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University of Michigan Law School

1982

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Articles 1 - 30 of 185

Full-Text Articles in Law

Judicial Responses To The Eeoc's Failure To Attempt Conciliation, Michigan Law Review Dec 1982

Judicial Responses To The Eeoc's Failure To Attempt Conciliation, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note suggests that a court faced with inadequate conciliation efforts by the EEOC should dismiss the action without prejudice. Part I argues that dismissal better serves the remedial purpose of the statute than summary judgment. Part II then demonstrates that dismissal satisfies the policy concerns of courts that dispose of inadequately conciliated suits. Although dismissal may not promote judicial efficiency as well as summary judgment, courts and the Commission can handle the dismissal to minimize duplication. Part III advances dismissal for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted as the appropriate procedural vehicle for disposing ...


Statutes Of Limitations And Opting Out Of Class Actions, Michigan Law Review Dec 1982

Statutes Of Limitations And Opting Out Of Class Actions, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that one who opts out of a class action should not benefit from tolling for the time during which the individual was a class member. Part I develops an analytical framework, grounded in the underlying policies of statutes of limitations and applied in recent Supreme Court decisions, for resolving tolling questions. This Part concludes that a plaintiff must show that tolling will not conflict with the policy purposes animating statutes of limitations, as well as a policy reason that favors tolling. Part II applies the first of these parameters to the opt-out situation, and concludes that tolling ...


Implementing The Tokyo Round: Legal Aspects Of Changing International Economic Rules, John H. Jackson, Jean-Victor Louis, Mitsuo Matsushita Dec 1982

Implementing The Tokyo Round: Legal Aspects Of Changing International Economic Rules, John H. Jackson, Jean-Victor Louis, Mitsuo Matsushita

Michigan Law Review

International economic and political interdependence has increased dramatically since the close of World War II. We now watch foreign wars on our living room television sets, move billions of dollars worth of funds across national borders daily, and feel the effects of political violence in the Mideast throughout our domestic farmlands. A corollary to economic and political interdependence, however, is the less visible but equally pervasive problem of legal interdependence. Any attempt, in the contemporary world, to create new international rules or institutions necessarily depends on the national legal and constitutional systems of a number of countries. This Article analyzes ...


Vol. 31, No. 9, November 24, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1982

Vol. 31, No. 9, November 24, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Stan White: Advocate on the Line •The Final(s) Solution •Twelve Students Bumped From Clinic Program •SFF: Pledging the Public Interest •Regents 'Distinguish' Sax •Clinic Survives Misconduct Investigation •Notices •The "Review'' Needs a Review •MSA- Ask Not What You... •Trying to Keep Our Lines Straight •Legalese: A Question of Juris-Diction? •The Multi-(Altered) State 'Bar' Review •Boston's No Tea Party •Law in the Raw


Vol. 31, No. 8, November 10, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1982

Vol. 31, No. 8, November 10, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•'Unfortunately, We Are Unable to…' •Sandalow: U Should Stay Out of Politics •Vandals Rip Gay Notices •'Maybe I just wore the wrong tie' •Notices •We've Got Jobs •Monroe Meters Work Overtime •Socratizing Quality Teaching •Israeli 'Invasion' Was Justified •Costello: Clever Romantic's Bedroom Antics •Students Hold Key to Law Fund Future •Senate Recognizes JLSU •It Could Happen To You •Law in the Raw


The Taming Of A Duty--The Tort Liability Of Landlords, Olin L. Browder Nov 1982

The Taming Of A Duty--The Tort Liability Of Landlords, Olin L. Browder

Michigan Law Review

For one inclined to reform the first-year curriculum in law schools the most simple and comprehensive solution is to expand the treatment of the law on landlord and tenant, and only then break up into the traditional basic subjects to deal with matters not previously covered. Thereby one could embrace all the traditional first-year subjects except Criminal Law, and a good deal more as well.

The other side of this conceit is that one who approaches the modem law of landlord and tenant from traditional property perspectives encounters particular problems that arise from the margins, or along the frontal thrust ...


State Income Taxation Of Multijurisdictional Corporations, Part Ii: Reflections On Asarco And Woolworth, Walter Hellerstein Nov 1982

State Income Taxation Of Multijurisdictional Corporations, Part Ii: Reflections On Asarco And Woolworth, Walter Hellerstein

Michigan Law Review

The first part of this Article, State Income Taxation of Multijurisdictional Corporations: Reflections on Mobil, Exxon, and H.R. 5076, did not contemplate a sequel. The Supreme Court's decisions last term in two state corporate income tax cases, however, created an irresistible opportunity to write one. The Court's opinions in ASARCO and Woolworth picked up where its opinions in Mobil and Exxon left off. Yet the direction taken by these more recent decisions veers sharply from the course ostensibly set by their predecessors. This Article will consider the Court's latest pronouncements in this area in a continuing ...


Prosecutorial Vindictiveness In The Criminal Appellate Process: Due Process Protection After United States V. Goodwin, Michigan Law Review Nov 1982

Prosecutorial Vindictiveness In The Criminal Appellate Process: Due Process Protection After United States V. Goodwin, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note reformulates the doctrine of prosecutorial vindictiveness in light of the distinction drawn in Goodwin between pretrial and posttrial charging decisions. Part I recounts the development of the vindictiveness concept, and argues that in extending the doctrine beyond the factual settings which moved the Supreme Court to fashion its original prophylactic rule, the circuit courts have seriously eroded an essential due process safeguard. Part II critically examines the distinction between pretrial and posttrial charging decisions relied upon in Goodwin. Developing the logical corollary of the Goodwin holding, this Part argues that just as the pretrial situation does not warrant ...


Prosecutorial Peremptory Challenge Practices In Capital Cases: An Empirical Study And A Constitutional Analysis, Bruce J. Winick Nov 1982

Prosecutorial Peremptory Challenge Practices In Capital Cases: An Empirical Study And A Constitutional Analysis, Bruce J. Winick

Michigan Law Review

As presently construed, the Constitution does not prohibit the death penalty. The states and the federal government may punish the commission of certain crimes with death, so long as the extreme penalty is not imposed on a mandatory basis and so long as the procedures used in imposing a death sentence meet constitutional scrutiny.

A demonstration that the prosecutor used the peremptory challenge in the manner described in a single case probably would be insufficient to support a constitutional challenge in the federal courts and in the vast majority of state courts. In these courts a prosecutor's use of ...


Eis Supplements For Improperly Completed Projects: A Logical Extension Of Judicial Review Under Nepa, Michigan Law Review Nov 1982

Eis Supplements For Improperly Completed Projects: A Logical Extension Of Judicial Review Under Nepa, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that the private cause of action under NEPA retains its utility despite the completion of the project sued upon. Part I describes the procedural implementation of the policy concerns underlying NEPA through the EIS process for proposed actions, and the EIS supplementation process for project changes made after the original EIS has been prepared. Part II examines current law applicable to projects completed in violation of NEPA and concludes that the denial of post-completion relief conflicts with the underlying goals of NEPA. Part III analyzes extension of relief to completed projects, and proposes court-ordered EIS supplementation for ...


Deducting The Cost Of Smoking Cessation Programs Under Internal Revenue Code Section 213, Michigan Law Review Nov 1982

Deducting The Cost Of Smoking Cessation Programs Under Internal Revenue Code Section 213, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that enrollment fees for a smoking cessation program should be classified as deductible medical expenses. Part I defends this conclusion without questioning the accepted interpretation of section 213(e). Recent medical evidence indicates that the nicotine addiction that cessation program patients seek to break is itself a disease. And even prior to the onset of more serious health consequences, sustained cigarette smoking significantly impairs the functioning of the lungs and heart. Under this analysis, enrollment fees should be deductible as expenses for the treatment of an existing disease or defect, and as "amounts paid . . . for the purpose ...


Vol. 31, No. 7, October 27, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1982

Vol. 31, No. 7, October 27, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Senate to Test Open Meeting Interest •Women's Rights Chart a Broken Course •Who, Us? •Petition Ignores Free Choice •Freeze Dialogue Is Needed •A Call For Quality Teaching •Stillborn Students, Prenatal Professionals •LSSS Endorses Gay Rights Petition •Notices •Law in the Raw


Vol. 31, No. 6, October 20, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1982

Vol. 31, No. 6, October 20, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Positively Not Wall Street •WLSA Display to Outline Rape Problem •Public Interest Job Discussion •FLP Fundraiser to Aid Battered Women •Notices •The Legal Lemmings March •Scrimp Cocktail •High Schoolish, Fer Sure •Library Malcontents •Prison Repression: a call to action •Reader Rejects Loots' 'Left Wing Mythology' •Springsteen: Lonely Man of Faith •A Heavenly Idea for Resolving Disputes •Law in the Raw


Vol. 31, No. 5, October 13, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1982

Vol. 31, No. 5, October 13, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Does Grinding it Out Make the Grade(s)? •Senators Lash Out at 'Flunking' Proposal •'Just Call me Professor' •Fleming: Return of the Native •Candidates Collide on Human Services •Notices •'D' isn't Dumb •Reading Room Refugee Speaks •Stella Prints: Modern Art Retrospective •Allies Save Diva in French Thriller •Getty: The One That Got Away •Law in the Raw


Vol. 31, No. 4, October 6, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1982

Vol. 31, No. 4, October 6, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•U.S. Army Takes Aim at Law Schools •Large New York Firms May Halt Salary Spiral •Open Meetings: Senators Air Views •Pierson Missed the Point •Army Gets Ugly •A New Gargoyle Hits Town •BLSA Plea: Free Tchula Seven! •Election •Only 68 Study Days Until Finals •Law in the Raw


The Constitutionality Of The Special Prosecutor Law, Donald J. Simon Oct 1982

The Constitutionality Of The Special Prosecutor Law, Donald J. Simon

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores the constitutional questions posed by the special prosecutor law and concludes that the law is constitutional. Part I examines the political setting that gave rise to the special prosecutor provisions and discusses the intent of the drafters. Part II explains the precise manner in which the provisions operate and surveys the recent experience under the law. Finally, part III evaluates the constitutional objections raised by critics of the legislation.


Constitutional Constraints On The Admissibility Of Grand Jury Testimony: The Unavailable Witness, Confrontation, And Due Process, Barbara L. Strack Oct 1982

Constitutional Constraints On The Admissibility Of Grand Jury Testimony: The Unavailable Witness, Confrontation, And Due Process, Barbara L. Strack

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Defendants, however, have raised serious constitutional objections to the introduction of grand jury testimony when the witness is unavailable to testify at trial. These claims have focused on the confrontation clause of the sixth amendment and the due process clauses of the fifth and fourteenth amendments. Defendants have contended that the introduction of testimony from a grand jury proceeding which cannot be subjected to cross-examination fatally compromises the defendant's right to a fair trial. Lower courts are split over admitting grand jury testimony in these circumstances, and the Supreme Court has yet to rule on the issue. As a ...


Affirmative Duty And Constitutional Tort, Michael Wells, Thomas A. Eaton Oct 1982

Affirmative Duty And Constitutional Tort, Michael Wells, Thomas A. Eaton

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues that the Bowers principle is wrong. It examines the issues of doctrine and policy that bear on the affirmative duty question in constitutional tort and contends that affirmative duties may be imposed even though constitutional rights are generally negative in character, as a matter of federal constitutional common law. It ·develops a foundation in doctrine and policy, so far lacking in the opinions, to support these duties and to place proper limits upon them.

Part I identifies issues of tort policy that arise in affirmative duty cases, while Part II addresses the distinctive problems that come up ...


Evaluating Michigan's Guilty But Mentally Ill Verdict: An Empirical Study, Gare A. Smith, James A. Hall Oct 1982

Evaluating Michigan's Guilty But Mentally Ill Verdict: An Empirical Study, Gare A. Smith, James A. Hall

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Because Michigan's GBMI statute has been in effect for several years, enough data exists to assess the statute's use and practical effect. The purpose of this Project is to evaluate the statute and thus provide guidance for those legislatures considering similar proposals. This Project concludes that the new verdict has completely failed in its intended purpose. Part I describes the statute's history, legislative purpose, and procedural mechanics. Part II analyzes the displacing effect of the GBMI verdict on other verdicts, and sets forth empirical data on the disparate characteristics of defendants who raise the insanity defense and ...


Alternative Mortgage Instruments: Authorizing And Implementing Price Level Adjusted Mortgages, Joel J. Goldberg Oct 1982

Alternative Mortgage Instruments: Authorizing And Implementing Price Level Adjusted Mortgages, Joel J. Goldberg

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Of the institutions authorized to make mortgage funds available, only federally-chartered and a small minority of state-chartered savings and loan associations are presently authorized to make PLAM loans. This is due, in part, to a variety of legal and underwriting problems that may outweigh the theoretical advantages of PLAM financing. This Note evaluates these legal and underwriting problems and proposes legal measures to accommodate PLAM financing. Part I discusses the development and advantages of the PLAM. Part II analyzes the legal and practical underwriting objections to PLAM financing, including interest regulations, tax ramifications, and commercial desirability. Part II also suggests ...


A Proposed Analysis For Gender-Based Practices And State Public Accommodations Laws, Alan J. Hoff Oct 1982

A Proposed Analysis For Gender-Based Practices And State Public Accommodations Laws, Alan J. Hoff

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that the proper test of gender-preferential practices in public accommodations proceeds from the principle of "equal treatment:'' separate standards are tolerable only where reasonable and applied evenhandedly. Part I sets out a typical public accommodations statute and criticizes the principle tests used to evaluate this type of legislation. Part II applies traditional methods of statutory construction which trigger an equal treatment analysis. Extrapolating from this analysis, Part III advocates a two-part test for examining gender-based practices in public accommodations.


Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen Oct 1982

Commercial Treaties And Foreign Companies: The Mutually Reinforcing Principles Of Remedial Antitrust And National Treatment, Alan Van Kampen

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that greater appreciation for the nature and importance of national treatment obligations will compel tribunals fashioning antitrust relief to provide more suitably for foreign firms, and thus avoid straining international trade relations. Moreover, because antitrust relief and national treatment objectives are mutually reinforcing, greater recognition of national treatment requirements should improve remedial orders from the standpoint of antitrust economics. Meeting national treatment requirements should place little added burden on the antitrust tribunal; it must merely extend impartial economic analysis to all market suppliers, not just domestic firms.

This Note explores methods to ensure that antitrust relief orders ...


Vol. 31, No. 3, September 29, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 1982

Vol. 31, No. 3, September 29, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Losing Faith in the Legal System •Students Slumping? •Reviewing the Review •A Cure for Whatever 'Ales' Us •Notices •Senate to Act on Faculty Meeting Policy? •Stacking Up the Scholarly Staffers •The Duke Would Be Disappointed •Ballots Can't Stop Bombs •Don't Blame Us •Battling the Corporate Bias •The Latter, Beautiful, Stages of Insanity •Greco in Toledo, Oh. •NFL: Strike One Called •Dealing With the Real Issues •Dear Professor: My Goldfish Died... •Law in the Raw


Vol. 31, No. 2, September 22, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 1982

Vol. 31, No. 2, September 22, 1982, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•The 'Aristocracy' of '85 •Coalition Lacking Commitment? •Yolanda •How the 1982-83 LSSS Budget Was Sliced •Notices •A Rookie for the People •How About An Honest Interview? •Room 200: Interviewing to Suit Ourselves •New Student Coalition Urges Support •Matzos Just Like Mom's •The Right Stuff in Room 200 •Law in the Raw


Interview Notes Of Government Agents Under The Jencks Act, Michigan Law Review Aug 1982

Interview Notes Of Government Agents Under The Jencks Act, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Most courts that have considered the issue have concluded that the Jencks Act does not require the government to retain and produce rough interview notes. This Note examines the language and purpose of the Act to determine whether interview notes should be considered Jencks Act statements. Part I examines the policy underlying the Jencks Act and argues that the majority position sanctioning pre-trial destruction of interview notes conflicts with these statutory purposes. Part II discusses the statutory language and argues that the status of the witness as a government agent or a private individual determines the applicable section of the ...


Tax Treatment Of Previously Expensed Assets In Corporate Liquidations, Michigan Law Review Aug 1982

Tax Treatment Of Previously Expensed Assets In Corporate Liquidations, Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that although the Tennessee-Carolina majority adopts overbroad language and ignores established tax principles, a more careful refinement of its theory will yield the same proper result, without, in most situations, departing from accepted principles. The proper inquiry must focus first on whether the corporation has received any benefit, and then on whether that gain should be exempted by the nonrecognition provisions of section 336, or on any other basis. Part I of this Note examines these questions from a theoretical perspective, and concludes that expensed assets remaining at the time of liquidation give rise to corporate income ...


Mobility Factors In Antitrust Cases: Assessing Market Power In Light Of Conditions Affecting Entry And Fringe Expansion, William H. Wentz Aug 1982

Mobility Factors In Antitrust Cases: Assessing Market Power In Light Of Conditions Affecting Entry And Fringe Expansion, William H. Wentz

Michigan Law Review

To assist courts and litigants in developing and utilizing information on mobility factors in a meaningful manner, I have attempted in this Article to outline a basic approach for analyzing the competitive and efficiency significance of mobility factors in a litigative context. In Part I, I lay the necessary foundation: discussing the importance of mobility factors in accepted economic theory, explaining the sources of the current confusion and controversy about "entry barriers" and deriving from the debate areas of fundamental agreement among economists. Building on this common ground, I develop in Part II a basic approach to consideration of mobility ...


Federal Agency Access To Grand Jury Transcripts Under Rule 6 (E), Michigan Law Review Aug 1982

Federal Agency Access To Grand Jury Transcripts Under Rule 6 (E), Michigan Law Review

Michigan Law Review

Part I examines the courts' current certainty-based perspective, and rejects this approach because it sacrifices important interests in civil law enforcement and judicial consistency for speculative and coincidental reductions in grand jury abuse. Part II defends the proposed standard by arguing that it comports with the language and intent of the rule while more effectively advancing the policy interests in civil law enforcement and grand jury secrecy.


The Coming Curtailment Of Compulsory Child Support, David L. Chambers Aug 1982

The Coming Curtailment Of Compulsory Child Support, David L. Chambers

Articles

Absent parents ought to contribute to the support of their minor children and states can appropriately invoke the force of law to compel them to do so. Stated so generally, even absent parents behind in their payments would probably agree. Since so many others agree as well, and since the numbers of single-parent children have mushroomed, systems of governmentally compelled support in this country have grown enormously. By the early part of the next century, if current laws remain in force and current population trends continue, most of America's children on any given day will be entitled to support ...


The Sentencing Of White-Collar Criminals In Federal Courts: A Socio-Legal Exploration Of Disparity, Ilene H. Nagel, John L. Hagan Jun 1982

The Sentencing Of White-Collar Criminals In Federal Courts: A Socio-Legal Exploration Of Disparity, Ilene H. Nagel, John L. Hagan

Michigan Law Review

This Article addresses that question by examining judicial sentencing philosophy as applied to white-collar criminality and reporting data that illuminate the operation of that philosophy. Part I of the Article argues that the traditional purposes and limits of criminal sentencing may plausibly justify either disparate or comparable sentences in cases of white-collar and common criminality. Part II describes the obstacles to an accurate empirical inquiry into how judges resolve these uncertainties in the theory of punishment. Part III presents a study designed to overcome as many of these obstacles as possible. What is most dramatic is that the resulting data ...