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Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual property

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Full-Text Articles in Law

United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller Feb 2021

United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller

Catholic University Law Review

Intellectual property law in the United States, though shaped by key statutes, has long been a common-law field to a great degree. Many decades of decisional law flesh out the meaning of broad-textured, sparely worded statutes. Given the key roles of patent law and copyright law, both federal, the Supreme Court of the United States is i.p. law’s leading apex court. What are the major topical currents in the Supreme Court’s i.p. cases, both now and over the course of the Court’s work? This study uses network-analysis tools to measure and map the entirety of ...


The Extent Of Application Of The General Rules For The Protection Of Intellectual Works Stored Through Cloud Computing: A Study In Uae Legislation, Alaa Khasawneh Jan 2021

The Extent Of Application Of The General Rules For The Protection Of Intellectual Works Stored Through Cloud Computing: A Study In Uae Legislation, Alaa Khasawneh

Journal Sharia and Law

This research focuses on the most important legal problems raised by cloud computing services and its applications, especially the protection of content stored through these applications. Some legislations have organized these risks with special laws relating to personal data. The study concluded that the Emirati legislator should trait the legal aspects of cloud computing and create its own legal framework.

Keywords: Cloud computing, intellectual property, terms of service.


Evidence-Based Patent Damages, Taorui Guan Jan 2021

Evidence-Based Patent Damages, Taorui Guan

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Mark Of The Devil: The University As Brand Bully, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins Jan 2021

Mark Of The Devil: The University As Brand Bully, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, universities have been accused in news stories of becoming “trademark bullies,” entities that use their trademarks to harass and intimidate beyond what the law can reasonably be interpreted to allow. Universities have also intensified efforts to gain expansive new marks. The Ohio State University’s attempt to trademark the word “the” is probably the most notorious. There has also been criticism of universities’ attempts to use their trademarks to police clearly legal speech about their activities. But beyond provocative anecdotes, how can one assess whether a particular university is truly bullying, since there are entirely legitimate reasons ...


Payin’ The Price To Grab A Slice…Of Music! A Guide To Music Licensing For Businesses, Nila Jackson Jan 2021

Payin’ The Price To Grab A Slice…Of Music! A Guide To Music Licensing For Businesses, Nila Jackson

Cybaris®

This paper provides information that may be useful to people seeking to acquire music licenses for their places of business and is primarily focused on licensing for food and drink establishments. However, other business types that use live or recorded music in their establishments may find the information useful as well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief history of copyright law, and an overview of music licensing to give business owners a better understanding of copyright as it relates to public performance.


Independent Filmmaking In The Final Frontier: Intellectual Property Issues With Making Independent Films In Space, Jesse Green Jan 2021

Independent Filmmaking In The Final Frontier: Intellectual Property Issues With Making Independent Films In Space, Jesse Green

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


The Covid-19 Vaccine Race: Intellectual Property, Collaboration(S), Nationalism And Misinformation, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Covid-19 Vaccine Race: Intellectual Property, Collaboration(S), Nationalism And Misinformation, Ana Santos Rutschman

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a national and global vaccine race. This Article examines the race with respect to contemporary frameworks for biopharmaceutical research and development. Specifically, this Article focuses on the effect of patents, pre-production agreements, public-private partnerships, and vaccine misinformation. This Article analyzes lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic, advocates for promoting vaccine affordability and equity, and suggests modifications to existing preparedness frameworks to prepare for upcoming outbreaks of infectious disease.


Mark Of The Devil: The University As Brand Bully, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins Jan 2021

Mark Of The Devil: The University As Brand Bully, James Boyle, Jennifer Jenkins

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

In recent years, universities have been accused in news stories of becoming “trademark bullies,” entities that use their trademarks to harass and intimidate beyond what the law can reasonably be interpreted to allow. Universities have also intensified efforts to gain expansive new marks. The Ohio State University’s attempt to trademark the word “the” is probably the most notorious. There has also been criticism of universities’ attempts to use their trademarks to police clearly legal speech about their activities. But beyond provocative anecdotes, how can one assess whether a particular university is truly bullying, since there are entirely legitimate reasons ...


Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2021

Conundra Of The Berne Convention Concept Of The Country Of Origin, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This essay explores one of the most important, but occasionally intractable, issues under the Berne Convention, the concept of Country of Origin. Article 5(4) of that treaty defines a work’s country of origin, but leaves out several situations, leaving those who interpret and apply the treaty without guidance in ascertaining the country of origin. I will call those situations the “Conundra of the country of origin,” and will explore two of them here. First, what is the country of origin of an unpublished work whose authors are nationals of different countries? Second, what is the country of origin ...


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this ...


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


Super-Statutory Contracting, Kristelia A. García Dec 2020

Super-Statutory Contracting, Kristelia A. García

Washington Law Review

The conventional wisdom is that property rules induce more—and more efficient—contracting, and that when faced with rigid property rules, intellectual property owners will contract into more flexible liability rules. A series of recent, private copyright deals show some intellectual property owners doing just the opposite: faced with statutory liability rules, they are contracting for more protection than that dictated by law, something this Article calls “super-statutory contracting”—either by opting for a stronger, more tailored liability rule, or by contracting into property rule protection. Through a series of deal analyses, this Article explores this counterintuitive phenomenon, and updates ...


Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This Chapter offers a broad overview of the impact of U.S. antitrust laws on IP licensing and transactions. A basic understanding of antitrust law is critical to the analysis of IP licensing arrangements, whether concerning patents, copyrights or trademarks. This chapter offers a summary of the antitrust doctrines that arise frequently in IP and technology-focused transactions — price fixing and market allocation, resale price maintenance, tying, monopolization, refusals to deal, standard setting and pay-for-delay settlements, with coverage of the major cases and enforcement agency guidance. Antitrust issues also play a role in the analysis of joint ventures, which are discussed ...


Poland’S Challenge To Eu Directive 2019/790: Standing Up To The Destruction Of European Freedom Of Expression, Michaela Cloutier Oct 2020

Poland’S Challenge To Eu Directive 2019/790: Standing Up To The Destruction Of European Freedom Of Expression, Michaela Cloutier

Dickinson Law Review

In 2019, the European Parliament and Council passed Directive 2019/790. The Directive’s passage marked the end of a fouryear- long legislative attempt to impose more liability for copyright violations on Online Service Providers, an effort which was controversial from the start. Online Service Providers fear that the 2019 Directive, especially its Article 17, will completely change the structure of liability on the Internet, forcing providers to adopt expensive content filtering systems. Free speech advocates fear that ineffective filtering technology will infringe upon Internet users’ rights to express themselves, and legal scholars have pointed out the Directive’s inconsistency ...


Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl Aug 2020

Did The America Invents Act Change University Technology Transfer?, Cynthia L. Dahl

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

University technology transfer offices (TTOs) are the gatekeepers to groundbreaking innovations sparked in research laboratories around the U.S. With a business model reliant on patenting and licensing out for commercialization, TTOs were positioned for upheaval when the America Invents Act (AIA) transformed U.S. patent law in 2011. Now almost ten years later, this article examines the AIA’s actual effects on this patent-centric industry. It focuses on the five key areas of most interest to TTOs: i) first to file priority; ii) broadening of the universe of prior art; iii) carve-out to the prior commercial use defense; iv ...


The Federal Circuit's Treatment Of Rule 12 Dismissals For Lack Of Patent Eligible Subject Matter, Andrew Kanel Jul 2020

The Federal Circuit's Treatment Of Rule 12 Dismissals For Lack Of Patent Eligible Subject Matter, Andrew Kanel

Akron Law Review

After the Supreme Court’s decision in Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank, there has been an increase in Federal Rule of Civil Procedure (Rule) 12 motions to dismiss for lack of patentable subject matter. These motions are often granted at the district court level and are predominantly upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Federal Circuit). This trend creates a hostile environment for inventors and patent holders and threatens to curb innovation in various areas including computer software, biotechnology, and medical diagnostics. The Federal Circuit’s current application of the Alice test at the Rule ...


Obviousness-Type Double Patenting: Why It Exists And When It Applies, Daniel Kazhdan Jul 2020

Obviousness-Type Double Patenting: Why It Exists And When It Applies, Daniel Kazhdan

Akron Law Review

At least since 1819, courts have prohibited double patenting—where an inventor has two patents on the same or obvious variations of the same invention. There have always been two basic justifications for prohibiting double patenting. The first focused on the patentee: bad actors might try to improperly extend their patent monopoly by filing serial applications. The second focused on the public’s rights: the bargain of the patent is that in exchange for the inventor getting a term-limited patent, the public is entitled to use the claimed invention (and its obvious variations) once the patent expires. This public-rights rationale ...


A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn S. Lunney Jr. Jul 2020

A Tale Of Two Copyrights, Glynn S. Lunney Jr.

Akron Law Review

This essay explores two possible copyright regimes. The first uses costless and perfect price discrimination to enable copyright owners to capture the full market or exchange value of their work. The second also uses costless and perfect price discrimination, but allows copyright owners to capture only the persuasion cost for authoring and distributing a work. We can call the first regime, costless copyright maximalism, and the second, costless copyright minimalism. The choice between these two regimes is primarily distributional: Should we design copyright to allocate the surplus associated with copyrighted works to copyright owners or to copyright consumers? This essay ...


An Inside History Of The Burger Court's Patent Eligibility Jurisprudence, Christopher B. Seaman, Sheena X. Wang Jul 2020

An Inside History Of The Burger Court's Patent Eligibility Jurisprudence, Christopher B. Seaman, Sheena X. Wang

Akron Law Review

Patent eligibility is one of the most important and controversial issues in intellectual property law. Although the relevant constitutional and statutory text is extremely broad, the Supreme Court has significantly narrowed the scope of patentable eligibility by creating exceptions for inventions directed to abstract ideas, laws of nature, and natural phenomenon. In particular, the Supreme Court’s decisions on this issue over the past decade have created considerable uncertainty regarding the patentability of important innovations. As a result, numerous stakeholders have called for reform of the current rules regarding patent eligibility, and members of Congress have introduced legislation to amend ...


Risk Taking And Rights Balancing In Intellectual Property Law, Clark D. Asay Jul 2020

Risk Taking And Rights Balancing In Intellectual Property Law, Clark D. Asay

Akron Law Review

Scholars have long worried that risk aversion can have significant negative effects in the marketplace. In the intellectual property law domain, some have worried that risk-averse actors can negatively influence the development of important intellectual property law doctrines, which can ultimately hamper innovation. For instance, risk-averse actors may frequently choose to obtain licenses for rights that the relevant laws do not actually require of them. When they do so, they inadvertently increase the scope of intellectual property rights because their risk-averse activities inform courts’ development of key intellectual property law doctrines.

In this Article, prepared as part of the IP ...


The "Evergreening" Metaphor In Intellectual Property Scholarship, Erika Lietzan Jul 2020

The "Evergreening" Metaphor In Intellectual Property Scholarship, Erika Lietzan

Akron Law Review

This article is a plea for changes in the scholarly dialogue about “evergreening” by drug companies. Allegations that drug companies engage in “evergreening” are pervasive in legal scholarship, economic scholarship, medical and health policy scholarship, and policy writing, and they have prompted significant policymaking proposals. This Article was motivated by concern that the metaphor has not been fully explained and that policymaking in response might therefore be premature. It canvasses and assesses the scholarly literature—more than 300 articles—discussing or mentioning “evergreening.” It catalogues the definitions, the examples, and the empirical studies. Scholars use the term when describing certain ...


Correcting Misunderstandings Of Literal Infringement Scope Regarding After-Arising Technologies Protected By The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Joshua D. Sarnoff Jul 2020

Correcting Misunderstandings Of Literal Infringement Scope Regarding After-Arising Technologies Protected By The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Joshua D. Sarnoff

Akron Law Review

Based on conflicting Federal Circuit case law, many academics have written, and many practitioners likely believe, that claim meanings or their applications may expand over time for purposes of literal infringement. But this common wisdom is wrong. Under existing Federal Circuit rules, the first precedent controls in the event of a conflict over doctrine, unless and until reversed en banc. The first precedent on the issue, the 2000 Schering Corp. v. Amgen, Inc. case, held that claim scope does not reach after-arising technologies for literal infringement and suggested that if it did, then such claims would lack written description support ...


When Standards Collide With Intellectual Property: Teaching About Standard Setting Organizations, Technology, And Microsoft V. Motorola, Cynthia L. Dahl Jul 2020

When Standards Collide With Intellectual Property: Teaching About Standard Setting Organizations, Technology, And Microsoft V. Motorola, Cynthia L. Dahl

IP Theory

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property's First Sale Doctrine And The Policy Against Restraints On Alienation, Lorie M. Graham, Stephen M. Mcjohn May 2020

Intellectual Property's First Sale Doctrine And The Policy Against Restraints On Alienation, Lorie M. Graham, Stephen M. Mcjohn

Texas A&M Law Review

The first sale doctrine decouples intellectual property and physical property. Suppose, at an auction at Sotheby’s, someone bought a contemporary painting by Chuck Close. The buyer now owns the physical painting, but the copyright to the painting remains with the owner of the copyright—the painter Chuck Close or whomever Close may have transferred the copyright to. Absent the first sale doctrine, if the buyer either sold the painting or displayed it to the public, the buyer would potentially infringe the copyright in the painting. The copyright owner has the exclusive right to display copies (including the original, the ...


Artificial Stupidity, Clark D. Asay Apr 2020

Artificial Stupidity, Clark D. Asay

William & Mary Law Review

Artificial intelligence is everywhere. And yet, the experts tell us, it is not yet actually anywhere. This is because we are yet to achieve artificial general intelligence, or artificially intelligent systems that are capable of thinking for themselves and adapting to their circumstances. Instead, all the AI hype—and it is constant—concerns narrower, weaker forms of artificial intelligence, which are confined to performing specific, narrow tasks. The promise of true artificial general intelligence thus remains elusive. Artificial stupidity reigns supreme.

What is the best set of policies to achieve more general, stronger forms of artificial intelligence? Surprisingly, scholars have ...


A Comparative Study Of Trademarks: Usmca (U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement) And Nafta (North American Free Trade Agreement), Roberto Rosas Apr 2020

A Comparative Study Of Trademarks: Usmca (U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement) And Nafta (North American Free Trade Agreement), Roberto Rosas

Faculty Articles

The definition of a trademark has expanded under the U.S. -Mexico-Canada Agreement ("USMCA "'), which provides more protection for rights holders. Currently, these three countries are bound by the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA"'), which has a narrow definition for trademarks. The North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA"'), which came into effect on January 1, 1994, was a significant agreement between some of the largest, strongest, and well-developed economies in the world: United States and Canada. It also helped to invigorate Mexico's future economic development. NAFTA's broad purpose was to regulate the exchange of capital, goods, and ...


Engaging First Year Students With Intellectual Property, Marian G. Armour-Gemmen Mar 2020

Engaging First Year Students With Intellectual Property, Marian G. Armour-Gemmen

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Since intellectual property is so important to engineers, creating enthusiasm from the beginning of their engineering studies is imperative. Since first year students have not learned how to apply technological concepts to real life, demonstrating intellectual property could be a challenge. To engage first year engineering students in the concept and the value of intellectual property, students were introduced to basic concepts and applications. Different concepts were applied to real life examples allowing them to interface with technology from an intellectual property perspective. This paper highlights not only patents, but also trademarks and trade secrets.


Placebo Marks, Jake Linford Jan 2020

Placebo Marks, Jake Linford

Pepperdine Law Review

Scholars often complain that sellers use trademarks to manipulate consumer perception. This manipulation ostensibly harms consumers by limiting their ability to make informed choices. For example, holding other things constant, consumers spend more money on goods with a high-performance reputation. Critics characterize that result as wasteful, if not anticompetitive. But recent marketing research shows that trademarks with a high-performance reputation may sometimes influence perception to the benefit of the consumer. A trademark with a high-performance reputation can deliver a performance-enhancing placebo effect. Research subjects perform better at physical and mental tasks when they prepare or play with a product bearing ...


U.S. Supreme Court I.P. Cases, 1810-2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph S. Miller Jan 2020

U.S. Supreme Court I.P. Cases, 1810-2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph S. Miller

Scholarly Works

Intellectual property law in the United States, though shaped by key statutes, has long been a common-law field to a great degree. Many decades of decisional law flesh out the meaning of broad-textured, sparely worded statutes. Given the key roles of patent law and copyright law, both federal, the Supreme Court of the United States is i.p. law’s leading apex court. What are the major topical currents in the Supreme Court’s i.p. cases, both now and over the course of the Court’s work? This study uses network-analysis tools to measure and map the entirety of ...


Monetizing Infringement, Kristelia García Jan 2020

Monetizing Infringement, Kristelia García

Articles

The deterrence of copyright infringement and the evils of piracy have long been an axiomatic focus of both legislators and scholars. The conventional view is that infringement must be curbed and/or punished in order for copyright to fulfill its purported goals of incentivizing creation and ensuring access to works. This Essay proves this view false by demonstrating that some rightsholders don’t merely tolerate, but actually encourage infringement, both explicitly and implicitly, in a variety of different situations and for one common reason: they benefit from it. Rightsholders’ ability to monetize infringement destabilizes long-held but problematic assumptions about both ...