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2012

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Antitrust and Trade Regulation

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Robert Bork's Controversial Legacy, Robert H. Lande Dec 2012

Robert Bork's Controversial Legacy, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

Judge Robert Bork was undeniably one of the towering figures in antitrust history. He advanced the field positively in many respects, articulating a serious critique of excesses of an earlier social-political approach to antitrust. But as one of the conservative movement’s intellectual godfathers he also shares responsibility for many of their own excesses that have transformed our nation in harmful ways. This short essay explores some of the effects of his overall approach to antitrust: his preoccupation with economic efficiency.


La Industria Del Libro 3.0 Y J.K. Rowling, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq. Dec 2012

La Industria Del Libro 3.0 Y J.K. Rowling, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The authors provide a brief overview of what could be called the 3.0 version of the book industry. Under the 3.0 book industry, the author’s role in exploiting their creations has to embrace new and creative business models, which may often come into conflict with publisher’s old business models. In the article, the authors take a look at the innovative business models implemented by J.K. Rowling, Stephen King, Radiohead and Frank Ocean amongst others. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Los autores proporcionan una breve descripción de lo que podría llamarse la versión 3.0 de la industria del libro. En ...


Antitrust And The 'Filed Rate' Doctrine: Deregulation And State Action, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Antitrust And The 'Filed Rate' Doctrine: Deregulation And State Action, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its Keogh decision the Supreme Court held that although the Interstate Commerce Act did not exempt railroads from antitrust liability, a private plaintiff may not recover treble damages based on an allegedly monopolistic tariff rate filed with a federal agency. Keogh very likely grew out of Justice Brandeis's own zeal for regulation and his concern for the protection of small business — in this case, mainly shippers whom he felt were protected from discrimination by filed rates. The Supreme Court's Square D decision later conceded that Keogh may have been “unwise as a matter of policy,” but reaffirmed ...


Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This brief essay reviews Firat Cengiz’s book Antitrust Federalism in the EU and the US (2012), which compares the role of federalism in the competition law of the European Union and the United States. Both of these systems are “federal,” of course, because both have individual nation-states (Europe) or states (US) with their own individual competition provisions, but also an overarching competition law that applies to the entire group. This requires a certain amount of cooperation with respect to both territorial reach and substantive coverage.

Cengiz distinguishes among “markets,” “hierarchies,” and “networks” as forms of federalism. Markets are the ...


Antitrust And Nonexcluding Ties, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Antitrust And Nonexcluding Ties, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Notwithstanding hundreds of court decisions, tying arrangements remain enigmatic. Conclusions that go to either extreme, per se legality or per se illegality, invariably make simplifying assumptions that frequently do not obtain. For example, by ignoring double marginalization or tying product price cuts it becomes very easy to prove that a wide range of ties are anticompetitive. At the other extreme, by ignoring foreclosure possibilities one can readily conclude that ties are invariably benign.

Ties have historically been thought to produce two kinds of competitive harm: “leverage,” or extraction; and foreclosure, or exclusion. The two theories are not mutually exclusive. Indeed ...


The Sherman Act And The Balance Of Power, David K. Millon Dec 2012

The Sherman Act And The Balance Of Power, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


In Name Only: How Major League Baseball's Reliance On Its Antitrust Exemption Is Hurting The Game, Samuel G. Mann Dec 2012

In Name Only: How Major League Baseball's Reliance On Its Antitrust Exemption Is Hurting The Game, Samuel G. Mann

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The First Antistrust Statute, David K. Millon Dec 2012

The First Antistrust Statute, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


Editorial – Both Sides Now, Stephen Calkins, Marek Martyniszyn Dec 2012

Editorial – Both Sides Now, Stephen Calkins, Marek Martyniszyn

Law Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Antitrust Law As Public Interest Law, Christopher R. Leslie Dec 2012

Antitrust Law As Public Interest Law, Christopher R. Leslie

UC Irvine Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Long-Playing Blues: Did The Recording Industry’S Shift From Singles To Albums Violate Antitrust Law?, Jeffrey Philip Wachs Dec 2012

The Long-Playing Blues: Did The Recording Industry’S Shift From Singles To Albums Violate Antitrust Law?, Jeffrey Philip Wachs

UC Irvine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cartels As Rational Business Strategy: Crime Pays, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Dec 2012

Cartels As Rational Business Strategy: Crime Pays, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This article is the first to analyze whether cartel sanctions are optimal. The conventional wisdom is that the current level of sanctions is adequate or excessive. The article demonstrates, however, that the combined level of current United States cartel sanctions is only 9% to 21% as large as it should be to protect potential victims of cartelization optimally. Consequently, the average level of United States anti-cartel sanctions should be approximately quintupled.

The United States imposes a diverse arsenal of sanctions against collusion: criminal fines and restitution payments for the firms involved and prison, house arrest and fines for the corporate ...


Changing Places: A New Role For Creators In The Digital World, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq. Nov 2012

Changing Places: A New Role For Creators In The Digital World, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The authors provide a brief overview of the author’s role in exploiting their creations and how new technologies have made authors and publishers explore new business models. In the article, the authors take a look at the innovative business models implemented by J.K. Rowling, Stephen King, Radiohead and Frank Ocean amongst others./////////////////////////////////////////////////// Los autores proporcionan una breve descripción de la función del autor en la explotación de sus creaciones y cómo las nuevas tecnologías han obligado a los autores y editores explorar nuevos modelos de negocio. En el artículo, los autores echan un vistazo a los modelos de ...


Legal Framework For Soviet Privatization, Olga Floroff, Susan Tiefenbrun Nov 2012

Legal Framework For Soviet Privatization, Olga Floroff, Susan Tiefenbrun

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 5 (2d Ed): Competition And Innovation In Copyright And The Dmca, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Nov 2012

Innovation And Competition Policy, Ch. 5 (2d Ed): Competition And Innovation In Copyright And The Dmca, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This book of CASES AND MATERIALS ON INNOVATION AND COMPETITION POLICY is intended for educational use. The book is free for all to use subject to an open source license agreement. It differs from IP/antitrust casebooks in that it considers numerous sources of competition policy in addition to antitrust, including those that emanate from the intellectual property laws themselves, and also related issues such as the relationship between market structure and innovation, the competitive consequences of regulatory rules governing technology competition such as net neutrality and interconnection, misuse, the first sale doctrine, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA ...


Does A Cartel Aim Expressly? Trusting Calder Personal Jurisdiction When Antitrust Goes Global?, Larry Dougherty Nov 2012

Does A Cartel Aim Expressly? Trusting Calder Personal Jurisdiction When Antitrust Goes Global?, Larry Dougherty

Florida Law Review

Suppose your law firm represents CrabApple, the large, Californiabased manufacturer of the BuyPod, a portable digital music player. CrabApple also sells songs from its online music store, BuyTunes, for use on the BuyPod. One morning, a class-action antitrust lawsuit lands on your desk. It accuses CrabApple of illegal tying—because the BuyPod is designed to play only music from BuyTunes, and BuyTunes songs only play on BuyPods. CrabApple customers claim the tying has forced them to make unwanted purchases—BuyPod ownersfelt compelled to buy their music from BuyTunes, and anyone who wanted to use BuyTunes had to get a BuyPod ...


Much Ado About Nothing? The Antitrust Implications Of Private Equity Club Deals, Jessica Jackson Nov 2012

Much Ado About Nothing? The Antitrust Implications Of Private Equity Club Deals, Jessica Jackson

Florida Law Review

In May 1976, with merely $120,000 and a few metal chairs left behind from a prior tenant, Kolberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR) opened its doors. Though few people outside Wall Street circles knew of this start-up company, by the 1980s its reputation as a takeover machine brought it notoriety. One can only imagine what went on behind closed doors, but whatever happened, it worked. By 1989, KKR had become the largest client of accounting giant Deloitte & Touche, with General Motors following as a close second. The “Age of Leverage” peaked in 1990 when KKR took over RJR Nabisco. Until ...


Prospects For Satisfactory Dispute Resolution Of Private Commercial Disputes Under The North American Free Trade Agreement, Jonathan I. Miller Nov 2012

Prospects For Satisfactory Dispute Resolution Of Private Commercial Disputes Under The North American Free Trade Agreement, Jonathan I. Miller

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Federal Judicial And Legislative Jurisdiction Over Entities Abroad: The Long-Arm Of U.S. Antitrust Law And Viable Solutions Beyond The Timberlane/Restatement Comity Approach, Michael G. Mckinnon Nov 2012

Federal Judicial And Legislative Jurisdiction Over Entities Abroad: The Long-Arm Of U.S. Antitrust Law And Viable Solutions Beyond The Timberlane/Restatement Comity Approach, Michael G. Mckinnon

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Implementación De Políticas Corporativas Sobre Internet Y Redes Sociales En México, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq. Oct 2012

Implementación De Políticas Corporativas Sobre Internet Y Redes Sociales En México, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The author analyzes and describes the necessary elements of a successful social media and Internet corporate policy; through citing common pitfalls and learning lessons from different jurisdictions across the world. The author then offers general guidelines on policies for Mexican enterprises under Mexican legislation.///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////El autor analiza y describe los elementos necesarios de una política corporativa sobre internet y redes sociales exitosa, citando los errores más comunes y aprendiendo lecciones de las legislaciones de distintos países.


Antitrust’S State Action Doctrine And The Ordinary Powers Of Corporations, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Antitrust’S State Action Doctrine And The Ordinary Powers Of Corporations, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Supreme Court has now agreed to review the Eleventh Circuit's decision in Phoebe-Putney, which held that a state statute permitting a hospital authority to acquire hospitals implicitly authorized such acquisitions when they were anticompetitive – in this particular case very likely facilitating a merger to monopoly. Under antitrust law’s “state action” doctrine a state may in fact authorize such an acquisition, provided that it “clearly articulates” its desire to approve an action that would otherwise constitute an antitrust violation and also “actively supervises” any private conduct that might fall under the state’s regulatory scheme.

“Authorization” in the ...


Commentary: Environmental Justice And The Bp Oil Spill: Does Anyone Care About The "Small People" Of Color?, Perry Wallace Oct 2012

Commentary: Environmental Justice And The Bp Oil Spill: Does Anyone Care About The "Small People" Of Color?, Perry Wallace

Perry Wallace

No abstract provided.


Fcc Regulation Versus Antitrust: How Net Neutrality Is Defining The Boundaries, Babette E.L. Boliek Oct 2012

Fcc Regulation Versus Antitrust: How Net Neutrality Is Defining The Boundaries, Babette E.L. Boliek

Babette Boliek

This Article challenges the various jurisdictional theories that underpin the FCC’s net neutrality regulation. The assertion of jurisdiction by the FCC over any aspect of the Internet ecosystem has raised populist, congressional, and even judicial rhetoric to a crescendo and resulted in a recent vote to defund the FCC’s efforts. This Article places the current crisis squarely in the context of the long-standing jurisdictional struggle between regulation and antitrust law. These two regimes are often at jurisdictional cross-purposes because, even though they both purport to maximize the social good, they do so by inapposite means. Indeed, there is ...


Antitrust And The Costs Of Movement, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Antitrust And The Costs Of Movement, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Antitrust is rightfully concerned about the structure of markets as well as the bargaining that occurs in them. As a result, the absolute cost of redeploying resources can be just as important as the transaction costs of arranging for their movement. This paper examines several broad themes in antitrust, considering the role of various assumptions about the costs of getting resources moved toward superior positions and the ability of the antitrust system to facilitate this movement. Part II very briefly examines structuralism as a theory underlying antitrust enforcement, particularly its assumptions about the difficulty and costs of moving resources. Harvard ...


Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Standard Setting is omnipresent in networked information technologies. Virtually every cellular phone, computer, digital camera or similar device contains technologies governed by a collaboratively developed standard. If these technologies are to perform competitively, the processes by which standards are developed and implemented must be competitive. In this case attaining competitive results requires a mixture of antitrust and non-antitrust legal tools.

FRAND refers to a firm’s ex ante commitment to make its technology available at a “fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory royalty.” The FRAND commitment results from bidding to have one’s own technology selected as a standard. Typically the FRAND ...


The Lessons From Libor For Detection And Deterrence Of Cartel Wrongdoing, Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz, D. Daniel Sokol Oct 2012

The Lessons From Libor For Detection And Deterrence Of Cartel Wrongdoing, Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz, D. Daniel Sokol

UF Law Faculty Publications

In late June 2012, Barclays entered into a $453 million settlement with UK and U.S. regulators due to its manipulation of Libor between 2005 and 2009. Among the agencies that investigated Barclays is the Department of Justice Antitrust Division (as well as other antitrust authorities and regulatory agencies from around the world). Participation in a price fixing conduct, by its very nature, requires the involvement of more than one firm.

We are cautious to draw overly broad conclusions until more facts come out in the public domain. What we note at this time, based on public information, is that ...


How The Ftc Could Beat Google, Robert H. Lande, Jonathan L. Rubin Oct 2012

How The Ftc Could Beat Google, Robert H. Lande, Jonathan L. Rubin

All Faculty Scholarship

The U.S. Federal Trade Commission is rumored to be deciding whether to bring a “pure Section 5” case against Google as a result of complaints that the company unfairly favors its own offerings over those of its rivals in its search results. But the case will fail miserably at the hands of a reviewing court and the agency will be confined to relatively non-controversial enforcement violations if the FTC fails to impose upon itself a tightly bounded and constrained legal framework that contains clear limiting principles. The only way a court will allow the FTC to pursue a pure ...


Las Acciones De Clase En La Vision De La Corte Suprema De Justicia De La Nacion., Gabriel Martinez Medrano Sep 2012

Las Acciones De Clase En La Vision De La Corte Suprema De Justicia De La Nacion., Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Estas líneas son mis primeras reflexiones sobre el fallo de la CORTE SUPREMA (Argentina) in re Cavalieri, en el cual se denegó a una asociación de defensa de consumidores la legitimación activa para pretender extender la condena reclamada por Cavalieri al resto de consumidores de una empresa de medicina prepaga.


Race, Markets, And Hollywood's Perpetual Antitrust Dilemma, Hosea H. Harvey Sep 2012

Race, Markets, And Hollywood's Perpetual Antitrust Dilemma, Hosea H. Harvey

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Article focuses on the oft-neglected intersection of racially skewed outcomes and anti-competitive markets. Through historical, contextual, and empirical analysis, the Article describes the state of Hollywood motion-picture distribution from its anticompetitive beginnings through the industry's role in creating an anti-competitive, racially divided market at the end of the last century. The Article's evidence suggests that race-based inefficiencies have plagued the film distribution process and such inefficiencies might likely be caused by the anti-competitive structure of the market itself, and not merely by overt or intentional racial-discrimination. After explaining why traditional anti-discrimination laws are ineffective remedies for such ...


A New Prescription To Balance Secrecy And Disclosure In Drug-Approval Processes, Gerrit M. Beckhaus Sep 2012

A New Prescription To Balance Secrecy And Disclosure In Drug-Approval Processes, Gerrit M. Beckhaus

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

To obtain approval to market a drug, a manufacturer must disclose significant amounts of research data to the government agency that oversees the approval process. The data often include information that could help advance scientific progress, and are therefore of great value. But current laws in both the United States and Europe give secrecy great weight. This Article proposes an obligatory sealed-bid auction of the sensitive information based on the experience with similar auctions in mergers and acquisitions, to balance manufacturers' interest in secrecy and the public interest in disclosure.