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Intellectual Property Law

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"Fair Use" Through Fundamental Rights In Europe: When Freedom Of Artistic Expression Allows Creative Appropriations And Opens Up Statutory Copyright Limitations, Christophe Geiger Nov 2020

"Fair Use" Through Fundamental Rights In Europe: When Freedom Of Artistic Expression Allows Creative Appropriations And Opens Up Statutory Copyright Limitations, Christophe Geiger

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This chapter discusses the evolution in jurisprudential understanding of the relationship between copyright and freedom of artistic expression in the European Union. It demonstrates how courts in France and several other EU member states have accepted a “fair use” approach that applies fundamental rights as external limitations to copyright law, in compliance with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights but contrasting with the recent conflicting position of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The chapter first analyses the application of freedom of artistic expression to copyright law on a case-by-case basis and shows that ...


The Domestic Effect Of South Africa's Treaty Obligations: The Right To Education And The Copyright Amendment Bill, Sanya Samtani Oct 2020

The Domestic Effect Of South Africa's Treaty Obligations: The Right To Education And The Copyright Amendment Bill, Sanya Samtani

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

On 16 June 2020, the President of South Africa returned the Copyright Amendment Bill [B-13 of 2017] to Parliament, expressing reservations regarding its constitutionality and compliance with international law. In this paper, I describe the constitutional implications of compliance with international law and the binding international obligations incumbent upon South Africa in respect of copyright and international human rights law. In doing so, I argue that the Bill of Rights acts as a magnet, compelling all organs of state to give greater normative weight to those international obligations that map onto the Bill of Rights as compared to those that ...


"An Hundred Stories In Ten Days": Covid-19 Lessons For Culture, Learning And Copyright Law, Carys J. Craig, Bob Tarantino Oct 2020

"An Hundred Stories In Ten Days": Covid-19 Lessons For Culture, Learning And Copyright Law, Carys J. Craig, Bob Tarantino

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

In the face of a pandemic, copyright law may seem a frivolous concern; but its importance lies in the ever-expanding role that it plays in either enabling or constraining the kinds of communicative activities that are critical to a flourishing life. In this article, we reflect on how the cultural and educative practices that have burgeoned under quarantine conditions shed new light on a longstanding problem: the need to recalibrate the copyright system to better serve its purposes in the face of changing social and technological circumstances. We begin by discussing how copyright restrictions have manifested in a variety of ...


Preserving An Independent Judiciary In Turbulent Times, Kathleen M. O'Malley Sep 2020

Preserving An Independent Judiciary In Turbulent Times, Kathleen M. O'Malley

Stanley H. Mervis Lecture

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Woods And Myburgh Comments On Cab, Jonathan Band Aug 2020

Analysis Of Woods And Myburgh Comments On Cab, Jonathan Band

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

On June 16, 2020, President Ramaphosa of the South African Republic referred the Copyright Amendment Bill (“CAB”) back to the National Assembly on the grounds that he had reservations concerning its constitutionality. In his referral letter, President Ramaphosa stated that the CAB may be in conflict with international intellectual property (IP) treaties South Africa had joined or was planning to join. CAB opponents’ arguments that the CAB is incompatible with IP treaties are based largely on comments prepared by Michele Woods, Director of the Copyright Law Division of the World Intellectual Property Organization, in 2018. Woods prepared these comments as ...


Automated Copyright Enforcement Online: From Blocking To Monetization Of User-Generated Content, Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan Jul 2020

Automated Copyright Enforcement Online: From Blocking To Monetization Of User-Generated Content, Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Global platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, Instagram or TikTok live on users ‘freely’ sharing content, in exchange for the data generated in the process. Many of these digital market actors nowadays employ automated copyright enforcement tools, allowing those who claim ownership to identify matching content uploaded by users. While most debates on state-sanctioned platform liability and automated private ordering by platforms has focused on the implications of user generated content being blocked, this paper places a spotlight on monetization. Using YouTube’s Content ID as principal example, I show how monetizing user content is by far the norm, and blocking ...


What Role Can Regulations Play? A South African Public Law Perspective On The Potential Response Through Regulations To Constitutional Reservations About The Copyright Amendment Bill, B-13b Of 2017, Jonathan Klaaren Jul 2020

What Role Can Regulations Play? A South African Public Law Perspective On The Potential Response Through Regulations To Constitutional Reservations About The Copyright Amendment Bill, B-13b Of 2017, Jonathan Klaaren

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This working paper addresses several issues in South African law relevant to determining whether and to what extent regulations may address genuine problems in the Copyright Amendment Bill [CAB]. Regulations are of course not yet drafted for this Bill and the Bill remains a Bill and is not yet an Act. Indeed, as discussed further below, the Bill is currently under consideration in Parliament as part of a section 79 process. In addition to its focus on the CAB, this paper identifies a set of emerging South African public law issues associated with similarly situated legislation.

After a background section ...


The Use Of Technical Experts In Software Copyright Cases: Rectifying The Ninth Circuit’S “Nutty” Rule, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter Menell Jun 2020

The Use Of Technical Experts In Software Copyright Cases: Rectifying The Ninth Circuit’S “Nutty” Rule, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter Menell

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Courts have long been skeptical about the use of expert witnesses in copyright cases. More than four decades ago, and before Congress extended copyright law to protect computer software, the Ninth Circuit in Krofft Television Prods., Inc. v. McDonald’s Corp., ruled that expert testimony was inadmissible to determine whether Mayor McCheese and the merry band of McDonaldland characters infringed copyright protection for Wilhelmina W. Witchiepoo and the other imaginative H.R. Pufnstuf costumed characters. Since the emergence of software copyright infringement cases in the 1980s, substantially all software copyright cases have permitted expert witnesses to aid juries in understanding ...


Copyright Reform: Imagining More Balanced Copyright Laws, Michelle M. Wu Jun 2020

Copyright Reform: Imagining More Balanced Copyright Laws, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Earlier chapters of this book provide a history of copyright and libraries in the United States, a review of outdated language in the existing copyright code, and a discussion of actions by both copyright owners and the public to rebalance copyright outside of legislation. This chapter simply imagines what copyright could be if we disregard the known political and legal obstacles. It starts with no constraints, which one might argue is both impractical and foolish. Why spend time discussing what could be when treaties, self-interest, and powerful industry lobbies stand in the way?

The answer is simply that environments can ...


Rent For Rent: Making A Living By Licensing Your Music, Jessica Muñiz-Collado Jan 2020

Rent For Rent: Making A Living By Licensing Your Music, Jessica Muñiz-Collado

CAHSS Faculty Presentations, Proceedings, Lectures, and Symposia

Wouldn’t it be great if a composer, music producer, or songwriter could pay their rent by “renting” out their music? This demonstration will simplify the music licensing process, focus on researching music libraries, preparing songs for submissions and much more.


Copyright, Fair Use, And Creative Commons: An Active-Learning Exercise For Studio Art Students, Arthur J. Boston Jan 2020

Copyright, Fair Use, And Creative Commons: An Active-Learning Exercise For Studio Art Students, Arthur J. Boston

Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity

This article describes an active-learning exercise intended to help teach copyright, fair use, and Creative Commons licenses. In the exercise students use a worksheet to draw original pictures, create derivative pictures on tracing paper, select Creative Commons licenses, and explore commercial usage, fair use, and copyright infringement. Librarian-instructors may find the completed worksheets to be useful aids to supplement copyright lectures; student perspectives will be integral because they are generating the examples used in discussion. Although a scholarly communication librarian developed this exercise to help introduce some basic copyright information to an undergraduate studio art and design class, the exercise ...


Google V. Oracle Amicus Merits Stage Brief: Vindicating Ip’S Channeling Principle And Restoring Jurisdictional Balance To Software Copyright Protection, Peter Menell, David Nimmer, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2020

Google V. Oracle Amicus Merits Stage Brief: Vindicating Ip’S Channeling Principle And Restoring Jurisdictional Balance To Software Copyright Protection, Peter Menell, David Nimmer, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Federal Circuit’s decisions in Oracle v. Google conflict with this Court’s seminal decision in Baker v. Selden, 101 U.S. 99 (1879), misinterpret Congress’s codification of this Court’s fundamental channeling principle and related limiting doctrines, and upend nearly three decades of sound, well-settled, and critically important decisions of multiple regional circuits on the scope of copyright protection for computer software. Based on the fundamental channeling principle enunciated in Baker v. Selden, as reflected in § 102(b) of the Copyright Act, the functional requirements of APIs for computer systems and devices, like the internal workings of ...


Brief Of Amicus Curiae Interdisciplinary Research Team On Programmer Creativity In Support Of Respondent, Ralph D. Clifford, Firas Khatib, Trina Kershaw, Kavitha Chandra, Jay Mccarthy Jan 2020

Brief Of Amicus Curiae Interdisciplinary Research Team On Programmer Creativity In Support Of Respondent, Ralph D. Clifford, Firas Khatib, Trina Kershaw, Kavitha Chandra, Jay Mccarthy

Faculty Publications

This brief answers the two primary issues that are associated with the first question before the Court. First, the programmers’ expression of the Java-based application programmer interfaces (“APIs”) are sufficiently creative to satisfy that requirement of copyright law. Second, the idea expression limitation codified in Section 102(b) of Copyright Act does not establish that the APIs are ideas. Both of these assertions are supported by the empirical research undertaken by the Research Team. This brief expresses no opinion on the resolution of the fair use question that is also before the Court.


Privative Copyright, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2020

Privative Copyright, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“Privative” copyright claims are infringement actions brought by authors for the unauthorized public dissemination of works that are private, unpublished, and revelatory of the author’s personal identity. Driven by considerations of authorial autonomy, dignity, and personality rather than monetary value, these claims are almost as old as Anglo-American copyright law itself. Yet modern thinking has attempted to undermine their place within copyright law and sought to move them into the domain of privacy law. This Article challenges the dominant view and argues that privative copyright claims form a legitimate part of the copyright landscape. It shows how privative copyright ...


Abandoning Copyright, Dave Fagundes, Aaron K. Perzanowski Jan 2020

Abandoning Copyright, Dave Fagundes, Aaron K. Perzanowski

Faculty Publications

For nearly two hundred years, U.S. copyright law has assumed that owners may voluntarily abandon their rights in a work. But scholars have largely ignored copyright abandonment, and the case law is fragmented and inconsistent. As a result, abandonment remains poorly theorized, owners can avail themselves of no reliable mechanism to abandon their works, and the practice remains rare. This Article seeks to bring copyright abandonment out of the shadows, showing that it is a doctrine rich in conceptual, normative, and practical significance. Unlike abandonment of real and chattel property, which imposes significant public costs in exchange for discrete ...


Beyond The Marrakesh Vip Treaty: Typology Of Copyright Access-Enabling Provisions For Persons With Disabilities, Caroline B. Ncube, Blake E. Reid, Desmond O. Oriakhogba Jan 2020

Beyond The Marrakesh Vip Treaty: Typology Of Copyright Access-Enabling Provisions For Persons With Disabilities, Caroline B. Ncube, Blake E. Reid, Desmond O. Oriakhogba

Articles

This paper builds upon the evidence drawn from a scoping study on access to copyright works by persons with disabilities. It identifies and discusses specific access‐enabling technologies for persons with aural, cognitive, physical, and visual disabilities and how they are affected by the exercise of exclusive rights. It shows how, and the extent to which states' ratification of the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled (Marrakesh Treaty) has enabled the making of accessible format of copyright works for persons with disabilities. To this end, the paper ...


Restructuring Copyright Infringement, Gideon Parchomovsky, Abraham Bell Jan 2020

Restructuring Copyright Infringement, Gideon Parchomovsky, Abraham Bell

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Copyright law employs a one-size-fits-all strict liability regime against all unauthorized users of copyrighted works. The current regime takes no account of the blameworthiness of the unauthorized user or of the information costs she faces. Nor does it consider ways in which the rightsholders may have contributed to potential infringements, or ways in which they could have cheaply avoided them. A non-consensual use of a copyrighted work entitles copyright owners to the full panoply of remedies available under the Copyright Act, including supra-compensatory damage awards, disgorgement of profits and injunctive relief. This liability regime is unjust, as it largely fails ...


Copyright And The 1%, Glynn Lunney Jan 2020

Copyright And The 1%, Glynn Lunney

Faculty Scholarship

No one ever argues for copyright on the grounds that superstar artists and authors need more money, but what if that is all, or mostly all, that copyright does? This article presents newly available data on the distribution of players across the PC videogame market. This data reveals an L-shaped distribution of demand. A relative handful of games are extremely popular. The vast majority are not. In the face of an L curve, copyright overpays superstars, but does very little for the average author and for works at the margins of profitability. This makes copyright difficult to justify on either ...


The Machine As Author, Daniel J. Gervais Jan 2020

The Machine As Author, Daniel J. Gervais

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Machines are increasingly good at emulating humans and laying siege to what has been a strictly human outpost: intellectual creativity.

At this juncture, we cannot know with certainty how high machines will reach on the creativity ladder when compared to, or measured against, their human counterparts, but we do know this. They are far enough already to force us to ask a genuinely hard and complex question, one that intellectual property (“IP”) scholars and courts will need to answer soon; namely, whether copyrights should be granted to productions made not by humans but by machines.

This Article’s specific objective ...


Foreign Contracts And U.S. Copyright Termination Rights: What Law Applies? – Comment, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Foreign Contracts And U.S. Copyright Termination Rights: What Law Applies? – Comment, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The U.S. Copyright Act gives authors the right to terminate assignments of copyrights in works other than works for hire executed on or after 1 January 1978 after 35 years, and to do so notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary. Given that agreements which are subject to the laws of other countries can assign U.S. copyrights, and purport to do so in perpetuity, U.S. law’s preclusion of agreements contrary to the author’s right to exercise her termination right can give rise to a difficult choice of law issue. Two recent cases which came before courts ...


A United States Perspective On Digital Single Market Directive Art. 17, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

A United States Perspective On Digital Single Market Directive Art. 17, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

To a US appraiser, article 17 of the Digital Single Market Directive suggests the EU has learned from American mistakes (and from its own) in the allocation of internet intermediaries’ liability for hosting and communicating user-posted content. Before the DSM Directive, art. 14 of the 2000 eCommerce Directive set out a notice-and-takedown system very similar to the regime provided in 17 U.S.C. section 512(c). Both regimes replaced the normal copyright default, which requires authorization to exploit works, with a limitation on the liability of service providers who complied with statutory prerequisites. Because the limitation ensured that service ...


Response To Oliar And Stern: On Duration, The Idea/Expression Dichotomy, And Time, Wendy J. Gordon Jan 2020

Response To Oliar And Stern: On Duration, The Idea/Expression Dichotomy, And Time, Wendy J. Gordon

Faculty Scholarship

Courts often use possession to determine who should own unclaimed resources. Yet, as Oliar and Stern demonstrate, the concept of possession is little more than a metaphor, capable of being applied to a broad range of phenomena. The authors helpfully deploy “time” as a metric to sort through the rules determining what should count as possession, and they survey the likely costs and benefits attached to choosing earlier versus later events as triggers for acquiring title.

With those tools in hand, Oliar and Stern employ “time” and the analogy of physical possession to address problems in copyright, patent, and trademark ...


Implementing User Rights For Research In The Field Of Artificial Intelligence: A Call For International Action, Sean Flynn, Christophe Geiger, João Pedro Quintais, Thomas Margoni, Matthew Sag, Lucie Guibault, Michael W. Carroll Jan 2020

Implementing User Rights For Research In The Field Of Artificial Intelligence: A Call For International Action, Sean Flynn, Christophe Geiger, João Pedro Quintais, Thomas Margoni, Matthew Sag, Lucie Guibault, Michael W. Carroll

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Last year, before the onset of a global pandemic highlighted the critical and urgent need for technology-enabled scientific research, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched an inquiry into issues at the intersection of intellectual property (IP) and artificial intelligence (AI). We contributed comments to that inquiry, with a focus on the application of copyright to the use of text and data mining (TDM) technology. This article describes some of the most salient points of our submission and concludes by stressing the need for international leadership on this important topic. WIPO could help fill the current gap on international leadership ...


The Chilling Effect Of Copyright Permissions On Academic Research: The Case Of Communication Researchers, Patricia Aufderheide Jan 2020

The Chilling Effect Of Copyright Permissions On Academic Research: The Case Of Communication Researchers, Patricia Aufderheide

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Communications researchers in the U.S., who routinely analyze copyrighted material, both qualitatively and quantitatively, face challenges from strict copyright. The doctrine of fair use permits some unpermissioned use of copyrighted works. Survey research shows that researchers routinely need access to copyrighted material; that they are often unsure or confused, even unknowing, about fair use; and that this lack of knowledge and/or familiarity leads to both failure to execute and failure to initiate, or “imagination foregone.” Creating a best practices code has improved knowledge but more institutional change is needed for knowledge to inform action.


Transplanting Fair Use Across The Globe: A Case Study Testing The Credibility Of U.S. Opposition, Niva Elkin-Koren, Neil Weinstock Netanel Jan 2020

Transplanting Fair Use Across The Globe: A Case Study Testing The Credibility Of U.S. Opposition, Niva Elkin-Koren, Neil Weinstock Netanel

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Copyright As Legal Process: The Transformation Of American Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2020

Copyright As Legal Process: The Transformation Of American Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

American copyright law has undergone an unappreciated conceptual transformation over the course of the last century. Originally conceived of as a form of private law—focusing on horizontal rights, privileges and private liability—copyright law is today understood principally through its public-regarding goals and institutional apparatus, in effect as a form of public law. This transformation is the result of changes in the ideas of law and law-making that occurred in American legal thinking following World War II, manifested in the deeply influential philosophy of the Legal Process School of jurisprudence which shaped the modern American copyright landscape. In the ...


Implementing User Rights For Research In The Field Of Artificial Intelligence: A Call For International Action, Sean Flynn, Michael W. Carroll Jan 2020

Implementing User Rights For Research In The Field Of Artificial Intelligence: A Call For International Action, Sean Flynn, Michael W. Carroll

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Last year, before the onset of a global pandemic highlighted the critical and urgent need for technology-enabled scientific research, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched an inquiry into issues at the intersection of intellectual property (IP) and artificial intelligence (AI). We contributed comments to that inquiry, with a focus on the application of copyright to the use of text and data mining (TDM) technology. This article describes some of the most salient points of our submission and concludes by stressing the need for international leadership on this important topic. WIPO could help fill the current gap on international leadership ...


Copyright And Economic Viability: Evidence From The Music Industry, Kristelia García, James Hicks, Justin Mccrary Jan 2020

Copyright And Economic Viability: Evidence From The Music Industry, Kristelia García, James Hicks, Justin Mccrary

Articles

Copyright provides a long term of legal excludability, ostensibly to encourage the production of new creative works. How long this term should last, and the extent to which current law aligns with the economic incentives of copyright owners, has been the subject of vigorous theoretical debate. We investigate the economic viability of content in a major content industry—commercial music—using a novel longitudinal dataset of weekly sales and streaming counts. We find that the typical sound recording has an extremely short commercial half-life—on the order of months, rather than years or decades—but also see evidence that subscription ...


Floors And Ceilings In International Copyright Treaties (Berne/Trips/Wct Minima And Maxima), Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Floors And Ceilings In International Copyright Treaties (Berne/Trips/Wct Minima And Maxima), Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This Comment addresses “floors” – minimum substantive international protections, and “ceilings” – maximum substantive international protections, set out in the Berne Convention and subsequent multilateral copyright accords. While much scholarship has addressed Berne minima, the “maxima” have generally received less attention. This Comment first describes the general structure of the Berne Convention, TRIPS and WCT regarding these contours, and then analyzes their application to the recent “press publishers’ right” promulgated in the 2019 EU Digital Single Market Directive.

Within the universe of multilateral copyright obligations, the Berne maxima (prohibition of protection for facts and news of the day), buttressed by the TRIPS ...


Fair Use Factor Four Revisited: Valuing The "Value Of The Copyrighted Work" – Essay, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2020

Fair Use Factor Four Revisited: Valuing The "Value Of The Copyrighted Work" – Essay, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Recent caselaw has restored the prominence of the fourth statutory factor – “the effect of the use upon the market for or value of the copyrighted work” – in the fair use analysis. The revitalization of the inquiry should also occasion renewed reflection on its meaning. As digital media bring to the fore new or previously under-examined kinds of harm, courts not only need to continue refining their appreciation of a work’s markets. They must also expand their analyses beyond the traditional inquiry into whether the challenged use substitutes for an actual or potential market for the work. Courts should acknowledge ...