsuspected Francis Lieber" examines paradoxes in the life and work of Francis Lieber. Lieber is best known as the author of the 1863 "Lieber Code," the War Department's General Order No. 100. It was the first modern statement of the law of armed conflict. This paper questions whether the Lieber Code was truly humanitarian, especially in view of its valorization of military necessity. Also reviewed is the contrast between the Code's extraordinarily favorable treatment of African-Americans and Lieber's personal history of slave-holding.

Lieber's shift from civil libertarian to authoritarian after 1857, as exemplified by his ...


Due Process And The Right To Legal Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Marielos G. Ramos May 2018

Due Process And The Right To Legal Counsel For Unaccompanied Minors, Marielos G. Ramos

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Unaccompanied minors arriving to the United States fleeing violence and seeking protection are apprehended, detained in facilities, and placed in removal proceedings in accordance with U.S. immigration laws. Like adults, these children have to appear in immigration court to fight deportation and must apply for any form of legal relief for which they may be eligible. However, removal proceedings work as a civil and not a criminal process, and immigration laws have established that while noncitizens have the right to an attorney, they are not entitled to legal counsel at the government’s expense. This thesis examines how the ...