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Full-Text Articles in Law

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Nicole G. Iannarone

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting ...


Fintech's Double Edges, Christopher G. Bradley Mar 2018

Fintech's Double Edges, Christopher G. Bradley

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This symposium essay examines the double-edged nature of financial technologies in financial transactions, especially transactions involving consumers. There are both benefits and risks—often undiscovered or hidden at first—in each new round of financial technologies. A FinTech tool may benefit consumers and then, applied later or in a different context, threaten consumer interests; a tool that harms consumer interests may then lead to development of a tool that favors them. This double-edged nature is an important but unappreciated structural feature of financial technologies. From the perspective of consumer protection, then, FinTech can neither be fully embraced as friend nor ...


The Promise And Perils Of Algorithmic Lenders’ Use Of Big Data, Matthew Adam Bruckner Mar 2018

The Promise And Perils Of Algorithmic Lenders’ Use Of Big Data, Matthew Adam Bruckner

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Tens of millions of Americans lack access to traditional forms of credit and must rely on payday and pawn loans instead. “Algorithmic lending 2.0” promises to enable fintech companies to lend to those excluded from traditional forms of credit. Version 2.0 algorithmic lenders claim to use Big Data and machine learning to increase credit access by making better predictions about prospective borrowers’ creditworthiness and decreasing the cost of credit. Supporters also claim that algorithmic lending 2.0 removes human bias from the financial services sector. Detractors have cast doubt on both claims, arguing that there is scant evidence ...


Regtech, Compliance And Technology Judgement Rule, Nizan Geslevich Packin Mar 2018

Regtech, Compliance And Technology Judgement Rule, Nizan Geslevich Packin

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This Article focuses on the rise of Financial Technology, which revolutionized consumer financial service products, and challenged policymakers with regulating the rapidly evolving financial industry. In particular, it explores Regulatory Technology, also known as RegTech, which is the finance industry’s use of technology, especially information technology, in the context of regulatory monitoring, reporting and compliance. RegTech is designed to solve industry needs for a more effective and efficient way to automate corporate governance and compliance processes. Not only has FinTech proven to be a vital revenue source, especially in connection with lending or money transmission services, but it also ...


Fintech: Antidote To Rent-Seeking?, Jeremy Kidd J.D., Ph.D Mar 2018

Fintech: Antidote To Rent-Seeking?, Jeremy Kidd J.D., Ph.D

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Innovations in financial technology, or Fintech, has been ongoing for decades but has recently begun to accelerate. Some observers have argued that it will soon begin to outstrip the ability of regulators to keep pace. If those predictions are accurate, what would the world look like with a financial sector that cannot be effectively regulated? One possibility—drawn from public choice economics—is that rent-seeking will be inhibited or eliminated. Rent-seeking is the distortion of law and regulation for the benefit of special interests, who expend resources to guarantee those distortions in their favor. Rent-seeking is inefficient and inhibits growth ...


Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting ...


The Rise Of Automated Investment Advice: Can Robo-Advisors Rescue The Retail Market?, Benjamin P. Edwards Mar 2018

The Rise Of Automated Investment Advice: Can Robo-Advisors Rescue The Retail Market?, Benjamin P. Edwards

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Different types of financial advisers serve the massive and widely dispersed retail investment market. In a market riddled with conflicts of interests, many advisers exploit retail customers by pitching suboptimal products, leading to lower investment returns and lower overall growth—but also to greater profits for the financial advisers collecting kickback-style commissions. New financial technology firms, commonly known as Robo-Advisers, may disrupt this market and these exploitative practices. Still, these potentially disruptive automated investment advice firms face significant regulatory risks.


New Art For The People: Art Funds & Financial Technology, Brian L. Frye Mar 2018

New Art For The People: Art Funds & Financial Technology, Brian L. Frye

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Fine art sales have reached record levels, with the global art market achieving annual sales of over $60 billion. However, the art market is extremely risky and the most lucrative investment opportunities are typically at the high end of the market. In recent years, financial industry professionals with an interest in the art world have increasingly formed art investment funds, intended to enable smaller investors to take advantage of the opportunity to invest in the art world and diversify their portfolios. Some art funds also allow art investors to borrow against certain assets. About 45 art investment funds currently exist ...


Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges, Patricia A. Mccoy Jul 2016

Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges, Patricia A. Mccoy

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Historically, U.S. financial regulation has normally been procyclical, with federal regulators and Congress relaxing oversight during bull markets and cracking down once financial crises hit. After 2008, the wisdom of this approach came under attack. Critics argued that procyclical regulation left financial institutions undercapitalized and unable to withstand panics. Other critics asserted that economic downturns could be mitigated and even averted if regulators took steps to puncture asset bubbles. The concept of countercyclical regulation responds to both of these critiques. This new approach posits that financial regulation would be more effective if financial regulation clamped down during financial expansions ...


Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges Jun 2016

Countercyclical Regulation And Its Challenges

Patricia A. McCoy

Historically, U.S. financial regulation has normally been procyclical, with federal regulators and Congress relaxing oversight during bull markets and cracking down once financial crises hit. After 2008, the wisdom of this approach came under attack. Critics argued that procyclical regulation left financial institutions undercapitalized and unable to withstand panics. Other critics asserted that economic downturns could be mitigated and even averted if regulators took steps to puncture asset bubbles.

The concept of countercyclical regulation responds to both of these critiques. This new approach posits that financial regulation would be more effective if financial regulation clamped down during financial expansions ...


Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown Jan 2016

Lessons From The Efforts To Manage The Shift Away From Defined Benefit Plans To Defined Contribution Plans In Australia, The United Kingdom, And The United States, Elizabeth F. Brown

Elizabeth F Brown

This is an earlier version of this Article that was published in the 53 American Business Law Journal 315 (Summer 2016). Please see that journal for the final version of this Article. This Article examines what lessons may be learned from examining how Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States have tried to manage the shift away from defined benefit plans towards defined contribution plans. This shift has fundamentally changed the relationship between workers and the financial industry. While defined contribution plans provide employees with some advantages over defined benefit plans (e.g., portability, early vesting, greater autonomy), they ...


Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg Aug 2015

Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into ...


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez Jun 2015

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

The benefits to free movement of international financial flows are numerous but include an efficient asset market and the opportunity for economic growth and development for countries engaged in an agreement allowing for such freedom. The free movement of capital is one of the four pillars of the Treaty on the Function of the European Union (TFEU) along with the free movement of goods, services, and labor. Article 63 of the TFEU prohibits limitations on the free movement of capital while Article 65 of the TFEU allows for some exceptions. Not only does the free movement of capital doctrine suppose ...


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states ...


Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes Mar 2015

Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes

Terika L Haynes

The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto study was to determine whether a relationship exists between home occupancy type, purchase price, residency duration, and the incidence of mortgage foreclosure of homeowners residing in single-family residential homes in the eight zip codes (30305, 30309, 30318, 30319, 30324, 30326, 30327, and 30342) within the Buckhead community, a high-income community located in Atlanta, Georgia. The possible relationships were explored and evaluated by conducting an archival analysis to examine the Georgia Public Notice Statewide Database of public foreclosure records, Fulton County Property Assessor records, and Fulton County tax data for 2009. The occupancy ...


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara Mar 2015

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery ...


Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert Lloyd, Nicholas Chase Mar 2015

Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert Lloyd, Nicholas Chase

Robert M Lloyd

ABSTRACT Recovery of Damages for Lost Profits: The Historical Development The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale is widely considered the most important rule of contract damages. In fact, however, the rule that damages must be proven with reasonable certainty is far more important in the modern practice of law. The reasonable certainty rule originated in Roman law and came to the common law through the civil law of Western Europe, developing first in the United States and spreading from the United States to England. The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale developed much in the same way, and, contrary to popular ...


What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy Feb 2015

What Loss Mitigation Taught Us About Housing Finance Reform, Patricia Mccoy

Patricia A. McCoy

This blog post describes the implications of the recent US loss mitigation experience for housing reform.


A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba Feb 2015

A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted ...


Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang Jan 2015

Optimized Theft: Why Some Controlling Shareholders “Generously” Expropriate From Minority Shareholders, Sang Yop Kang

Sang Yop Kang

Although controlling shareholder agency problems have been well studied so far, many questions still remain unanswered. In particular, an important puzzle in a bad-law jurisdiction is: why some controlling shareholders (“roving controllers”) loot the entire corporate assets at once, and why others (“stationary controllers”) siphon a part of corporate assets on a continuous basis. To solve this conundrum, this Article provides analytical frameworks exploring the behaviors and motivations of controlling shareholders. To begin with, I reinterpret Olson’s political theory of “banditry” in the context of corporate governance in developing countries. Based on a new taxonomy of controlling shareholders (“roving ...


The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh Jan 2015

The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh

Kavid Singh

Bitcoin is the most popular online decentralized currency in the world. Created by an enigmatic figure, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2009, its propagation and use has caused heated controversy. On the legal side of its use, businesses both large and small have started to accept bitcoins as a form of payment. On the illegal side of its use, large quantities of bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from businesses and large Bitcoin currency exchanges. The aim of this article is to introduce workable federal regulation that will help deter money laundering, a pervasive problem in the world ...


Underwriting Sustainable Homeownership: The Federal Housing Administration And The Low Down Payment Loan, David J. Reiss Jan 2015

Underwriting Sustainable Homeownership: The Federal Housing Administration And The Low Down Payment Loan, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

The United States Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”) has been a versatile tool of government since it was created during the Great Depression. The FHA was created in large part to inject liquidity into a moribund mortgage market. It succeeded wonderfully, with rapid growth during the late 1930s. The federal government repositioned it a number of times over the following decades to achieve a variety of additional social goals. These goals included supporting civilian mobilization during World War II; helping veterans returning from the War; stabilizing urban housing markets during the 1960s; and expanding minority homeownership rates during the 1990s. It ...


Liquidity, Systemic Risk, And The Bankruptcy Treatment Of Financial Contracts, Riz Mokal Dec 2014

Liquidity, Systemic Risk, And The Bankruptcy Treatment Of Financial Contracts, Riz Mokal

Riz Mokal

Parties to repos, and to swaps and other derivatives are accorded privileged treatment under the bankruptcy laws of several dozen countries. Several key international “best practice” standards urge legislators in other jurisdictions to provide likewise. The beneficiaries of these privileges are solvent counterparties enabled, unimpeded by bankruptcy moratoria, to implement close-out netting arrangements and to dispose of collateral. The purported rationale is mitigation of systemic risk.
Taking a broad international perspective, this Article explores the “domino” contagion view of distress that motivates the privileges. This view derives from the outdated “microprudential” understanding of systemic risk, and is theoretically flawed and ...


Controles De Câmbio No Brasil: Teoria E Prática, Bruno Meyerhof Salama Dec 2014

Controles De Câmbio No Brasil: Teoria E Prática, Bruno Meyerhof Salama

Bruno Meyerhof Salama

Para abordar a regulação do mercado de câmbio sob a ótica do Direito Econômico, organizo este texto em duas partes. Na primeira, apresento um panorama geral sobre a regulação cambial no Brasil. Inicialmente abordo, de forma concisa, (a) o conceito de controle de câmbio; a seguir (b) trago notas sobre a história da regulação cambial no Brasil; e, adiante, (c) apresento uma discussão resumida acerca de dificuldades que se põem para o profissional do direito que se depara com questões jurídicas concretas na seara cambial. A segunda parte ilustra os problemas acima indicados apresentando duas contendas jurídicas recorrentes atinentes à ...


Comment On The Cfpb's Policy On No-Action Letters, David J. Reiss, K. Sabeel Rahman, Jeffrey Lederman Dec 2014

Comment On The Cfpb's Policy On No-Action Letters, David J. Reiss, K. Sabeel Rahman, Jeffrey Lederman

David J Reiss

This is a comment on the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (the “Bureau”) proposed Policy on No-Action Letters (the “Policy”). The Policy is a step in the right direction, but a more robust Policy could better help the Bureau achieve its statutory purposes.

The Bureau recognizes that there are situations in which consumer financial service businesses (“Businesses”) are uncertain as to the applicability of laws and rules related to new financial products (“Products”); how regulatory provisions might be applied to their Products; and what potential enforcement actions could be brought against them by regulatory agencies for noncompliance. Businesses could therefore ...


Comment On Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Proposed Rulemaking, David J. Reiss Oct 2014

Comment On Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Proposed Rulemaking, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's Home Mortgage Disclosure Act proposed rulemaking (proposed Aug. 29, 2014) is a reasonable one. It increases the amount of information that is to be collected about important consumer products, such as reverse mortgages. It also increases the amount of important information it collects about all mortgages. At the same time, it releases lenders from having to determine borrowers’ intentions about how they will use their loan proceeds, something that can be hard to do and to document well. Finally, while the proposed rule raises some privacy concerns, the CFPB can address them.


Comment On The Fhfa's Small Multifamily Subgoal, David J. Reiss, Jeffrey Lederman Oct 2014

Comment On The Fhfa's Small Multifamily Subgoal, David J. Reiss, Jeffrey Lederman

David J Reiss

As the FHFA sets the housing goals for 2015-2017, it should focus on maximizing the creation and preservation of affordable housing. Less efficient proposed subgoals should be rejected unless the FHFA has explicitly identified a compelling rationale to adopt them. The FHFA has not identified one in the case of the proposed small multifamily subgoal. Thus, it should be withdrawn.


Target, Negligence, Chips, And Chickens, Jesse D. Gossett Sep 2014

Target, Negligence, Chips, And Chickens, Jesse D. Gossett

Jesse D Gossett

SHOPPING ON BLACK FRIDAY. It’s almost as American as baseball and apple pie. But during the 2013 holiday season, over forty million U.S. citizens experienced what is increasingly becoming a uniquely American problem: face-to-face (“FTF”) credit card fraud. This online article briefly explores the problems of data hacking and credit card fraud. It then looks at how European countries have largely avoided the problem and what American consumers can do to minimize the problem here.


The Orderly Liquidation Authority: Fanatical Or Familiar? Idealistic Or Unrealistic?, Stephanie P. Massman Sep 2014

The Orderly Liquidation Authority: Fanatical Or Familiar? Idealistic Or Unrealistic?, Stephanie P. Massman

Stephanie P Massman

The systemic financial crisis of 2008 spurred the failure of numerous financial and non-financial entities. Regulators addressed each of these failures on an ad hoc ex-post basis, granting multiple bailouts in various forms. The refusal to extend these bailouts to one firm, Lehman Brothers, however, caused further panic and contagion throughout the already unstable market as one of the largest financial institutions of the U.S. underwent an extremely lengthy and value-destructive Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Criticism surrounding not only the bailouts, but also the decision to allow Lehman to fail under the Bankruptcy Code, led to the inclusion of the ...