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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Public Perception Of The #Geneeditedbabies Event Across Multiple Social Media Platforms: Observational Study, Ellen W. Clayton, Congning Ni, Et Al. Nov 2022

The Public Perception Of The #Geneeditedbabies Event Across Multiple Social Media Platforms: Observational Study, Ellen W. Clayton, Congning Ni, Et Al.

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

In November 2018, a Chinese researcher reported that his team had applied clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats or associated protein 9 to delete the gene C-C chemokine receptor type 5 from embryos and claimed that the 2 newborns would have lifetime immunity from HIV infection, an event referred to as #GeneEditedBabies on social media platforms. Although this event stirred a worldwide debate on ethical and legal issues regarding clinical trials with embryonic gene sequences, the focus has mainly been on academics and professionals. However, how the public, especially stratified by geographic region and culture, reacted to these issues is not …


And A Public Defender For All, Sara Mayeux May 2022

And A Public Defender For All, Sara Mayeux

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The Senate confirmation of Ketanji Brown Jackson to the Supreme Court last week means that she is soon to be the first Supreme Court justice with prior experience as a federal public defender. This is historic in its own right, though it is not quite as surprising on closer inspection, since the institution of the federal public defender — in its currently prevailing organizational particulars, anyway — dates back only to the 1970s. Still, given that several of the justices previously worked as federal prosecutors, Jackson’s confirmation injects a welcome measure of professional balance to the lineup. Moreover, Jackson can …


Worth A Shot: Encouraging Vaccine Uptake Through “Empathy”, Dr. Jody Lyneé Madeira May 2022

Worth A Shot: Encouraging Vaccine Uptake Through “Empathy”, Dr. Jody Lyneé Madeira

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Pro- and anti-vaccine organizations and individuals have frequently invoked empathy as a strategy for increasing uptake of COVID-19 precautions, including vaccinations. On one hand, vaccine supporters deployed empathy to defuse conflict, prioritize safeguarding the collective welfare, and avoid government mandates. On the other hand, vaccine opponents used empathy to emphasize the alleged individual effects of pandemic precautions, mobilize public voices, and stress the importance of medical freedom in policy-making contexts.

This Article first defines empathy and reviews empathy scholarship, paying particular attention to its relationship with narrative and the contexts where empathy can be difficult or dangerous. It then applies …


The Future Of Ai Accountability In The Financial Markets, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher, Michelle M. Le May 2022

The Future Of Ai Accountability In The Financial Markets, Gina-Gail S. Fletcher, Michelle M. Le

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Consumer interaction with the financial market ranges from applying for credit cards, to financing the purchase of a home, to buying and selling securities. And with each transaction, the lender, bank, and brokerage firm are likely utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) behind the scenes to augment their operations. While AI’s ability to process data at high speeds and in large quantities makes it an important tool for financial institutions, it is imperative to be attentive to the risks and limitations that accompany its use. In the context of financial markets, AI’s lack of decision-making transparency, often called the “black box problem,” …


Innovation Policy And Chronic Emergencies, Robert Burrell, Catherine Kelly May 2022

Innovation Policy And Chronic Emergencies, Robert Burrell, Catherine Kelly

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The COVID-19 pandemic has thrust the potential role of the state as a driver of scientific innovation onto center stage. Vaccines have been developed and brought to market in a timescale that seemed almost impossible when the crisis first struck. The pivotal nature of government intervention in this crisis has added to calls from academics and policy makers to adopt a more proactive, mission-oriented approach to innovation policy to tackle other key global challenges.

This Article considers the merits of these calls and argues that an important distinction must be drawn between what this Article terms acute and chronic emergencies. …


Solving For Law Firm Inclusion: The Necessity Of Lawyer Well-Being, Katrina Lee May 2022

Solving For Law Firm Inclusion: The Necessity Of Lawyer Well-Being, Katrina Lee

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Chances are, in a room of one hundred law firm partners in the United States, at most, one Black woman would be present. Statistically, if there were a Black, Latinx, or Asian woman in that room, she would be the only one. Women of color make up only 3.79 percent of all partners, counting equity and nonequity partners. The percentage of Black women among all partners has remained solidly under one percent—0.57 percent in 2009 and 0.80 percent in 2020. And so, women of color lawyers starting at law firms inevitably enter spaces that are overwhelmingly white and male—spaces where …


Mergers, Antitrust, And The Interplay Of Entrepreneurial Activity And The Investments That Fund It, Gary Dushnitsky, D. Daniel Sokol May 2022

Mergers, Antitrust, And The Interplay Of Entrepreneurial Activity And The Investments That Fund It, Gary Dushnitsky, D. Daniel Sokol

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

This Article addresses the potentially negative implications of proposed antitrust legislation on the entrepreneurial ecosystem in general, with a particular focus on the venture capitalists (VCs) that fund it. First, it offers a review of how antitrust merger law currently works and how proposed legislative changes to antitrust may threaten the innovative Venture Capital (VC)-backed ecosystem that has made the United States the center of global innovation across many different industries. Accompanying this review are some empirical observations. Second, recognizing that the understanding of innovative entrepreneurial activity calls for a deep appreciation of those who back it, the Article also …


John Nagle's Scholarship On The Meanings Of Pollution, J. B. Ruhl, James Salzman Apr 2022

John Nagle's Scholarship On The Meanings Of Pollution, J. B. Ruhl, James Salzman

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

John Nagle was a valued friend of ours and a valued colleague. We wrote a casebook together1 and enjoyed each other’s company at environmental law workshops and conferences. He wrote on an impressively wide range of topics and was perhaps best known for his scholarship on the Endangered Species Act. In deciding how to honor his memory, we decided to highlight a long-running focus of his scholarship that is not as well known but, we believe, merits the attention and respect of scholars today and going forward. This Essay, therefore, reviews his work on pollution in all its forms.

Pollution …


The Future Of Law And Neuroscience, Owen D. Jones Mar 2022

The Future Of Law And Neuroscience, Owen D. Jones

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

I was asked to speculate about where the field of Law and Neuroscience may be ten years from now. In that spirit (and while recognizing that the future rarely complies with our predictions) I attempt here some extrapolations. I first consider potential advances in the technologies for monitoring and manipulating brain states, the techniques for analyzing brain data, and the efforts to further integrate relevant fields. I then consider potential neurolaw developments relevant to: (1) detecting things law cares about; (2) individualizing developmental states and brain states; (3) evidence-based legal reforms; (4) legal decision-making; and (5) brain-brain interfaces.


Sociotechnical Safeguards For Genomic Data Privacy, Ellen W. Clayton, Zhiyu Wan, Et Al. Mar 2022

Sociotechnical Safeguards For Genomic Data Privacy, Ellen W. Clayton, Zhiyu Wan, Et Al.

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Recent developments in a variety of sectors, including health care, research and the direct-to-consumer industry, have led to a dramatic increase in the amount of genomic data that are collected, used and shared. This state of affairs raises new and challenging concerns for personal privacy, both legally and technically. This Review appraises existing and emerging threats to genomic data privacy and discusses how well current legal frameworks and technical safeguards mitigate these concerns. It concludes with a discussion of remaining and emerging challenges and illustrates possible solutions that can balance protecting privacy and realizing the benefits that result from the …


Ai Derivatives: The Application To The Derivative Work Right To Literary And Artistic Productions Of Ai Machines, Daniel J. Gervais Feb 2022

Ai Derivatives: The Application To The Derivative Work Right To Literary And Artistic Productions Of Ai Machines, Daniel J. Gervais

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This Article predicts that there will be attempts to use courts to try to broaden the derivative work right in litigation either to prevent the use of, or claim protection for, literary and artistic productions made by Artificial Intelligence (AI) machines. This Article considers the normative valence of, and the (significant) doctrinal pitfalls associated with, such attempts. It also considers a possible legislative alternative, namely attempts to introduce a new sui generis right in AI productions. Finally, this Article explains how, whether such attempts succeed or not, the debate on rights (if any) in productions made by AI machines is …


Duty And Diversity, Chris Brummer, Leo E. Strine, Jr. Jan 2022

Duty And Diversity, Chris Brummer, Leo E. Strine, Jr.

Vanderbilt Law Review

In the wake of the brutal deaths of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, lawmakers and corporate boards from Wall Street to the West Coast have introduced a slew of reforms aimed at increasing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (“DEI”) in corporations. Yet the reforms face difficulties ranging from possible constitutional challenges to critical limitations in their scale, scope, and degree of legal obligation and practical effects.

In this Article, we provide an old answer to the new questions facing DEI policy and offer the first close examination of how corporate law duties impel and facilitate corporate attention to diversity. Specifically, we …


Unauthorized And Unwise: The Lawful Use Requirement In Trademark Law, Robert A. Mikos Jan 2022

Unauthorized And Unwise: The Lawful Use Requirement In Trademark Law, Robert A. Mikos

Vanderbilt Law Review

For decades, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) has required trademark owners to comply with sundry nontrademark laws governing the sale of their trademarked goods and services. Pursuant to this “lawful use requirement,” the Agency has refused or even cancelled registration of thousands of marks used on everything from Schedule I controlled substances to mislabeled soap. This Article subjects the Agency’s lawful use requirement to long-overdue scrutiny. It suggests that in requiring compliance with other laws for registration, the PTO has lost sight of the one statute it is supposed to administer. In the process, the Agency has …


Preliminary Damages, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein Jan 2022

Preliminary Damages, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Vanderbilt Law Review

Historically, the law helped impecunious plaintiffs overcome their inherent disadvantage in civil litigation. Unfortunately, this is no longer the case: modern law has largely abandoned the mission of assisting the least well-off. In this Essay, we propose a new remedy that can dramatically improve the fortunes of poor plaintiffs and thereby change the errant path of the law: preliminary damages. The unavailability of preliminary damages has dire implications for poor plaintiffs, especially those wronged by affluent individuals and corporations. Resource-constrained plaintiffs cannot afford prolonged litigation on account of their limited financial means. Consequently, they are forced to either forego suing …


Local Power, Alexandra B. Klass, Rebecca Wilton Jan 2022

Local Power, Alexandra B. Klass, Rebecca Wilton

Vanderbilt Law Review

This Article is about “local power.” We use that term in two distinct but complementary ways. First, local power describes the authority of local governments to enact regulatory policies in the interests of their citizens. Second, local power describes the authority of local governments to exercise proprietary control over the sources and delivery of electric power to their citizens. This dual meaning of local power is particularly important today, as an increasing number of local governments are seriously considering “municipalizing”--taking control of local electric power systems-—at the same time that, outside the electric power sector, many states are constraining local …


Using Noerr-Pennington Doctrine’S Sham Exception To Challenge Abusive Patent Tactics By Pharmaceutical Companies, Lisa Orucevic Jan 2022

Using Noerr-Pennington Doctrine’S Sham Exception To Challenge Abusive Patent Tactics By Pharmaceutical Companies, Lisa Orucevic

Vanderbilt Law Review

Outrageous drug prices have dominated news coverage of the American healthcare system for years. Yet despite widespread condemnation of skyrocketing drug prices, nothing seems to change. Pharmaceutical companies can raise drug prices with impunity because they hold patents on their drugs, which give them monopolies. These monopolies are only supposed to last twenty years, and then competing lower-cost drugs like generics can enter the market, driving down the costs of pharmaceuticals for all. But pharmaceutical companies have created “patent thickets,” dense webs of overlapping patents surrounding one drug, which have artificially extended the companies’ monopolies for years or even decades …


Dynamic Corporate Purpose: Decentralizing The Choice Over Director Orientation, Fields Pierce Jan 2022

Dynamic Corporate Purpose: Decentralizing The Choice Over Director Orientation, Fields Pierce

Vanderbilt Law Review

The debate over corporate purpose has turned into a “gordian knot” where parties with entrenched beliefs about what the corporation should or should not be within society refuse to waver. There are inherent flaws with the governance models proposed by academics, politicians, and practitioners alike, so a novel method for setting and maintaining corporate purpose is required. This Note asks why there must be a one-size-fits-all approach to purpose and proposes a solution: dynamic corporate purpose.

This Note argues that states should not mandate all corporations hold the same corporate purpose but instead should use the logic of the public …


A Deep Dive Into Private Governance Of Deep-Sea Mining, Andrew Johnson Jan 2022

A Deep Dive Into Private Governance Of Deep-Sea Mining, Andrew Johnson

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Modern, information-driven economies need rare-earth metals for everything from laptop computers to cellular phones. Society will require more of these metals for the solar panels, wind turbines, and storage batteries necessary to convert electricity systems to renewable energy. The deep sea contains large amounts of high-quality, rare-earth metals that companies and nations are increasingly interested in mining. The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is authorized under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to permit and regulate deep-sea mining of the sea floor outside of national jurisdiction (the “Area”), and the ISA is currently developing regulations to …


Technological Self-Sufficiency And The Role Of Novelty Traps, Rochelle C. Dreyfuss, Daniel Benoliel Jan 2022

Technological Self-Sufficiency And The Role Of Novelty Traps, Rochelle C. Dreyfuss, Daniel Benoliel

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

The COVID pandemic has demonstrated the tragic consequences of technological dependency. Unable to manufacture vaccines for themselves, developing countries must rely on obtaining supplies from other nations. While strong arguments have been made to waive international obligations under the TRIPS Agreement to permit these countries to freely use COVID-related patented inventions, it is not clear that this move would produce sufficient vaccines to meet global demand. Considerable scholarship has been devoted to the question of how to help these countries reach the technological frontier and become technologically independent. In this Article, we identify a novel source of their problem: a …


Gambling On The Blockchain: How The Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act Has Opened The Door For Offshore Crypto Casinos, Samuel H. Brown Vii Jan 2022

Gambling On The Blockchain: How The Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act Has Opened The Door For Offshore Crypto Casinos, Samuel H. Brown Vii

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Online cryptocurrency casinos have seen a dramatic rise in popularity over the past thirty years as the rate of ownership of cryptocurrencies has risen almost as quickly as the US monetary value of a single Bitcoin. Current US laws and regulations are outdated; the only piece of federal legislation that provides oversight in the area of virtual gambling originated in 2006, more than fifteen years before the publication of this Note. Previous scholarship suggests that a lack of federal action has resulted in a surge of criminal activity, such as money laundering and tax evasion, as well as significant missed …


Barriers To Criminal Enforcement Against Counterfeiting In China, Daniel C.K. Chow Jan 2022

Barriers To Criminal Enforcement Against Counterfeiting In China, Daniel C.K. Chow

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Multinational companies (MNCs) with valuable trademarks in China seek criminal enforcement against counterfeiting because other available avenues of relief, such as administrative and judicial remedies, have proven to be ineffective. While MNCs prefer enforcement through China’s Police, the Public Security Bureau (PSB), many MNCs are unaware of the significant hidden dangers of using the PSB.

Most MNCs will delegate enforcement of trademark rights to their Chinese subsidiaries. These subsidiaries are known to make illegal payments to the PSB that may violate the laws of the PRC as well as the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). These acts expose …


Putting Cano On Ice – A Path Forward For Border Searches Of Electronic Devices, Davis Price Shugrue Jan 2022

Putting Cano On Ice – A Path Forward For Border Searches Of Electronic Devices, Davis Price Shugrue

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Across the country, circuit courts disagree over what level of suspicion, if any, is required for border officials to search electronic devices. This leaves law enforcement agencies in the lurch because they must craft nationwide policies that cover jurisdictions with differing rules. The Supreme Court should bring this quandary to an end by holding that no reasonable suspicion or warrant is required for border searches of electronic devices. Many scholars and litigants have called for a reasonable suspicion or warrant requirement in light of Supreme Court decisions like Riley and Carpenter that recognize the privacy concerns raised by searches of …


Grey State, Blue City: Defending Local Control Against Confederate “Historical Preservation”, Sage Snider Jan 2022

Grey State, Blue City: Defending Local Control Against Confederate “Historical Preservation”, Sage Snider

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Confederate monuments have become lightning rods across the American landscape. While these ubiquitous symbols have spread Lost Cause propaganda for over one hundred years, they have also instigated unprecedented protest and violence since the 2015 Charleston massacre, 2017 Charlottesville rally, and 2020 George Floyd murder. In response, southern state legislatures have passed preemptory “statue statutes,” laws that obstruct left-leaning cities from removing Confederate monuments. This Note compares the political and legal strategies cities and citizens have used to overcome these legal barriers, both in opposition to individual monuments and statue statutes themselves. Using Tennessee’s Historical Commission waiver process as a …


The Perfect Match: Solving The Due Process Problem Of Signature Matching With Federal Agency Regulation, Rachel Blumenstein Jan 2022

The Perfect Match: Solving The Due Process Problem Of Signature Matching With Federal Agency Regulation, Rachel Blumenstein

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Local election commissions in the United States disenfranchise Americans when they erroneously reject voters’ mail-in ballots for failed signature matches. Disenfranchisement is not only problematic because it is dangerous to the health of American democracy, but also because signature matching violates the procedural due process protections voters are entitled to when they exercise their right to vote. Furthermore, the practice of signature matching is one of many ballot access restrictions that disproportionately impact minority voters under the guise of voter fraud prevention. Expanding the Election Assistance Commission’s mandate to allow it to develop more accurate methods of ballot verification can …


A Modern Reconceptualization Of Copyrights As Public Rights, Matthew L. Pangle Jan 2022

A Modern Reconceptualization Of Copyrights As Public Rights, Matthew L. Pangle

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Copyright law is at a crossroads. In the wake of Oil States Energy Servs., LLC v. Greene’s Energy Grp., LLC, the patent, copyright, and intellectual property regimes as a whole, are primed for a modern reconceptualization. At the heart of this reconceptualization is the distinction between public rights, those vindicated by public offices for the public good, and private rights, those vindicated by private citizens for their exclusive government-granted monopolies. Thanks to Oil States, patent rights now exist in two separate bundles-—a public bundle including the patent grant itself and a private bundle consisting of a patent owner’s exclusivity rights. …


Big Brother Is Scanning: The Widespread Implementation Of Alpr Technology In America’S Police Forces, Yash Dattani Jan 2022

Big Brother Is Scanning: The Widespread Implementation Of Alpr Technology In America’S Police Forces, Yash Dattani

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Automatic License Plate Readers (ALPRs) are an increasingly popular tool in police departments across the United States. At its core, ALPR technology functions in a relatively simple manner. The technology has two major components: the actual scanners, which record license plates, and the databases which collect, compile, and analyze this information for officers to access at the click of a button. Although this technology first came to the United States in 1998 as a form of rudimentary border security, its purpose and capabilities have rapidly grown. Now, in 2022, ALPR has evolved into a frighteningly powerful piece of technology, potentially …


Basketball On Strike: The All-Stars Of The Fight For Racial Equality, Sherif Robert Hesni Jr. Jan 2022

Basketball On Strike: The All-Stars Of The Fight For Racial Equality, Sherif Robert Hesni Jr.

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

National Basketball Association players have a long history of fighting against racial injustice. In August 2020, players participated in the most attention-grabbing endeavor to date: a league-wide strike against racial discrimination in the United States. Refusing to play games entails financial risk for players because of a no-strike clause in the collective bargaining agreement between the National Basketball Players Association and National Basketball Association team governors. Team governors can fine, bench, or fire players for refusing to play. However, it may be infeasible to discipline players for attempting to fight for racial equality—-players are extremely important to the well-being of …


The Path To Employee Status For College Athletes Post-Alston, Tyler J. Murry Jan 2022

The Path To Employee Status For College Athletes Post-Alston, Tyler J. Murry

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

College athletics are in a state of flux following the Supreme Court’s decision in NCAA v. Alston. While student athletes can now earn money from their name image and likeness (NIL) through endorsement deals, the NCAA and its member schools can still exploit college athletes to earn billions of dollars. To remedy this injustice, courts should classify student athletes as employees under the Federal Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to compensate these students for their work. Whether student athletes should be eligible for minimum wage and employment benefits has been a hot-button topic in the legal community for many years. Fortunately, …


Sequencing In Damages, Edward K. Cheng, Ehud Guttel, Yuval Procaccia Jan 2022

Sequencing In Damages, Edward K. Cheng, Ehud Guttel, Yuval Procaccia

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Tort law contains multiple doctrines governing the assignment of liability and the calculation of damages. But in what sequence should courts apply these doctrines? Does it matter, for example, whether a court applies comparative fault before or after mitigation of damages? The answer, rather surprisingly, is that sequencing does matter, and it can substantially affect the compensation that a tort victim ultimately receives. Yet the existing case law on sequencing is ad hoc, inconsistent, and undertheorized, and the issue has been entirely overlooked by the academic literature. In this Article, we introduce and examine the question of sequencing. We offer …


The Reckoning: The Return Of Genomic Results To 1444 Participants Across The Emerge3 Network, Ellen W. Clayton, Kathleen A. Leppig, Et Al. Jan 2022

The Reckoning: The Return Of Genomic Results To 1444 Participants Across The Emerge3 Network, Ellen W. Clayton, Kathleen A. Leppig, Et Al.

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The goal of Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Phase III Network was to return actionable sequence variants to 25,084 consenting participants from 10 different health care institutions across the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate system-based issues relating to the return of results (RoR) disclosure process for clinical grade research genomic tests to eMERGE3 participants.