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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Wto And Fctc Dispute Settlement Systems: Friends Or Foes?, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski Dec 2106

The Wto And Fctc Dispute Settlement Systems: Friends Or Foes?, Lukasz A. Gruszczynski

Lukasz A Gruszczynski

This article examines the relationship between the dispute settlement mechanisms of the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (“FCTC”). It concludes that since the two regimes relate to different international legal obligations, no conflict of jurisdiction exists between their dispute settlement bodies. In any case, the mere existence of an alternative dispute settlement system (i.e., the FCTC) does not preclude a WTO panel from examining a dispute with respect to any alleged violation of WTO obligations. 

The article also notes that the relevant WTO case law clearly establishes that an extraneous agreement concluded between ...


When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Josh Eagle

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and ...


When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle Nov 2105

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Eric Biber

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and ...


All Things To All People, Part One, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Dec 2104

All Things To All People, Part One, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Our Constitutional Logic has identified the fundamental predicate of Government I, which operated, more or less, under Constitution I, the Constutiton of the year One, as a disposable government. See The Standard Model at War, 17 OCL 350. if government asserts, affirmatively, that it is disposable, isn’t it also asserting that it can replicate its systems (= structures political society) at will? OCL builds on its assertion of political society as a three-goaled contrivance. See Why Do Political Societies Exist? 2 OCL 883. Isn’t such a government asserting the primacy of the needs of civil society? By offering to ...


Does The Second Amendment Protect Firearms Commerce?, David B. Kopel Apr 2104

Does The Second Amendment Protect Firearms Commerce?, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

The Second Amendment protects the operation of businesses which provide Second Amendment services, including gun stores. Although lower federal courts have split on the issue, the right of firearms commerce is demonstrated by the original history of the Second Amendment, confirmed by the Supreme Court in District of Columbia v. Heller, and consistent with the Court's precedents on other individual rights.


How Do We Know When Political Societies Change?, Peter Aschenbrenner Jan 2104

How Do We Know When Political Societies Change?, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Predicates, features, attributes and properties of a system are liable to change. How does the change get marked down? For this purpose what facet of a system should command our attention? Any system worth the name, Our Constitutional Logic argues, is aware of its own standing in civil society. OCL considers the issues raised.


Law Of Torts In Tanzania, Mwakisiki Mwakisiki Apr 2071

Law Of Torts In Tanzania, Mwakisiki Mwakisiki

MWAKISIKI MWAKISIKI

An Essential Student Compendium Covering All Aspects of Law of Torts


A Solution To North Korea Nuke & Korea Peninsusla Issue, And Reform Of The Un Operation System.Docx, Sung-Soo Han Mar 2019

A Solution To North Korea Nuke & Korea Peninsusla Issue, And Reform Of The Un Operation System.Docx, Sung-Soo Han

Sung-Soo Han

This writing contains an idea for resolving the North Korea nuke and Korean peninsula unification issue. It also contains an idea for reform of the current UN operating system.


Regulation And Supervision Of The Otc Derivatives Market, Ligia Catherine Arias Barrera May 2018

Regulation And Supervision Of The Otc Derivatives Market, Ligia Catherine Arias Barrera

Ligia Catherine Arias Barrera

The over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market has captured the attention of regulators after the Global Financial Crisis due to the risk it poses to financial stability. Under the post-crisis regulatory reform the concentration of business, and risks, among a few major players is changed by the concentration of a large portion of transactions in the new market infrastructures, the Central Counterparties (CCPs).

This book, for the first time, analyses the regulatory response of the United Kingdom and the United States, the two largest centres of OTC derivatives transactions, and highlights their shortcomings. The book uses a normative risk-based approach to regulation ...


Article-Teaching Ethics With Sports: Recent Developments, Adam Epstein, Barbara Osborne Apr 2018

Article-Teaching Ethics With Sports: Recent Developments, Adam Epstein, Barbara Osborne

Adam Epstein

The purpose of this article is to introduce some of the recent (since 2011) situations and incidents at various levels of sport competition. The article can be used as a springboard for further research and exploration, but our intent is to focus on ethical and legal examples that can be used in the classroom primarily for pedagogical purposes.  Using sport examples is often an engaging way to teach ethics in the context of a business or sports law course.  We divide our analysis into four major categories: Part I: addresses youth (including amateur and recreational) and interscholastic sport. Part II ...


Harmonizing The Affordable Care Act With The Three Main National Systems For Healthcare Quality Improvement: The Tort, Licensure, And Hospital Peer Review Hearing Systems, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Harmonizing The Affordable Care Act With The Three Main National Systems For Healthcare Quality Improvement: The Tort, Licensure, And Hospital Peer Review Hearing Systems, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

.. [W]hile the ACA [Affordable Care Act] has at least some provisions addressing the need to make changes in the medical malpractice and licensure systems to encourage the use of evidence-based standards of care, the ACA completely ignores the hospital peer review system. This article makes specific suggestions for how to revise all three major systems [the tort, licensure, and hospital peer review] so that they can work in tandem with federal law to encourage physicians to adopt [an] evidence-based model of medical practice in order to improve healthcare quality, cost, and access. This article starts by explaining the difference ...


Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will use nanotechnology as an example that highlights how regulation based on novelty rather than hazard achieves the proper balance between protecting public health while encouraging innovation through the animation of the public health product safety net. In Part II, this Article starts by explaining what nanotechnology is and the remarkable growth of its use in everyday consumer products. It then summarizes the steadily increasing number of studies that suggest that there are likely to be serious health risks associated with the use of nanotech consumer products. Next, it explains how the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] is ...


Using Clinical Practice Guidelines And Knowledge Translation Theory To Cure The Negative Impact Of The National Hospital Peer Review Hearing System On Healthcare Quality, Cost, And Access, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Using Clinical Practice Guidelines And Knowledge Translation Theory To Cure The Negative Impact Of The National Hospital Peer Review Hearing System On Healthcare Quality, Cost, And Access, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article starts with a history of the growth of hospital peer review and then examines the merits of the rationales that motivated the passage of the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 ('HCQIA'), which catapulted peer review into the national system that exists today. The Article next explains how the peer review hearing process works and how HCQIA turns private hospitals into small, individual quasi-regulatory agencies. The Article goes on to critique the 'bad apples' approach taken by hospital peer review in light of the growing body of empirical research that supports a systems improvement approach to dealing ...


Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article proposes a solution to the problems associated with the current use of vague standards in peer review. This Article will examine the proposal that medical staffs switch from ad hoc judicial decision-making to rule-making. This switch will allow medical staffs to abandon the troublesome practice of applying vague 'standard of care' measures ex post facto. In its stead, express contractual terminology could be adopted, such as 'expectations of performance,' which incorporates specifically chosen and uniquely tailored clinical practice guidelines ('CPGs') directly into the medical staff by-laws. Describing the expectations of physician performance in express contractual terms enables physicians ...


The Introduction Of Biotech Foods To The Tort System: Creating A New Duty To Identify, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

The Introduction Of Biotech Foods To The Tort System: Creating A New Duty To Identify, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article examines the question of whether an unsuspecting consumer who dies from an allergic or toxic reaction to an undisclosed biotech ingredient in food can recover damages through the tort system. The surprising answer is that recovery is very unlikely. This Article outlines why this is the case, then evaluates the merits of several potential solutions to this problem including the possible creation of a common law 'duty to identify' biotech ingredients in food. This Article is arranged as follows. First, a brief primer on the nature of biotech foods is provided. For the reader unfamiliar with the regulatory ...


Blacklisted: The Constitutionality Of The Federal System For Publishing Reports Of "Bad" Doctors In The National Practitioner Data Bank, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Blacklisted: The Constitutionality Of The Federal System For Publishing Reports Of "Bad" Doctors In The National Practitioner Data Bank, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

In order to highlight the problems with the NPDB [National Practitioner Data Bank], this Article compares physician blacklisting with other forms of blacklisting. For example, both physician and sexual predator blacklisting programs have the same goals: allowing the public to engage in self-protection by preventing “predators” from traveling to new locations to prey on a new group of unsuspecting victims. And both sexual predators and physicians suffer similar stigmatization as the result of the “badge of infamy” that comes with being blacklisted. But this is where the similarities end. Accused sex offenders get all of the trappings of due process ...


Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Genetically Modified Plants Used For Food, Risk Assessment And Uncertainty Principles: Does The Transition From Ignorance To Indeterminacy Trigger The Need For Post-Market Surveillance?, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

In the context of GM foods, a genetic modification changes the biochemical cross-talk between genes, creating genetic material that has never existed before in nature. This novel genetic material can create unintended health risks, as seen with the case of the GM peas that contained a novel and unexpected allergenic protein and primed test mice to react to other allergens.6 The bottom line is that the scientific acceptance of the existence of the networked gene establishes that the FDA’s presumption that GM plant food is bioequivalent to traditional plant food is no longer scientifically supportable and that a ...


Intellectual Property And Public Health: A White Paper, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Intellectual Property And Public Health: A White Paper, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

On October 26, 2012, the University of Akron School of Law’s Center for Intellectual Property and Technology hosted its Sixth Annual IP Scholars Forum. In attendance were thirteen legal scholars with expertise and an interest in IP and public health who met to discuss problems and potential solutions at the intersection of these fields. This report summarizes this discussion by describing the problems raised, areas of agreement and disagreement between the participants, suggestions and solutions made by participants and the subsequent evaluations of these suggestions and solutions.

Led by the moderator, participants at the Forum focused generally on three ...


Modernizing The Emergency Medical Treatment And Labor Act To Harmonize With The Affordable Care Act To Improve Equality, Quality And Cost Of Emergency Care, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Modernizing The Emergency Medical Treatment And Labor Act To Harmonize With The Affordable Care Act To Improve Equality, Quality And Cost Of Emergency Care, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will propose a very simple, two-step way to modernize EMTALA [Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (1986)] to deal with this cascade of problems. This solution converts EMTALA into a powerful tool to enhance equal access to healthcare while at the same time changing EMTALA so that it works in tandem with, instead of against, the efforts of the Affordable Care Act, Medicare and Medicaid to improve healthcare quality, cost and equal access. This solution also works across systems to resolve the conflict between the tort, licensure and hospital peer review systems that all discourage evidence-based treatment ...


The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

The Growing Consumer Exposure To Nanotechnology In Everyday Products: Regulating Innovative Technologies In Light Of Lessons From The Past, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article discusses the public health, regulatory, legal, and ethical issues raised by the developing appreciation of the negative physical effects and potential health risks associated with nanotech products, and is arranged as follows. After this Introduction, this Article describes the present scientific understanding of the health risks associated with the consumption of nanoparticles. Next, a summary of the existing FDA regulatory structure that governs food, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and sunscreens is provided along with an explanation of why these regulations fail to protect public health when applied to regulate the nanotech versions of these products. The Article goes on ...


Remedial Discretion In Constitutional Adjudication: A Codicil, John M. Greabe Mar 2018

Remedial Discretion In Constitutional Adjudication: A Codicil, John M. Greabe

John M Greabe

This symposium paper elaborates on two questions raised by the author’s prior work, Remedial Discretion in Constitutional Adjudication. That paper disagree with calls for a revival of non-retroactive judicial rulings to facilitate more constitutional innovation and argued that the Supreme Court’s practice of developing doctrines that withhold remedies for constitutional violations—e.g., qualified immunity, exceptions to the exclusionary rule, and harmless-error rules— were both sufficient to facilitate constitutional innovation and preferable to reviving non-retroactivity. Of necessity, the paper also developed a theory of when courts may withhold remedies for constitutional violations and when they may not: courts ...


United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Five years ago, in a contribution to these pages, I suggested that the Supreme Court's oldest precedents and the original intent of the framers of the Constitution precluded the use of evidence produced under a grant of immunity against the producer, even though the material produced included documents that the producer had not been compelled to write. This implied that information concealed with a cryptographic key could not be used in a criminal prosecution against someone from whom the key had been obtained under a grant of immunity. The issue, however, was doubtful given the tendency of the Court ...


Using Instructional Design To Improve Student Learning, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Using Instructional Design To Improve Student Learning, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Categorizations of knowledge and skills have different purposes. Robert Gagne's classification, which we use here, organizes types of learning according to the mental processes involved in performing them. The best practices for teaching knowledge or skills in a particular category are similar, whether the knowledge being taught is torts, contracts, or electrical engineering. For law teachers, the practical advantage of this classification is that it allows us to identify successful learning techniques from other subjects and adapt them to law teaching, rather than starting from scratch and developing and testing our own techniques. A second advantage of classifying types ...


Property Law And Climate Change, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Property Law And Climate Change, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

This article discusses the issue of rules for acquiring property rights in natural resources, land use controls (such as restrictive covenants) and how they can impede the progress of environmentally friendly power sources when such sources are considered aesthetically offensive, and how property law should deal with uses of land that are inefficient and contribute to global warming. [excerpt]


New Modes Of Assessment, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

New Modes Of Assessment, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

The traditional and dominant mode of formal assessment in law schools is an essay examination administered at the end of the semester. Unfortunately, the essay exam is prone to inaccuracies, some of which can be balanced by other forms of assessment. In addition, essay exams are extremely burdensome to grade.

The purpose of this Article is to call attention to a variety of alternatives to this traditional format that are more accurate and less burdensome than traditional essay exams. Increasing accuracy makes it possible to determine whether the instruction has been effective, allowing the instructor to address areas of weakness ...


'A Body Of Sound Practical Common Sense': Law Reform Through Lay Judges, Public Choice Theory, And The Transformation Of American Law, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

'A Body Of Sound Practical Common Sense': Law Reform Through Lay Judges, Public Choice Theory, And The Transformation Of American Law, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

... [T]hree of the earliest and most influential proponents of the argument that public choice theory implies that courts produce better rules than legislators are Judge Frank Easterbrook, Judge Richard Posner, and Justice Antonin Scalia. These proponents of social choice theory conclude from this that judicial decisions are more to be trusted than legislative decisions and therefore favor a variety of devices to expand judicial power. These include interpreting statutes restrictively, which leaves the decision up to the pre-existing judge-made law; interpreting statutes in a common-law fashion, which allows judges their traditional rule-making powers; and ignoring legislative intent, which leaves ...


Assumption Of Risk As A Defense To Negligence, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Assumption Of Risk As A Defense To Negligence, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

This article will revisit the history of assumption of risk in California and elsewhere and suggest that the traditional doctrine should be modified and revived, despite the contrary approach of the Restatement (Third) of Torts. In the first part of the article, I will describe the ambiguities in the statements of assumption of risk that existed before the adoption of comparative negligence. I will show that Knight v. Jewett, which rejected assumption of risk, misinterpreted Li v. Yellow Cab Co., in which the California Supreme Court adopted a comparative negligence rule. Moreover, even if the Knight case was defensible on ...


Social Contract Neutrality And The Religion Clauses Of The Federal Constitution, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Social Contract Neutrality And The Religion Clauses Of The Federal Constitution, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

'Neutrality' has become the slogan that the Supreme Court uses for judging all claims of freedom of religion whether under the Establishment Clause or the Free Exercise Clause. However, the word 'neutrality' conceals the Court's inconsistent use of the concept. Thus, in Rosenberger v. Rectors of the University of Virginia, the recent debate about funding for religious publications, both the majority and the dissent asserted that only their approach was truly neutral. This inconsistency in the meaning of neutrality in the religion clauses is merely part of a general inconsistency in the Court's treatment of the religion clauses ...


Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Modern cryptography can make it virtually impossible to decipher documents without the cryptographic key thus making the availability of the contents of those documents depend on the availability of the key. This article examines the Fourth and Fifth Amendments' protection against the compulsory production of the key and the scope of the Fifth Amendment immunity against compelled production. After analyzing these questions using prevailing Fourth and Fifth Amendment jurisprudence, I shall describe the advantages of a privacy-based approach in practical and constitutional terms. [excerpt]


Full Faith And Credit, Choice Of Laws, And Extraterritorial Regulation Of Corporate Transactions, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Full Faith And Credit, Choice Of Laws, And Extraterritorial Regulation Of Corporate Transactions, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

In a federal system in which each state may enact laws providing for the chartering and governance of corporations and in which corporations can and do conduct business in more than one state, several states may claim an interest in regulating the conduct of a given corporation. The enactment of state laws that are intended to restrict hostile corporate takeovers and that purport to extend to foreign corporations is one example of this phenomenon. "Typically, any of a number of jurisdictional links might trigger the application of such an anti-takeover statute: the target's being incorporated in the state, its ...