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Full-Text Articles in Law

Higher Law And Lincoln's Antislavery Constitutionalism: What It Means To Say The Civil War Was Fought Over Slavery, Joel A. Rogers Feb 2023

Higher Law And Lincoln's Antislavery Constitutionalism: What It Means To Say The Civil War Was Fought Over Slavery, Joel A. Rogers

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The US Civil War was fought over slavery. But what do we really mean when we say that? This paper examines that question, first by exploring the idea of “higher law,” which gained tremendous traction in American society starting around 1850. Proponents of the idea claimed that laws such as the Fugitive Slave Act are immoral; that the immorality of such laws is self-evident, and that such immoral laws should be resisted—sometimes even with violence. Meanwhile, opponents of the idea of higher law were not necessarily in favor of slavery, but they opposed the use of extra-Constitutional means to bring …


Reconstituting The United States: Could An Article V Convention Prevent The Next January 6?, Paul G. Rando Dec 2022

Reconstituting The United States: Could An Article V Convention Prevent The Next January 6?, Paul G. Rando

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Constitutional Reshaping Of South Africa's Succession Laws, François Du Toit Dec 2022

The Constitutional Reshaping Of South Africa's Succession Laws, François Du Toit

Journal of Civil Law Studies

The South African Constitution of 1996 has had a significant im-pact on all the branches of South African law, including its succes-sion laws. The Constitution has transformatively reshaped im-portant aspects of South Africa's succession laws over the past two-and-a-half decades. This Article surveys the reshaping of two such aspects critically, namely (i) the extension of spousal inheritance under the Intestate Succession Act of 1987 and the Wills Act of 1953 as well as the extension of parental inheritance under the former statute; and (ii) the limitation of testamentary freedom. The afore-mentioned developments occurred by and large at the hands of …


Delegation At The Founding: A Response To Critics, Julian Davis Mortenson, Nicholas Bagley Dec 2022

Delegation At The Founding: A Response To Critics, Julian Davis Mortenson, Nicholas Bagley

Articles

This essay responds to the wide range of commentary on Delegation at the Founding, published previously in the Columbia Law Review. The critics’ arguments deserve thoughtful consideration and a careful response. We’re happy to supply both. As a matter of eighteenth-century legal and political theory, “rulemaking” could not be neatly described as either legislative or executive based on analysis of its scope, subject, or substantive effect. To the contrary: Depending on the relationships you chose to emphasize, a given act could properly be classified as both legislative (from the perspective of the immediate actor) and also executive (from the perspective …


Justice For All: Demanding Accessibility For Underrepresented Communities In The Law: A Roger Williams University Law Review, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2022

Justice For All: Demanding Accessibility For Underrepresented Communities In The Law: A Roger Williams University Law Review, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Taking Care With Text: "The Laws" Of The Take Care Clause Do Not Include The Constitution, And There Is No Autonomous Presidential Power Of Constitutional Interpretation, George Mader Oct 2022

Taking Care With Text: "The Laws" Of The Take Care Clause Do Not Include The Constitution, And There Is No Autonomous Presidential Power Of Constitutional Interpretation, George Mader

Faculty Scholarship

“Departmentalism” posits that each branch of the federal government has an independent power of constitutional interpretation—all branches share the power and need not defer to one another in the exercise of their interpretive powers. As regards the Executive Branch, the textual basis for this interpretive autonomy is that the Take Care Clause requires the President to “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed” and the Supremacy Clause includes the Constitution in “the supreme Law of the Land.” Therefore, the President is to execute the Constitution as a law. Or so the common argument goes. The presidential oath to “execute …


Systemic Racism In The U.S. Immigration Laws, Kevin R. Johnson Oct 2022

Systemic Racism In The U.S. Immigration Laws, Kevin R. Johnson

Indiana Law Journal

This Essay analyzes how aggressive activism in a California mountain town at the tail end of the nineteenth century commenced a chain reaction resulting in state and ultimately national anti-Chinese immigration laws. The constitutional immunity through which the Supreme Court upheld those laws deeply affected the future trajectory of U.S. immigration law and policy.

Responding to sustained political pressure from the West, Congress in 1882 passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, an infamous piece of unabashedly racist legislation that commenced a long process of barring immigration from all of Asia to the United States. In upholding the Act, the Supreme Court …


Respeaking The Bill Of Rights: A New Doctrine Of Incorporation, Kurt Lash Oct 2022

Respeaking The Bill Of Rights: A New Doctrine Of Incorporation, Kurt Lash

Indiana Law Journal

The incorporation of the Bill of Rights against the states by way of the Fourteenth Amendment raises a host of textual, historical, and doctrinal difficulties. This is true even if (especially if) we accept the Fourteenth Amendment as having made the original Bill of Rights binding against the states. Does this mean we have two Bills of Rights, one applicable against the federal government with a “1791” meaning and a second applicable against the state governments with an “1868” meaning? Do 1791 understandings carry forward into the 1868 amendment? Or do 1868 understandings of the Bill of Rights carry backward …


It’S All About Principle: How Patent Trolling, Over Broad Patents, Evergreening, And Patent Shelving Represent A Departure From The Patent Clause And How To Return To The Principle Of The Patent Clause, Morgan L. Stringer Sep 2022

It’S All About Principle: How Patent Trolling, Over Broad Patents, Evergreening, And Patent Shelving Represent A Departure From The Patent Clause And How To Return To The Principle Of The Patent Clause, Morgan L. Stringer

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

This article explores differing patent abuses that reflect how current patent law has swung drastically away from the Patent Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The purpose of the Patent Clause is to ensure that inventors are given a limited monopoly in order to encourage innovation, or to “progress the useful arts and sciences.” There are many forms of patent abuse, but this article will explore patent trolls, overbroad patents, evergreening, and patent shelving as forms of patent abuse that reflect a departure from the Constitutional principle of progress in patent law. Each of these patent abuses hinders progress, so according …


Holmes V. Walton And Its Enduring Lessons For Originalism, Justin W. Aimonetti Sep 2022

Holmes V. Walton And Its Enduring Lessons For Originalism, Justin W. Aimonetti

Marquette Law Review

Originalism is nothing new. And the New Jersey Supreme Court’s 1780 decision in Holmes v. Walton shows it. In that case, the New Jersey Supreme Court disallowed a state law as repugnant to the state constitution because the law permitted a jury of only six to render a judgment. To reach that result, the court looked to the fixed, original meaning of the jury trial guarantee embedded in the state constitution, and it then constrained its interpretive latitude in conformity with that fixed meaning. Holmes thus cuts against the common misconception that originalism as an interpretive methodology is a modern …


The White Supremacist Constitution, Ruth Colker Aug 2022

The White Supremacist Constitution, Ruth Colker

Utah Law Review

The United States Constitution is a document that, during every era, has helped further white supremacy. White supremacy constitutes a “political, economic and cultural system in which whites overwhelmingly control power and material resources, conscious and unconscious ideas of white superiority and entitlement are widespread, and relations of white dominance and non-white subordination are daily reenacted across a broad array of institutions and social settings.”1 Rather than understand the Constitution as a force for progressive structural change, we should understand it as a barrier to change.

From its inception, the Constitution enshrined slavery and the degradation of Black people by …


Tort Law Implications Of Compelled Physician Speech, Nadia N. Sawicki Jul 2022

Tort Law Implications Of Compelled Physician Speech, Nadia N. Sawicki

Indiana Law Journal

Abortion-specific informed consent laws in many states compel physicians to communicate state-mandated information that is arguably inaccurate, immaterial, and inconsistent with their professional obligations. These laws face ongoing First Amendment challenges as violations of the constitutional right against compelled speech. This Article argues that laws compelling physician speech also pose significant problems that should concern scholars of tort law.

State laws that impose tort liability on physicians who refuse to communicate a state-mandated message often do so by deviating from foundational principles of tort law. Not only do they change the substantive disclosure duties of physicians under informed consent law, …


Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk Jul 2022

Compelled Disclosure And The Workplace Rights It Enables, Catherine Fisk

Indiana Law Journal

Worker and consumer protection laws often rely on the regulated entity to notify workers or consumers of their legal rights because it is effective and efficient to provide information at the time and place where it is most likely to be useful. Until the Supreme Court ruled in NIFLA v. Becerra in 2018 that a California law regulating crisis pregnancy centers was an unconstitutional speaker-based, contentdiscriminatory regulation of speech, mandatory disclosure laws were constitutionally uncontroversial economic regulation. Yet, the day after striking down a disclosure law in NIFLA, the Court in Janus v. AFSCME Council 31 expanded the right of …


Nifla And The Construction Of Compelled Speech Doctrine, Robert Post Jul 2022

Nifla And The Construction Of Compelled Speech Doctrine, Robert Post

Indiana Law Journal

Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette. There are good and convincing explanations for the Court’s decision in Barnette, but the Court’s recent expansion of the doctrine, culminating in National Institute of Family & Life Advocates (NIFLA) v. Becerra, holds that compelled speech is in most instances “content-based” regulation requiring heightened judicial scrutiny.

Using examples ranging from professional malpractice to compulsory tax returns, this Article argues that the doctrinal rule of NIFLA is demonstrably incorrect. It suggests that the doctrinal category of “compelled speech” may itself be confused insofar as it imagines that all legal obligations to communicate are equally …


The Pledge Of Allegiance And Compelled Speech Revisited: Requiring Parental Consent, Caroline Mala Corbin Jul 2022

The Pledge Of Allegiance And Compelled Speech Revisited: Requiring Parental Consent, Caroline Mala Corbin

Indiana Law Journal

Since the Supreme Court decided West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette in 1943, free speech law has been clear: public schools may not force students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. Nevertheless, in two states—Texas and Florida— students may decline to participate only with parental permission. The Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the law on the grounds that the parental requirement furthered parents’ substantive due process right to control the upbringing of their children.

The Eleventh Circuit decision is flawed both in its understanding of the First Amendment right to be free of compelled speech and the …


States May Statutorily Bind Presidential Electors, The Myth Of National Popular Vote, The Reality Of Elector Unit Rule Voting And Old Light On Three-Fifths Of Other Persons, William Josephson Jun 2022

States May Statutorily Bind Presidential Electors, The Myth Of National Popular Vote, The Reality Of Elector Unit Rule Voting And Old Light On Three-Fifths Of Other Persons, William Josephson

University of Miami Law Review

This Article discusses the United States Supreme Court’s July 6, 2020 decision in Chiafalo v. Washington State as it impacts the most in-depth analysis yet published of the proposed National Popular Vote (“NPV”) Interstate Compact. NPV purports to provide for popular vote election of a President of the United States even if the winner of the popular vote did not win the Electoral College. It concludes that NPV cannot accomplish its purported purpose. The article also criticizes a recent article proposing dividing each state’s electors vote in accordance with the popular vote proportions in each such state instead of, as …


The Pandemic And Privacy: The Global Culture Of Intrusion, Jon L. Mills, Lucca Viana, Danielle Black Jun 2022

The Pandemic And Privacy: The Global Culture Of Intrusion, Jon L. Mills, Lucca Viana, Danielle Black

Legislation and Policy Brief

No abstract provided.


Competitor Standing To The Rescue: Saving The Emoluments Clause, Demitri Dawson Jun 2022

Competitor Standing To The Rescue: Saving The Emoluments Clause, Demitri Dawson

Legislation and Policy Brief

No abstract provided.


Traditionally Exclusive Limitations In The Digital Era:The Limitations On The State Action Doctrine And Its Inability To Protect Personal Freedoms From Big Tech, Richard Haygood May 2022

Traditionally Exclusive Limitations In The Digital Era:The Limitations On The State Action Doctrine And Its Inability To Protect Personal Freedoms From Big Tech, Richard Haygood

Lincoln Memorial University Law Review Archive

The intersection of censorship, free speech, and big tech is area of growing concern and interest. Every year, millions of users turn to social media platforms for myriad reasons, whether it be for the latest headline news, to pick up a recipe for dinner, or to share thoughts, feelings, or opinions. Yet despite the prevalence and importance of both Big Tech and social media platforms within our daily lives, there is very little anyone can do when their voice is silenced in the digital world. This Article focuses on one method claimants have attempted to use in order to find …


Constitutional Interpretation: Have The Methods Used By The Supreme Court Changed Over Time?, Morgan A. Matney May 2022

Constitutional Interpretation: Have The Methods Used By The Supreme Court Changed Over Time?, Morgan A. Matney

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Emotion In Constitutional Theory, J. Joel Alicea May 2022

The Role Of Emotion In Constitutional Theory, J. Joel Alicea

Notre Dame Law Review

Although the role of emotion in law has become a major field of scholarship, there has been very little attention paid to the role of emotion in constitutional theory. This Article seeks to fill that gap by providing an integrated account of the role of emotion within the individual, how emotion affects constitutional culture, and how constitutional culture, properly understood, should affect our evaluation of major constitutional theories.

The Article begins by reconstructing one of the most important and influential accounts of emotion in the philosophical literature: that of Thomas Aquinas. Because Aquinas’s description of the nature of emotion accords …


The Consent Of The Governed: Constitutionalism Of The Levellers And Its Influence On Anglo-American Political Discourse, Nathan B. Gilson May 2022

The Consent Of The Governed: Constitutionalism Of The Levellers And Its Influence On Anglo-American Political Discourse, Nathan B. Gilson

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

More fully understanding the Levellers suggests a new framework for understanding Anglo-American constitutionalism and jurisprudence. There was a logical progression in their constitutional thought, by which the exigent developments of the 1640s conflict continually pushed the Levellers to articulate new constitutional propositions. It eventually led them to a fully developed contractual theory for the origins of society based on the continuing consent of the People, including the rights to revolution and resistance, within a natural rights framework. The Levellers argued for limitations on the sovereignty of the government by the People, as opposed to the position of the Monarchists, Independents, …


Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez Apr 2022

Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

As COVID-19 infected our nation, states were quick to issue executive orders restricting various aspects of daily life under the pretense of public safety. It was clear at the outset that certain civil liberties were going to be tested. Among them, the constitutional right to an abortion.

This comment explores Texas’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations it imposed on abortion access. It will attempt to address the legitimacy of the “public health concerns” listed in executive orders issued throughout numerous states and will discuss the pertinent legal framework and judicial scrutiny to apply.

According to the Fifth …


Public Policy And Religion In The Pandemic: U.S. Constitution And The First Amendment, Stephen Covell, Diane Riggs, Cameron Borg Apr 2022

Public Policy And Religion In The Pandemic: U.S. Constitution And The First Amendment, Stephen Covell, Diane Riggs, Cameron Borg

Modules for Teaching Pandemic Response and Religion in the USA

The following teaching module is designed for high school and college level instructors who seek to teach a lesson on the impact the COVID-19 pandemic had on the relationship between church and state. The teaching module features a lesson plan, case studies, and assignments that can be incorporated as the instructor sees fit. This teaching module was created by Western Michigan University's Department of Comparative Religion.


The Declaration Of Independence, Constitution, And Slavery, Johnny B. Davis Apr 2022

The Declaration Of Independence, Constitution, And Slavery, Johnny B. Davis

Helm's School of Government Conference

The paper address the nature of the principles of the Declaration and the Declaration's relationship to the Constitution and how these related to slavery. The argument is that the Declaration did stand for universal equality of the individual before God and the law and therefore its principles condemned slavery. The Constitution did not embrace slavery even though it failed to ban slavery but did set the foundation for the end of slavery.


Fellowship Is Fundamental To A Flourishing Community, Drew Varner Apr 2022

Fellowship Is Fundamental To A Flourishing Community, Drew Varner

Helm's School of Government Conference

No abstract provided.


Republication Liability On The Web, Jeffrey Standen Apr 2022

Republication Liability On The Web, Jeffrey Standen

Marquette Law Review

The tort of defamation evolved in an era where defamatory speech was published in books, magazines, newspapers, or other printed documents. The doctrines that are antecedent to the tort, such as publication, fault, defamation per se, presumed damages, and republication liability, similarly presumed that most defamation would appear in written form in a published work. Similarly, the significant limitations on defamation liability that were produced by a succession of Supreme Court constitutional precedent, including restrictions on prior restraint, heightened fault standards, expanded “public” classes, the “fact/opinion” dichotomy, and the “truth/substantial truth” burden shifting, also were based on a publishing world …


The Neuroscience Of Qualified Immunity, Gary S. Gildin Apr 2022

The Neuroscience Of Qualified Immunity, Gary S. Gildin

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Qualified immunity not only absolves public officials from accountability for the damages caused when they deprive a citizen of their constitutional rights; by virtue of companion doctrines shielding governmental entities from liability, conferral of immunity leaves the victim to bear the loss. Therefore, it is essential that the contours of immunity be carefully calibrated to align with its intended purposes.

The United States Supreme Court has continuously expanded immunity to protect the exercise of discretion where, albeit acting in violation of constitutional norms, the official could have reasonably believed their conduct was constitutional. This Article exposes the implicit assumptions as …


Are People In Federal Territories Part Of "We The People Of The United States"?, Gary S. Lawson, Guy Seidman Apr 2022

Are People In Federal Territories Part Of "We The People Of The United States"?, Gary S. Lawson, Guy Seidman

Faculty Scholarship

In 1820, a unanimous Supreme Court proclaimed: "The United States is the name given to our great republic, which is composed of states and territories." While that key point is simple, and perhaps even obvious, the constitutional implications of interpreting "the United States" to include federal territories are potentially far reaching. In particular, the Constitution's Preamble announces that the Constitution is authored by "We the People of the United States" and that the document is designed to "secure the Blessings of Liberty" to the author and its "Posterity." If inhabitants of federal territory are among "We the People of the …


Whose Secularism? Which Laïcité? Negotiating Transnational And National Constitutionalism In Kosovo, Thomas J. Hellenbrand Apr 2022

Whose Secularism? Which Laïcité? Negotiating Transnational And National Constitutionalism In Kosovo, Thomas J. Hellenbrand

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will proceed as follows: Part I will set the stage and briefly outline the history of Kosovo and its current political status. Part II will then introduce the Kosovo Constitution and the process by which international agreements (such as the European Convention of Human Rights) were embedded in the text and made binding legal authority. It will show that, although the international agreements are binding, the Kosovo Constitution does not make international case law obligatory. Part III will then address different foundational documents drafted in anticipation of Kosovo’s statehood and how judicial and administrative institutions should apply them …