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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tax Attorneys As Defenders Of Taxpayer Rights, Michelle Lyon Drumbl Oct 2019

Tax Attorneys As Defenders Of Taxpayer Rights, Michelle Lyon Drumbl

Faculty Scholarship

What is the modern role of a tax practitioner, in particular a tax attorney, in the United States? In an era in which the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is underfunded, understaffed, and struggles to address its mission, tax attorneys play an important role as advocates for taxpayer rights.

Tax attorneys act as advocates who represent ordinary individual taxpayers in controversies with the IRS. These controversies include post-filing disputes, such as audits, as well as issues arising with the collection of assessed taxes. Many of these cases are resolved at the administrative level; those that cannot be resolved are litigated, most ...


Federal Regulation Of Nonprofit Board Independence: Focus On Independent Stakeholders As A "Middle Way", Benjamin Moses Leff Sep 2019

Federal Regulation Of Nonprofit Board Independence: Focus On Independent Stakeholders As A "Middle Way", Benjamin Moses Leff

Benjamin Leff

No abstract provided.


Summaries Of The 7th Annual Irs Sjsu Small Business Tax Institute, Chen Chen, Liwei Bi, Surbhi Doshi Aug 2019

Summaries Of The 7th Annual Irs Sjsu Small Business Tax Institute, Chen Chen, Liwei Bi, Surbhi Doshi

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


H.R. 285 (116th Congress) - The Mortgage Debt Tax Forgiveness Act Of 2018, Inna Ostrovsky, Joanna Levasseur Aug 2019

H.R. 285 (116th Congress) - The Mortgage Debt Tax Forgiveness Act Of 2018, Inna Ostrovsky, Joanna Levasseur

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.) Aug 2019

Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.)

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Section 1400z-2 - Special Rules For Capital Gains Invested Opportunity Zones, Inna Ostrovsky Aug 2019

Section 1400z-2 - Special Rules For Capital Gains Invested Opportunity Zones, Inna Ostrovsky

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Contemporary Tax Journal’S Interview With Ms. Claudia Hill, Surbhi Doshi Aug 2019

The Contemporary Tax Journal’S Interview With Ms. Claudia Hill, Surbhi Doshi

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Fun Tax Facts, Rachana Khandelwal Aug 2019

Fun Tax Facts, Rachana Khandelwal

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Roger Cpa Review Questions, Roger Philipp Cpa, Cgma Aug 2019

Roger Cpa Review Questions, Roger Philipp Cpa, Cgma

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


First-Time Homebuyer Credit Act Of 2018 S.3364 (115th Congress), Langzun Li Aug 2019

First-Time Homebuyer Credit Act Of 2018 S.3364 (115th Congress), Langzun Li

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


A Better Hope For Campaign Finance Reform, Edward J. Mccaffery Aug 2019

A Better Hope For Campaign Finance Reform, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

There is too much money in American politics, and too much of it comes from too few citizens. Mega-donors like Sheldon Adelson or Tom Steyer make $100 million political expenditures every election cycle. Attempts to limit such large political contributions have failed at every level: judicially, legislatively, and administratively. Much of the academic literature has joined the real world’s sense of despair. This Article takes a new tack. By changing our tax system from an income to a consistent progressive spending tax, the true cost of political expenditures by mega-donors could increase tenfold. By using a strategy of taxing ...


Summaries From The 34th Annual High Tech Tax Institute, Amy Yue Cpa, Langzun Li, Rachana Khandelwal, Nam Nguyen Aug 2019

Summaries From The 34th Annual High Tech Tax Institute, Amy Yue Cpa, Langzun Li, Rachana Khandelwal, Nam Nguyen

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 8, No. 2 – Summer 2019 Aug 2019

The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 8, No. 2 – Summer 2019

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


A Typology Of Place-Based Investment Tax Incentives, Michelle D. Layser Jul 2019

A Typology Of Place-Based Investment Tax Incentives, Michelle D. Layser

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Article makes several contributions to tax, poverty, and empirical legal literature. First, it defines the category of place-based investment tax incentives and identifies key elements of variation across the category. Despite their prevalence at all levels of government, place-based investment tax incentives remain undertheorized and largely undefined in the literature. The typology presented here reflects an analysis of three federal tax incentives (the New Markets Tax Credit, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, and the new Opportunity Zones law) and a detailed survey of tax incentives included in state enterprise zone laws. By defining this category of tax laws and ...


Converging Welfare States: Symposium Keynote, Susannah Camic Tahk Jul 2019

Converging Welfare States: Symposium Keynote, Susannah Camic Tahk

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Susannah Camic Tahk, Associate Dean for Research and Faculty Development and Associate Professor of Law at the University of Wisconsin Law School, speaks to the Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice 2018 symposium, Always with Us? Poverty, Taxes, and Social Policy. She addresses the following questions: To what extent do the particular advantages of the tax antipoverty programs persist as the tax antipoverty programs take center stage? Can tax programs, once distinguished from their direct-spending counterparts on the grounds of relative popularity and legal and administrative ease of access maintain those hallmarks as the tax-based welfare state grows in ...


Foreword, Michelle Lyon Drumbl Jul 2019

Foreword, Michelle Lyon Drumbl

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Michelle L. Drumbl, Clinical Professor of Law and Director of the Tax Clinic at W&L Law, introduces this issue of the Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice, which includes material presented at and inspired by the Journal's 2018 symposium, Always with Us? Poverty, Taxes, and Social Policy.


Interest-Free Loans And Dickman V. Commissioner: A Letter To The Supreme Court, Louis A. Del Cotto, Kenneth F. Joyce Jul 2019

Interest-Free Loans And Dickman V. Commissioner: A Letter To The Supreme Court, Louis A. Del Cotto, Kenneth F. Joyce

Kenneth F. Joyce

No abstract provided.


Overruling Mcculloch?, Mark A. Graber Jul 2019

Overruling Mcculloch?, Mark A. Graber

Arkansas Law Review

Daniel Webster warned Whig associates in 1841 that the Supreme Court would likely declare unconstitutional the national bank bill that Henry Clay was pushing through the Congress. This claim was probably based on inside information. Webster was a close association of Justice Joseph Story. The justices at this time frequently leaked word to their political allies of judicial sentiments on the issues of the day. Even if Webster lacked first-hand knowledge of how the Taney Court would probably rule in a case raising the constitutionality of the national bank, the personnel on that tribunal provided strong grounds for Whig pessimism ...


M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck Jul 2019

M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck

Arkansas Law Review

M’Culloch v. Maryland is rightly regarded as a landmark opinion, one that affirmed the ability of Congress to exercise implied powers, articulated a rule of deference to Congressional judgments about whether given legislative actions were in fact “necessary,” and limited the ability of the states to impair or restrict the operations of the federal government. Most scholarly discussions of the case and its legacy emphasize these aspects of the decision. Less common are attempts to place M’Culloch within the ebb and flow of the Marshall Court and the political and social realities of the time. So, for example ...


Dear I.R.S., It Is Time To Enforce The Campaigning Prohibition. Even Against Churches, Samuel Brunson Jun 2019

Dear I.R.S., It Is Time To Enforce The Campaigning Prohibition. Even Against Churches, Samuel Brunson

Samuel D. Brunson

In 1954, Congress prohibited tax-exempt public charities, including churches, from endorsing or opposing candidates for office. To the extent a tax-exempt public charity violated this prohibition, it would no longer qualify as tax-exempt, and the IRS was to revoke its exemption.

While simple in theory, in practice, the IRS rarely penalizes churches that violate the campaigning prohibition and virtually never revokes a church's tax exemption. And, because no taxpayer has standing to challenge the IRS's inaction, the IRS has no external imperative to revoke the exemptions of churches that do campaign on behalf of or against candidates for ...


Taxing Utopia, Samuel Brunson Jun 2019

Taxing Utopia, Samuel Brunson

Samuel D. Brunson

Nineteenth-century American religious movements challenged many aspects of American society. Although their challenges to mainstream America's vision of sex and marriage remain the best-known aspects of many of these groups, their challenges to traditional American economics are just as important. Eschewing individual ownership of property, many of these new Christian movements followed the New Testament model of a body of believers that held all property in common.

In the early twentieth century, these religious communal groups had to contend with something new: an income tax. Communalism did not fit into the individualistic economic system envisioned b-y the drafters of ...


Lands Of Opportunity: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness And Impact Of Opportunity Zones In The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act Of 2017, Joseph Bennett Jun 2019

Lands Of Opportunity: An Analysis Of The Effectiveness And Impact Of Opportunity Zones In The Tax Cuts And Jobs Act Of 2017, Joseph Bennett

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


After Paying Ultra-High Net Worth Wealth Taxes, How Much Would Billionaires Have Left To Live On?, Michael Simkovic May 2019

After Paying Ultra-High Net Worth Wealth Taxes, How Much Would Billionaires Have Left To Live On?, Michael Simkovic

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Part I: Billionaire Taxes, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3326615.

Part II: Taxes Spending and Innovation, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3335386.

How much can a passive investor with a high-risk tolerance earn on his or her capital?

If history since the end of World War 2 is any guide, between 11 and 14 percent per year before taxes and inflation. After inflation, this comes to around 7 to 10 percent. With good tax planning, the rate of return net of income taxes, inflation, and fees could average around 6.5 to 9.5 percent per year.

A family with $100,000 ...


Taxes, Spending, And Innovation, Michael Simkovic May 2019

Taxes, Spending, And Innovation, Michael Simkovic

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Part I: Billionaire Taxes, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3326615.

Part III: After Paying Ultra-High Net Worth Wealth Taxes, How Much Would Billionaires Have Left to Live on?, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3340925.

Key Takeaways:

- Innovation is the product of teamwork.

- Engineers and scientists play a critical role.

- Scientific research is insufficiently rewarded financially.

- Taxes can boost innovation by funding human capital investment and basic research.

- The amount of investment is important – who owns financial assets is not.

In formulating taxation and public investment policies, we should carefully consider data and the peer reviewed literature. Claims that we can drive more ...


Free Money, But Not Tax-Free: A Proposal For The Tax Treatment Of Cryptocurrency Hard Forks, Danhui Xu May 2019

Free Money, But Not Tax-Free: A Proposal For The Tax Treatment Of Cryptocurrency Hard Forks, Danhui Xu

Fordham Law Review

Cryptocurrency has attracted extraordinary attention as one of the greatest financial innovations in recent years. Equally noticeable are the increasingly frequent cryptocurrency events, such as hard forks. Put simply, a cryptocurrency hard fork happens when a single cryptocurrency splits in two, which results in original coin owners receiving free forked coins. Such hard forks have resulted in billions of dollars distributed to U.S. taxpayers. Despite ongoing regulatory efforts, to date, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has yet to take a clear position on the tax treatment of cryptocurrency hard forks. The lack of useful guidance when filing tax returns ...


United States Policy And The Taxation Of International Intangible Income, Stanley I. Langbein Apr 2019

United States Policy And The Taxation Of International Intangible Income, Stanley I. Langbein

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Taxing The Robots, Orly Mazur Apr 2019

Taxing The Robots, Orly Mazur

Pepperdine Law Review

Robots and other artificial intelligence-based technologies are increasingly outperforming humans in jobs previously thought safe from automation. This has led to growing concerns about the future of jobs, wages, economic equality, and government revenues. To address these issues, there have been multiple calls around the world to tax the robots. Although the concerns that have led to the recent robot tax proposals may be valid, this Article cautions against the use of a robot tax. It argues that a tax that singles out robots is the wrong tool to address these critical issues and warns of the unintended consequences of ...


Bearing Hospital Tax Breaks: How Non-Profits Benefit From Your Surprise Medical Bills, Taylor N. Armstrong Apr 2019

Bearing Hospital Tax Breaks: How Non-Profits Benefit From Your Surprise Medical Bills, Taylor N. Armstrong

Georgia State University Law Review

This Note addresses the growing issue of surprise medical bills and how the United States Tax Code can be used to prevent many patients from receiving these bills. Part I provides a background on surprise billing and market factors that have led to an increase in the bills as well as current legislative solutions to the problem. Part II analyzes the role that hospitals play in the insurance market, the current standards for nonprofit hospitals to receive tax exemption under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) § 501, and how these legal standards fall short of accomplishing the goals of the tax exemption ...


The Tcja And The Questionable Incentive To Incorporate, Part 2, Michael S. Knoll Mar 2019

The Tcja And The Questionable Incentive To Incorporate, Part 2, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) has put the question should a business be organized as a passthrough entity or as a corporation at center stage. The TCJA eliminated much of the tax disadvantage from using the corporate form, but did Congress go so far that it advantaged corporations relative to pass-through entities? Some prominent commentators say yes. They argue that the federal income tax now encourages individual owners of pass-through businesses to restructure their business as subchapter C corporations, and they predict that the TCJA will lead to a cascade of incorporations. The principal driver of the shift ...


Cooper V. Commissioner: Give The Inventor A (Learned) Hand, Rebecca R. Dulik Mar 2019

Cooper V. Commissioner: Give The Inventor A (Learned) Hand, Rebecca R. Dulik

Maine Law Review

Among the Internal Revenue Code’s many rules are some taxpayer-friendly provisions that grant tax benefits. Section 1235 is one such provision, providing to an inventor preferential tax treatment for income from the sale or exchange of a patent. In Cooper v. Commissioner, although the taxpayer inventor satisfied § 1235’s requirements, the Ninth Circuit affirmed the Tax Court’s decision to deny the taxpayer § 1235’s benefits. This Note compares Cooper to other § 1235 cases and argues that Cooper was decided wrongly because of the application of the substance over form doctrine. The substance over form doctrine is overapplied in ...