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The Michigan Judicature Act Of 1915, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1916

The Michigan Judicature Act Of 1915, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

IN 1848 a wave of reform in judicial procedure began to sweep over the United States. In that year the legislature of New York enacted the Code of Civil Procedure, a statute of far-reaching importance, for it became the source of and the model for similar legislation in almost two-thirds of the States in the Union.


The Form Of Summons Under The Recent Michigan Judicature Act, W. Gordon Stoner Jan 1915

The Form Of Summons Under The Recent Michigan Judicature Act, W. Gordon Stoner

Articles

It would be rather remarkable if in revising such a large portion of the statutes as was undertaken by the Commission on Revision and Consolidation of Statutes of the State of Michigan, appointed in 1913, which reported to the legislature the recently enacted Judicature Act (Public Acts of Michigan, 1915, ยง 314), some ambiguity or uncertainty were not to appear in the revision. The Judicature Act is no exception to the general rule, as the lawyer who attempts to begin suit by summons under it will discover at the very outset.


The Proposed Michigan Judicature Act, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1915

The Proposed Michigan Judicature Act, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

The Michigan Legislature, at its last session, passed an act (No. 286, Public Acts of 1913) providing for the appointment of a Commission to revise and consolidate the laws of the State relating to procedure. The Governor appointed Alva M. Cummins, J. Clyde Watt, and Mark W. Stevens as members of this commission, and the result of their labors has just appeared in the form of a proposed bill regulating the entire subject of procedure in all the courts of the State. The bill is a long one, embracing 565 printed pages, but it is much less voluminous than the ...


Legislating The Incumbent Out Of Office, W. Gordon Stoner Jan 1914

Legislating The Incumbent Out Of Office, W. Gordon Stoner

Articles

Under the English common law the officer's right or interest in the office which he held was regarded as a property right, an incorporeal hereditament.1 Largely because of the inherent difference between the nature and incidents of the public office at common law and those of the public office in this country, this conception never gained general acceptance here.2 In a few cases,3 and particularly in the decisions of the courts of North Carolina,4 offices have been asserted to be the property of the rightful incumbent. In these decisions the officer's right has been ...


Is A Judgment Open To Collateral Attack If Rendered Without Written Pleadings As Required By Statute, Or If The Writings Do Not Comply With The Statutory Requirements?, John R. Rood Jan 1912

Is A Judgment Open To Collateral Attack If Rendered Without Written Pleadings As Required By Statute, Or If The Writings Do Not Comply With The Statutory Requirements?, John R. Rood

Articles

It is believed that no good reason can be assigned for answering the above question in the affirmative. Certainly none has yet been discovered in a careful search of the cases involving the point. And yet the assurance and unanimity with which lawyers and judges give the affirmative answer to it on first thought is indeed remarkable. For instance, Mr. Justice FIELD in speaking for the Supreme Court of the United States, on the question as to whether a judgment is subject to collateral attack if one served with process is not permitted to make any defense when he appears ...


A Surety's Claim Against His Bankrupt Principal Under The Present Law, Evans Holbrook Jan 1912

A Surety's Claim Against His Bankrupt Principal Under The Present Law, Evans Holbrook

Articles

The peculiar three-sided relationship of principal, surety and creditor gives rise to many vexatious questions of law, and one of the most interesting of these vexatious questions is that of the relationship between surety and principal in the case of the latter's bankruptcy. Under such circumstances, the creditor's right is fairly simple; he may prove his debt against the principal, take such dividend as may be declared, and recover the balance of the debt from the surety, his remedy against the latter being expressly saved by Sec. 16 of the present Bankruptcy Act.1 But the position of ...


Power Of Governor-General To Expel Resident Aliens From Insular Territory Of The United States, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1911

Power Of Governor-General To Expel Resident Aliens From Insular Territory Of The United States, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In the case of Forbes et al. v. Chuoco Tiaco, decided by the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands July 30, 1910, 8 Off. Gaz., p. 1778, some of the most interesting, important, and fundamental questions were presented and determined for the time being, but not settled, it is reasonably safe to say until passed upon by the Supreme Court of the United States. The questions involved were whether the Governor General of the Philippine Islands has the power to expel resident Chinese aliens without a hearing or an opportunity to be heard, and whether the Governor, if he exceeded ...


Construction Of 'Survival Act' And 'Death Act' In Michigan, Thomas A. Bogle Jan 1911

Construction Of 'Survival Act' And 'Death Act' In Michigan, Thomas A. Bogle

Articles

It is known as the "Death Act." It was enacted in i848, amended in 1873, and follows closely Lord Campbell's Act. In the, construction of these acts, troublesome questions have arisen, difficulties have been encountered, different theories urged, different views entertained, different conclusions reached, and different opinions rendered, respecting the number of actions that can be maintained under them, the circumstances that invoke one rather than the other, the measure of damages applicable, respectively, and certain questions of practice as to the joinder of counts and the amendment of pleadings. The statement would hardly he justified that all these ...


The Judicial Code Of March 3, 1911, Robert E. Bunker Jan 1911

The Judicial Code Of March 3, 1911, Robert E. Bunker

Articles

Near the close of its last session, the Sixty-first Congress passed an act entitled "An Act to codify, revise and amend the laws relating to the judiciary." Approved March 3, 1911, which, by its own terms, Sec. 296, is to be designated and cited as "THE JUDICIAL CODE." This act is to become operative on and after Jan. 1, 1912.


The Standard Oil Decision: The Rule Of Reason, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1911

The Standard Oil Decision: The Rule Of Reason, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

After twenty-one years the Sherman Anti Trust Act has been applied to the typical combination restraining interstate commerce, which that act was designed to prevent.


The Constitutionality Of The Federal Corporation Tax, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1910

The Constitutionality Of The Federal Corporation Tax, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

During the special session of Congress held the past summer there was enacted as an amendment to the new Tariff Law what is generally known as the Federal Corporation Tax.1 At the time of its consideration in Congress and since its enactment there has been considerable discussion regarding the constitutionality of the measure, and no little doubt has been expressed as to its validity.


Divorce Laws And The Increase Of Divorce, Evans Holbrook Jan 1910

Divorce Laws And The Increase Of Divorce, Evans Holbrook

Articles

Along with the condemnation of the divorce evil has gone a very general disposition to condemn our divorce laws as being responsible for the evil. The committee on resolutions of the Congress on Uniform Divorce Laws in its report to the Congress at its adjourned session in Philadelphia, November 13, 1906, speaks of the "many evils engendered by the lax and unphilosophic system prevailing in many of the states."3 On this phase of the question also our late president gave his views in his special message to Congress on January 30, 1905, in the following words: "There is a ...


Statutory Abolition Of Defense Of Insanity In Criminal Cases, John R. Rood Jan 1910

Statutory Abolition Of Defense Of Insanity In Criminal Cases, John R. Rood

Articles

The great lengths to which the defense of insanity has been carried in homicide cases has induced numerous legislative attempts to abolish the evil; and the fate which such legislation has met and deserves at the hands of the courts is a matter of considerable interest.


Constitutionality Of Legislation Designating Time And Manner Of Payment Of Wages, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1910

Constitutionality Of Legislation Designating Time And Manner Of Payment Of Wages, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

Not infrequently the legislatures of various states have deemed it advisable to provide by law for the time and manner of payment of wages of men engaged in certain designated employments; and these laws have been the cause of considerable litigation. Their validity has been challenged mainly on the ground of deprivation of property without due process of law and denial of the equal protection of the law, the contention being that the refusal of the privilege of contracting for the manner and time of payment is a deprivation of liberty and property, and the classification of men in certain ...


Canadian Legislation, 1909, George L. Clark Jan 1910

Canadian Legislation, 1909, George L. Clark

Articles

One of the most important matters of legislation enacted by the Canadian Parliament, during the session of 1909, was the law establishing the commission for the conservation of natural resources, (ch. 27, Statutes of Canada, 1909).


Characteristics And Constitutionality Of Medical Legislation, Harry B. Hutchins Jan 1909

Characteristics And Constitutionality Of Medical Legislation, Harry B. Hutchins

Articles

Right to practice medicine regulated by statute.--In the absence of a statute upon the subject, any person is at liberty to practice medicine or surgery or both. This is the common law. And yet in the absence of a statute the physician necessarily assumes certain responsibilities that grow out of his relation to those whom he treats. He is bound to bring to the discharge of his duties the learning, skill and diligence usually possessed and exercised by physicians similarly situated. In other words, while in the absence of statutory regulation, the door of the profession is open to ...


Combination Among Physicians To Fix Prices For Professional Services, Harry B. Hutchins Jan 1909

Combination Among Physicians To Fix Prices For Professional Services, Harry B. Hutchins

Articles

The case of Rohlf v. Kasemeer et al., decided by the Supreme Court of Iowa, November 18, 1908, and reported in 118 N. W. Rep., p. 276, although primarily upon the construction of a local statute, involves a question of general interest. The plaintiff therein, who is a physician, together with thirteen others of the same profession, all residing and practicing in the same county, entered into an agreement, combination or understanding, the terms of which are not given, but the object of which was to fix and maintain the fees and charges to be exacted for medical and surgical ...


Labor Organizations In Legislation, Jerome C. Knowlton Jan 1908

Labor Organizations In Legislation, Jerome C. Knowlton

Articles

During the first months of the current year, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down three decisions on important questions in labor legislation.1 The Employers' Liability Act was declared unconstitutional, but on grounds that may be avoided by subsequent legislation; the boycott was decided to be an unlawful conspiracy against interstate commerce, and in violation of the Anti-Trust Act and the congressional enactment providing criminal punishment for the discharge of an employee because of his membership in a labor organization was also held unconstitutional. These decisions have been unjustly spoken of by some, as unreasonably severe on ...


Police Regulation Of Sleeping Car Berths, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1908

Police Regulation Of Sleeping Car Berths, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

From the time of the introduction of the sleeping car there has been a constant feud between the sleeping car companies and the travelling public in regard to the upper berths. The exigencies of the situation have, of course, made economy of space a prime requisite in sleeping car construction, and there is no doubt but that a high degree of success in this respect has attended the efforts of the sleeping car builders.


Founding Of The College Of Law Of The Ohio State University, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1907

Founding Of The College Of Law Of The Ohio State University, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

It is proper for me to say, in the beginning, that I have been delegated to bear, and I have the honor to present to the College of Law of the Ohio State University, upon this occasion the sincere congratulations and most hearty good wishes of the largest University Law School in the United States--the Department of Law of the University of Michigan. In addition to this, it is with much satisfaction, and is a very great personal pleasure, that I have the privilege of joining in the festivities of this dedication of the beautiful Temple of Themis, wherein the ...


The Standard Oil Fine, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1907

The Standard Oil Fine, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

August 3, 1907, Judge Landis, in the United States District Court, for the Northern District of Illinois, sentenced the Standard Oil Co. to pay the largest fine ever inflicted upon any offender.1 The suit was an indictment on 1,903 counts for violations of the Elkins Rebate Law in receiving concessions on the movement of 1,903 cars of oil from Whiting, Indiana, to East St. Louis, Illinois, and from Chappell, Illinois, to St. Louis, Missouri, during the eighteen months between September I, 1903, and March 1, 1905. Four hundred and forty-one counts were withdrawn as not necessarily involved ...


A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In an article in the February number of this magazine1 the writer discussed the need of a national incorporation law. The following is proposed as such; its object is to set forth what, perhaps, may be possible under such a law; what some will think necessary or desirable; what some will think unnecessary and undesirable; and what others will undoubtedly think is all wrong, if not vicious. Whatever view is taken the writer's purpose will be accomplished if consideration and discussion of the proper details of such a law, are provoked. There are two classes who desire a national ...


A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

A Proposed National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In an article in the February number of this magazine' the writer discussed the nee& of a national incorporation law. The following is proposed as such; its object is to set forth what, perhaps, may be possible under such a law; what some will think necessary or desirable; what some will think unnecessary and undesirable; and what others will undoubtedly think is all wrong, if not vicious.


Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1904

Need Of A National Incorporation Law, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

When the report of the Committee on Uniformity of Iegislation was submitted to the last American Bar Association, and consideration of the legal problems growing out of modem commercial combinations, was urged as a matter proper for discussion and action by that association, it was gravely argued by distinguished lawyers present that there was no legal problem to be solved.


Torrens Acts': Some Comparisons, James H. Brewster Jan 1903

Torrens Acts': Some Comparisons, James H. Brewster

Articles

The widespread discussion during the last ten years of the general scheme of registration of title to land, popularly known as the "Torrens System," has served to satisfy most disinterested lawyers and laymen of the general merits of the system. Consideration of the matter has been confined to no one section of the country, but has extended from Maine to California, and from Oregon to Texas. The result has been that laws embodying the general principles of the system have been enacted in six states, and proposed laws are before the legislatures of several others. The fact, however, that some ...


Labor And Capital Before The Law, Thomas M. Cooley Jan 1884

Labor And Capital Before The Law, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

The chief concern of every political society is the establishment of rights and of adequate securities for their protection. In America, it has been agreed that this shall be done by the people themselves; they shall make their own laws, and choose their own agents to administer them. But the obvious difficulty of doing this directly has been recognized, and the people, after formulating the charter of government, incorporating in it such principles as they deem fundamental, content themselves with delegating all powers of ordinary legislation to representatives. Notwithstanding this delegation, much direct legislation of a very effective and important ...


The Limits To Legislative Power In The Passage Of Curative Laws, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1880

The Limits To Legislative Power In The Passage Of Curative Laws, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

There has always been some regret that, when the Federal judiciary was called upon to interpret and apply the prohibition in the Constitution of ex post facto laws,1 it did not reach the condlusion that retrospective laws were forbidden, as well where they applied to civil rights as when they concerned criminal liabilities or penalties. The famous twenty-ninth chapter of the great charter placed the protection of liberty and property upon the same basis, and the power to reach the one by indirection is subject to the same objections in principle, that could be urged against the power to ...


Limits To State Control Of Private Business, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1877

Limits To State Control Of Private Business, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

The present purpose is to inquire whether, in the matter of the regulation of property rights and of business, legislation has not of late been occupying doubtful, possibly unconstitutional grounds. The discussion in the main must be limited to fundamental.-principles, aided by such light as legal and constitutional history may throw upon them, since the express provisions of the constitutions can give little assistance. They always contain the general guaranty of due process of law to life, liberty, and property, but in other particulars they for the most part leave protection to principles which have come from the common ...


Effect Of A Change In The Law Upon Rights Of Actions And Defences, Thomas M. Cooley Dec 1876

Effect Of A Change In The Law Upon Rights Of Actions And Defences, Thomas M. Cooley

Articles

A very interesting and important question frequently is, what effect has been produced upon a right of action, or upon a previously existing defence to an action, by a change in the law effected by statute after the right has accrued, or the cause of action has arisen, to which the defence was applicable. The question is encountered in a great variety of cases, and is sufficiently important to be considered under the several heads where the cases seem to range themselves. This is done imperfectly below.


Power Of Judiciary To Declare A Law Unconstitutional, Charles A. Kent Dec 1871

Power Of Judiciary To Declare A Law Unconstitutional, Charles A. Kent

Articles

The judiciary has no power to declare a law unconstitutional unless it conflicts with some provision of the State or Federal Constitution. It will be the purpose of this article to show the reasonableness and meaning of this principle.