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Full-Text Articles in Law

Making Existing Homes Greener, James Smith Jan 2018

Making Existing Homes Greener, James Smith

Scholarly Works

The environmental movement that has taken hold in the last half-century includes the objective of reducing the adverse impacts buildings have on the natural environment. In the United States, this has manifested itself in changes in the design and construction of buildings. Modern buildings-those built recently-perform better with respect to some, but not all, environmental criteria than older buildings. The most prominent characteristic is the efficiency of energy use for heating, cooling, and appliances.

Even when the combination of building codes and voluntary standards work effectively to promote the construction of new green homes, they cannot provide a solution with ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2018

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2017, district courts decided several issues that the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit had never addressed. The United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia concluded that the Clean Water Act's (CWA) prohibition on the discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States without a permit extended to discharges into groundwater with a "direct hydrological connection" to surface waters within the Act's scope. The court also concluded that a state-permitted land application system, whereby wastewater is sprayed onto fields as means of treatment and disposal, constituted a "point source" within ...


Green Home Standards: Information And Incentives, James Smith Jan 2017

Green Home Standards: Information And Incentives, James Smith

Scholarly Works

The “green building” movement began in the United States during the 1990s. In its early stages, reformers focused on minimizing adverse environmental impacts from major public, institutional, and commercial buildings. Private-sector organizations developed voluntary standards to promote green building practices, the most prominent being LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). More recently, widespread interest in residential green building has developed. Several organizations having developed voluntary green home standards. A standard promulgated by the federal government, the Energy Star Certified Home, has achieved substantial market success during the past decade. This article describes and assesses the Energy Star Home and ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2017

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2016, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit addressed, for the second time, whether the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) acted arbitrarily when it issued Nationwide Permit 21 (NWP 21), which authorizes dredge and fill activities by surface mining operations and applies differing standards to grandfathered operations and new operations. The court held that the Corps did not, and it upheld the permit. Also, the Eleventh Circuit held that the National Park Service did not act improperly under the Wilderness Act when it reduced the number of acres it considered to be eligible for designation as ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2016

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2015, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit decided novel issues in two cases under the Clean Water Act (CWA). In Black Warrior Riverkeeper, Inc. v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the court held remand of a Corps of Engineers permitting decision for reconsideration without also vacating the permit is a remedy within the court's discretion and was appropriate under the circumstances. In Riverkeeper v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the court held appellate review of a non-final response by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to a petition to withdraw Alabama's authority to ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jul 2015

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, addressing an issue of first impression, rejected the district court's use of a Lone Pine case-management order as a means of testing the sufficiency of the plaintiffs' pleadings in a state law environmental torts case. The court also interpreted Florida law to mean that plaintiffs are not required to allege that groundwater contamination exceeded regulatory maximum contaminant levels for drinking water to maintain their claims and that they could recover "stigma" damages to their property without alleging actual contamination. The United States District Court for the Middle ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jul 2014

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2013, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit rejected a challenge to the Navy's Undersea Warfare Training Range (Range) off the coast of Jacksonville, Florida, based on potential impacts the Range could have to the endangered North Atlantic Right Whale and other endangered species. The court held that the Navy and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) had met their obligations under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA as amended and the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA as amended thus far in the project.' The court also decided two cases under the ...


The Future Of Wilderness Management, Peter A. Appel Apr 2014

The Future Of Wilderness Management, Peter A. Appel

Presentations and Speeches

This is a presentation by Professor Peter A. Appel on April 11, 2014, at a symposium entitled "The Wilderness Act at 50" sponsored by the Lewis and Clark Law School. Please click here to view the presentation.


From Contract To Legislation: The Logic Of Modern International Lawmaking, Timothy L. Meyer Jan 2014

From Contract To Legislation: The Logic Of Modern International Lawmaking, Timothy L. Meyer

Scholarly Works

The future of international lawmaking is in peril. Both trade and climate negotiations have failed to produce a multilateral agreement since the mid-1990s, while the U.N. Security Council has been unable to comprehensively respond to the humanitarian crisis in Syria. In response to multilateralism’s retreat, many prominent commentators have called for international institutions to be given the power to bind holdout states — often rising or reluctant powers such as China and the United States — without their consent. In short, these proposals envision international law traveling the road taken by federal systems such as the United States and the ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jul 2013

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, deciding an issue of first impression, held that a party that enters a consent order to settle potential liability under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is not entitled to pursue a cost recovery action against other potentially responsible parties under section 1073 of the Act, but may only seek contribution from those parties under section 113(f) of the Act. The court also affirmed a decision by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Manage- ment to approve an exploration plan for oil and gas drilling ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Review, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2012

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Review, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2011, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that the intervenors lacked standing to challenge on appeal a consent decree entered into by the main parties and approved by the

district court in a Clean Water Act case. The United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama, in a Clean Air Act case, excluded on Daubert grounds testimony of the government’s experts

purporting to establish that repair and replacement projects at several power plants in Alabama had in fact been major modifications to the plants that resulted in increased air pollutant emissions ...


Global Public Goods, Governance Risk, And International Energy, Timothy L. Meyer Jan 2012

Global Public Goods, Governance Risk, And International Energy, Timothy L. Meyer

Scholarly Works

Scholars and commentators have long argued that issue linkages provide a way to increase cooperation on global public goods by increasing participation in global institutions, building consensus, and deterring free-riding. In this symposium article, I argue that the emphasis on the potential of issue linkages to facilitate cooperation in these ways has caused commentators to underestimate how common features of international legal institutions designed to accomplish these aims can actually undermine those institutions’ ability to facilitate cooperation. I focus on two features of institutional design that are intended to encourage participation in public goods institutions but can create the risk ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Review, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2011

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Review, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

Relatively few environmental cases were decided in the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in 2010. The court decided a case holding that the portion of the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009, which funded a mile-long bridge in the Everglades, repealed the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Endangered Species Act, and other environmental laws to the extent they applied to the construction project. Additionally, the court decided that the leadbased paint hazard warning required to be included in residential leases pursuant to the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act had to be reproduced in such leases ...


Wilderness, The Courts And The Effect Of Politics On Judicial Decisionmaking, Peter A. Appel Jan 2011

Wilderness, The Courts And The Effect Of Politics On Judicial Decisionmaking, Peter A. Appel

Scholarly Works

Empirical analyses of cases from federal courts have attempted to determine the effect of judges’ political ideology on their decisions. This question holds interest for scholars from many disciplines. Investigating judicial review of the actions of administrative agencies should provide strong evidence on the question of political influence because applicable rules of judicial deference to administrative decisions ought to lead judges to reach politically neutral results. Yet several studies have found a strong correlation between results in these cases and proxies for political ideology. Cases involving the interpretation of environmental law have been of particular interest as a subset of ...


Power, Exit Costs, And Renegotiation In International Law, Timothy L. Meyer Jul 2010

Power, Exit Costs, And Renegotiation In International Law, Timothy L. Meyer

Scholarly Works

Scholars have long understood that the instability of power has ramifications for compliance with international law. Scholars have not, however, focused on how states’ expectations about shifting power affect the initial design of international agreements. In this paper, I integrate shifting power into an analysis of the initial design of both the formal and substantive aspects of agreements. I argue that a state expecting to become more powerful over time incurs an opportunity cost by agreeing to formal provisions that raise the cost of exiting an agreement. Exit costs - which promote the stability of legal rules - have distributional implications. Before ...


The Art And Craft Of International Environmental Law, Daniel M. Bodansky Jan 2010

The Art And Craft Of International Environmental Law, Daniel M. Bodansky

Scholarly Works

International environmental law is often closer to home than we know, affecting the food we eat, the products we buy, and even the air we breathe. Drawing on more than two decades of experience as a government negotiator, consultant, and academic, Daniel Bodansky brings a real-world perspective on the processes by which international environmental law develops, and influences the behavior of state and non-state actors.

In self-contained chapters that offer a clear guide to a complex field, Bodansky answers fundamental questions about how international environmental law works. What role can law play in addressing global environmental challenges such as climate ...


Environmental Law, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2010

Environmental Law, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In this survey period, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit decided two cases addressing the scope of agency discretion to interpret statutes. In Friends of the Everglades v. South Florida Water Management District, the Eleventh Circuit held that the Environmental Protection Agency’s adoption of the “unitary waters” definition of navigable waters under the Clean Water Act was reasonable even though that approach had been universally rejected by the courts as an interpretation of the statute prior to the agency’s rule. In Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida v. United States, the Eleventh

Circuit upheld ...


Sustainable Commerce: Legal Overview And Case Studies, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin Sep 2009

Sustainable Commerce: Legal Overview And Case Studies, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin

Presentations and Speeches

No abstract provided.


Does Going Green Equal Making Green?, 21st Annual Red Clay Conference, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin, Stephen E. O'Day, Sarah Schindler, Scott Hitch, Gerald Pouncey, Bob Roche, Jamie B. Roskie, Ronald Carroll, Joe Burgess, Dale Greene, Christian Turner, Ben Jordan, Vail Thorne, Michael E. Morgan, Usha Rodrigues, James Marlow, Don Mcdonnell, Patrick Millsaps Apr 2009

Does Going Green Equal Making Green?, 21st Annual Red Clay Conference, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin, Stephen E. O'Day, Sarah Schindler, Scott Hitch, Gerald Pouncey, Bob Roche, Jamie B. Roskie, Ronald Carroll, Joe Burgess, Dale Greene, Christian Turner, Ben Jordan, Vail Thorne, Michael E. Morgan, Usha Rodrigues, James Marlow, Don Mcdonnell, Patrick Millsaps

Conferences and Symposia to 2010

Conference panel topics included forestry, green building, green investment and corporate environmental initiatives. Among the panelists were founders of energy consultation companies, a representative from the Georgia Forestry Commission, the environmental manager for Coca-Cola and leading environmental attorneys.


Sustainable Commerce: Public Health Law And Environmental Law Provide Tools For Industry And Government To Construct Globally-Competitive Green Economies, T. Rick Irvin, Peter A. Appel Apr 2009

Sustainable Commerce: Public Health Law And Environmental Law Provide Tools For Industry And Government To Construct Globally-Competitive Green Economies, T. Rick Irvin, Peter A. Appel

Scholarly Works

This Article examines the legal mechanics underlying the sustainable commerce private/public governance paradigm whereby industry and government create sustainable commerce initiatives which coordinately grow local/state economies and employment, enhance local/state competitiveness in the global marketplace, and at the same time substantially improve local/state public health and environmental infrastructure. This includes an examination of the legal foundation for state/local sustainable commerce initiatives drawn from existing public health and environmental law and a review of two specific local/state sustainable commerce initiatives which have followed this paradigm with impressive results over a two-to-four year timeframe. Part II ...


Sustainable Commerce: Local /State Government And Industry Using Existing Public And Private Legal Systems To Construct Globally-Competitive Green Economies, Peter A. Appel Mar 2009

Sustainable Commerce: Local /State Government And Industry Using Existing Public And Private Legal Systems To Construct Globally-Competitive Green Economies, Peter A. Appel

Presentations and Speeches

Professor Peter Appel and Dr. T. Rick Irvin, J.D., Managing Principal - Registry Consultants, LLC, presented several case studies, discussed environmental impacts, and revenue projections at the Sustainable Commerce Seminar held at Mercer University School of Law.

Click the "Download" button for the PowerPoint presentation. An audio only recording of the presentation is linked below.


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2009

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit decided cases in 2008 that addressed the scope of agency discretion in several contexts. In an issue of first impression under the Clean Air Act (CAA), the court held that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) properly exercised its discretion in not objecting to the issuance of an operating permit to a power company that the agency had earlier formally accused of violating the CAA. In another case, the court held that the Federal Emergency Management Agency had the discretion to protect endangered species while administering the National Flood Insurance Act ...


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Dec 2008

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit decided cases in 2008 that addressed the scope of agency discretion in several contexts. In an issue of first impression under the Clean Air Act (CAA),the court held that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) properly exercised its discretion in not objecting to the issuance of an operating permit to a power company that the agency had earlier formally accused of violating the CAA. In another case, the court held that the Federal Emergency Management Agency had the discretion to protect endangered species while administering the National Flood Insurance Act ...


A Post-Kyoto Framework For Climate Change, Daniel M. Bodansky Sep 2008

A Post-Kyoto Framework For Climate Change, Daniel M. Bodansky

Presentations and Speeches

No abstract provided.


Can Red Clay Go Green? Adapting Law And Policy In The Face Of Climate Change, 20th Annual Red Clay Conference, Daniel M. Bodansky, David D. Caron, Mary Carr, Heidi Davison, David Hunter, Josh Love, James Marlow Apr 2008

Can Red Clay Go Green? Adapting Law And Policy In The Face Of Climate Change, 20th Annual Red Clay Conference, Daniel M. Bodansky, David D. Caron, Mary Carr, Heidi Davison, David Hunter, Josh Love, James Marlow

Conferences and Symposia to 2010

Program for the 20th Annual Red Clay Conference held Friday, April 4, 2008 at the University of Georgia School of Law's Dean Rusk Hall.


Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble Jan 2008

Environmental Law, Eleventh Circuit Survey, Travis M. Trimble

Scholarly Works

In 2007 the Eleventh Circuit interpreted the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Rapanos v. United States, regarding the federal government’s jurisdiction over waters under the Clean Water Act (“CWA”), and held that in order for federal jurisdiction to exist over a water that is not navigable in fact, the water must have a “significant nexus” with a water that is navigable in fact. Also under the CWA, the court partially reversed a granting of summary judgment to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, holding that the department had improperly excluded some types of evidence in approving Florida ...


Changing Intellectual Property And Corporate Legal Structures To Promote The U.S. Environmental Management And Technology Systems Industry, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin Jan 2008

Changing Intellectual Property And Corporate Legal Structures To Promote The U.S. Environmental Management And Technology Systems Industry, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin

Scholarly Works

This Article posits that for the U.S. environmental management and technology industry to enjoy success comparable to that of the biotechnology and semiconductor industries requires critical examination of current law to enable market-based and regulatory incentives, which would position U.S. industry to compete with equal strength against global competitors in global markets. This Article explains that the legal community, along with the environmental science and engineering disciplines, must guide both growth and market dominance of this industry in the global marketplace. The Article examines three areas of the law critical to the U.S. Environmental Technology Management System ...


Kyoto Comes To Georgia: How International Environmental Initiatives Foster Sustainable Commerce In Small Town America, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin, Julie M. Mcentire, J. Chris Rabon Jan 2008

Kyoto Comes To Georgia: How International Environmental Initiatives Foster Sustainable Commerce In Small Town America, Peter A. Appel, T. Rick Irvin, Julie M. Mcentire, J. Chris Rabon

Scholarly Works

This Article posits that in response to adoption of Kyoto Protocol targets by governments and multi-national corporations overseas that comprise significant portions of the global economy as well as global financial markets, businesses and state and local governments in the U.S. are also being driven by necessity to undertake sustainable commerce initiatives. Businesses in the EU and other Kyoto-compliant regions that have implemented sustainable commerce programs now require overseas vendors and suppliers-including those in the U.S.-to implement their own sustainable commerce initiatives as a condition of approved supplier status. New EU environmental regulations developed in part to ...


Targets And Timetables: Good Policy But Bad Politics?, Daniel M. Bodansky Nov 2007

Targets And Timetables: Good Policy But Bad Politics?, Daniel M. Bodansky

Scholarly Works

From a policy perspective, a climate architecture based on economy-wide, binding emissions targets, combined with emissions trading, has many virtues. But even such an architecture represents good climate policy, it is far more questionable whether it represents good climate politics -- at least in the near-term, for the upcoming "post-2012" negotiations. Given the wide range of differences in national perspectives and preferences regarding climate change, a more flexible, bottom-up approach may be needed, which builds on the efforts that are already beginning to emerge, by allowing different countries to assume different types of international commitments – not only absolute targets, but also ...


Water Wars -- Will Georgia, Alabama And Florida Ever Agree?, Peter A. Appel Jul 2007

Water Wars -- Will Georgia, Alabama And Florida Ever Agree?, Peter A. Appel

Popular Media

Associate Professor Peter Appel outlines the current status of the ongoing water wars between Georgia, Alabama and Florida.