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Full-Text Articles in Law

Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker Feb 2020

Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker

William & Mary Business Law Review

Although the ambition to do good by doing business is not new, the burgeoning realization of this ambition is. As the fields of social entrepreneurship and impact investing advance in size, scope and complexity, questions about the roles of corporations and capital markets in society intensify.

What is legal scholarship contributing to this discussion? This Article reviews the scholarly contributions of 260 articles written by over 150 authors about the fields of social enterprise, social finance, and impact investing. The Article maps the contributions of legal scholarship over the last decade—from 2007 (when the term “impact investing” was first ...


Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, Jorge J. Rodriguez Feb 2020

Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, Jorge J. Rodriguez

Arkansas Law Review

The legalized marijuana industry is lucrative but surrounded with uncertainties. The divergence between state and federal law has pushed this industry into a state of limbo. Furthermore, at the federal level, the lack of enforcing the prohibition has only exacerbated the uncertainty. Historically, the federal government has taken a very relaxed approach and allowed marijuana businesses to operate with minimal interference. As a result, there is a thriving legalized marijuana industry operating throughout the majority of the United States. However, there are many obstacles which plague and threaten the future of this relatively young industry. Of particular importance, and the ...


The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin Feb 2020

The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For many years, law and economics scholars, as well as politicians and regulators, have debated whether corporate criminal enforcement overdeters beneficial corporate activity or in the alternative, lets corporate criminals off too easily. This debate has recently expanded in its polarization: On the one hand, academics, judges, and politicians have excoriated the DOJ for failing to send guilty bankers to jail in the wake of the financial crisis; on the other, the DOJ has since relaxed policies aimed to secure individual lability and reduced the size of fines and number of prosecutions.

A crucial and yet understudied piece of evidence ...


Private Equity Value Creation In Finance: Evidence From Life Insurance, Divya Kirti, Natasha Sarin Feb 2020

Private Equity Value Creation In Finance: Evidence From Life Insurance, Divya Kirti, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper studies how private equity buyouts create value in the insurance industry, where decentralized regulation creates opportunities for aggressive tax and capital management. Using novel data on 57 large private equity deals in the insurance industry, we show that buyouts create value by decreasing insurers' tax liabilities; and by reaching-for-yield: PE firms tilt their subsidiaries' bond portfolios toward junk bonds while avoiding corresponding capital charges. Previous work on affiliated or "shadow" reinsurance and capital management misses the important role that private equity buyouts play as recent drivers of these phenomenon. The trend we document is of growing importance in ...


Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely Feb 2020

Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Overturning Of Quill And The New Nexus Standard, Ethan T. Kirner Feb 2020

The Overturning Of Quill And The New Nexus Standard, Ethan T. Kirner

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Blowing The Whistle In The Digital Age: Are You Really Anonymous? The Perils And Pitfalls Of Anonymity In Whistleblowing Law, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Jacob Young D.B.A., Ethan T. Kirner Feb 2020

Blowing The Whistle In The Digital Age: Are You Really Anonymous? The Perils And Pitfalls Of Anonymity In Whistleblowing Law, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Jacob Young D.B.A., Ethan T. Kirner

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Segregation Of Markets, Christian Turner Feb 2020

The Segregation Of Markets, Christian Turner

Texas A&M Law Review

Campaign-finance reformers fear that rich donors’ money can be used disproportionately to influence the content of campaign advertising and thus, perhaps, the results of elections. In European football, UEFA has attempted to ban “financial doping”—rich owners’ use of money earned in sectors other than football to pay large sums for the best football players. Campaign-finance reform efforts and “financial fair play” rules in sport may seem like bespoke solutions to different problems. In fact, they are the same solution to the same problem. Both are attempts to ensure that power accumulated in one market is not brought into another ...


توجه الخوارزمية لحل مشكلة انسياب العمل, بثينة فرحان, Hisham Al-Rawi Feb 2020

توجه الخوارزمية لحل مشكلة انسياب العمل, بثينة فرحان, Hisham Al-Rawi

Al-Balqa Journal for Research and Studies البلقاء للبحوث والدراسات

تعرض الورقة توجها جديداً لحل مشكلة انسيابية العمل الورشي . يعتمد النظام الحاسوبي المعروض على الخوارزمية الجينية وعلى تمثيل مشكلة انسياب العمل الورشي على صورة مشكلة البائع المتجول . وعلى هذا الأساس تعرض الورقة حل مشكلة جدولة الماكنة . العمل . تتطرق إلى الاختيارات المناسبة للعوامل الأساسية في الخوارزمية الجينية. أظهرت النتائج المعطاة انحيازاً شديداً نحو الجدولة المثلى .


Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman Jan 2020

Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Deals accomplished through software persistently residing on computer networks—sometimes called smart contracts, but better termed transactional scripts—embody a potentially revolutionary contracting innovation. Ours is the first precise account in the legal literature of how such scripts are created, and when they produce errors of legal significance.

Scripts’ most celebrated use case is for transactions operating exclusively on public, permissionless, blockchains: such exchanges eliminate the need for trusted intermediaries and seem to permit parties to commit ex ante to automated performance. But public transactional scripts are costly both to develop and execute, with significant fees imposed for data storage ...


O Tell Me The Truth About Bail-In: Theory And Practice, Marco Ventoruzzo, Giulio Sandrelli Jan 2020

O Tell Me The Truth About Bail-In: Theory And Practice, Marco Ventoruzzo, Giulio Sandrelli

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

In this perspective, the purpose of this Article is to analyze the functioning of the European regulatory framework for the crisis of credit institutions in the light of its early applications, and with a special focus on the bail-in tool. We investigate how the new resolution mechanisms—rooted in the principle of private sector involvement in banking restructurings—have interplayed with (and tried to re-shape) legal and institutional contexts still characterized by an attitude to bail-out rescues and by non-harmonized national insolvency legislations.


Drawing The Line: Can Lawyers Invest In Their Client's Business Without Crossing An Ethical Line?, Ali Ghassemi Jan 2020

Drawing The Line: Can Lawyers Invest In Their Client's Business Without Crossing An Ethical Line?, Ali Ghassemi

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

I will begin with a look inside the history of entrepreneurship and its rise and decline throughout various times in our country’s history. I will then shift the focus towards the history of startup companies and what the modern trend is today in startups. After laying the foundation for startups, I will look into the complexities of creating a startup company and looking at the role that attorneys play in the lifetime of startups. From there, I will dive into the history and trend of lawyers who have invested in their client’s companies - through direct investment or bartering ...


Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

The Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), a liquidity standard introduced by Basel III, seeks to promote a better match between the liquidity of a bank’s assets and the manner in which the bank funds those assets. The NSFR requires banks to maintain a minimum amount of funding deemed “stable” by the Basel framework based on the liquidity of the banks’ assets and activities over a one-year timeframe. One of the areas seen as most affected by this development may be bank participation in project finance for infrastructure development. Since the global demand for infrastructure development remains robust, the shadow ...


Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. Mcnamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. Mcnamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

One of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s responses to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 was to introduce the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), a short-term measure that evaluates whether a bank has enough liquidity to meet expected cash outflows during a 30-day stress scenario. One area in which this incentive has already resulted in changed practices is in the market for commercial paper. Banks often provide backup liquidity facilities to the issuers of commercial paper that the issuers can draw upon to repay a maturing issue of commercial paper if they are unable to sell a new issue ...


Basel Iii E: Synthetic Financing By Prime Brokers, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii E: Synthetic Financing By Prime Brokers, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

Hedge funds rely on “prime brokerage” units within banks to provide leverage. With the enhanced capital requirements and new liquidity standards introduced by Basel III driving up the cost to banks of engaging in such financing, prime brokers have begun to offer an alternative means of providing hedge fund clients with leveraged exposure to securities. Known as synthetic financing, this alternative requires the prime broker to enter into derivatives contracts with the clients. Under the Basel III framework, the ability of banks to hedge and net such derivative positions results in capital and liquidity costs for synthetic financing that are ...


Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. Mcnamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. Mcnamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III—enhanced requirements applicable to Switzerland’s “too-big-to-fail” banks Credit Suisse and UBS that go beyond the base requirements established by the BCBS. Yet the prominent role played by relatively ...


Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. Mcnamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. Mcnamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-09, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) faced the critical task of diagnosing what went wrong and then updating regulatory standards aimed at preventing it from occurring again. In seeking to strengthen the microprudential regulation associated with the earlier Basel Accords while also adding a macroprudential overlay, Basel III consists of proposals in three main areas intended to address 1) capital reform, 2) liquidity standards, and 3) systemic risk and interconnectedness. This case considers the causes of the 2007-09 financial crisis and what they suggest about weaknesses in the Basel regime ...


Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. Mcnamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. Mcnamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

From the earliest efforts to mandate the amount of capital banks must maintain, regulators have grappled with how best to accomplish this task. Until the 1980s, regulation had been based largely on discretion and judgment. In the wake of two bank failures, the central bank governors of the G10 countries established the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and in 1988, the BCBS introduced a capital measurement system, Basel I. The system represented a triumph of the fixed numerical approach, however, critics worried that it was too blunt an instrument. In 1999, the BCBS issued Basel II, a proposal to ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick Jan 2020

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In December 2011, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of JPMorgan Chase (JPM) instructed the bank’s Chief Investment Office to reduce the size of its Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) during 2012, so that JPM could decrease its Risk-Weighted Assets as the bank prepared to adopt the impending Basel III bank capital regulations. However, the SCP traders were also told to minimize the trading costs incurred to reduce Risk-Weighted Assets, while still maintaining the opportunity to profit from unexpected corporate bankruptcies. In an attempt to balance these competing objectives, head SCP derivatives trader Bruno Iksil suggested in January ...


Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein Jan 2020

Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper proposes two insights into financial regulation and monetary policy. The first enhances understanding the relationship between them, building on the automobile metaphor that describes monetary policy: when to accelerate or brake for curves miles ahead. Enhancing the metaphor, financial markets are the transmission. In a financial crisis, markets cease to function, equivalent to a transmission shifting into neutral. This explains both monetary policy’s diminished effectiveness in stimulating the economy and why the financial crisis shock to real economic output greatly exceeded central bank forecasts.

The second insight is that both excess leverage and fundamental mispricing of asset ...


Ethical Considerations Of Blockchain: Do We Need A Blockchain Code Of Conduct?, Michele Benedetto Neitz Jan 2020

Ethical Considerations Of Blockchain: Do We Need A Blockchain Code Of Conduct?, Michele Benedetto Neitz

Publications

As states begin to adopt regulations governing cryptocurrencies and other uses of blockchain technology, it is becoming clear that the libertarian ideal of blockchain was just that – an ideal. There are already examples in which human decision-making has counteracted the immutability of some blockchains. In short, there appears to be a movement toward centralization within this decentralized technology.


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2020

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent years have witnessed a considerable growth of passive fund at the expense of active funds. This trend picked in 2019, a year that saw passive funds surpass active funds in terms of assets under management. The continuous decline of active funds is a cause for concern. Active funds engage in monitoring of firms and partake of decision-making in companies in their portfolio. The cost of these activities are born exclusively by active funds; the benefits, by contrast, are spread over all shareholders, including passive funds that freeride on the efforts of active funds. The contraction of active funds threatens ...


The Role Of Intent In The Rise Of Individual Accountability In Aml-Bsa Enforcement Actions, Tyler Halloran Jan 2020

The Role Of Intent In The Rise Of Individual Accountability In Aml-Bsa Enforcement Actions, Tyler Halloran

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The statutory framework which prohibits individuals at financial institutions from engaging in money laundering attributes criminal or civil liability on the basis of an individual’s culpability with respect to the prohibited conduct. A recent Department of Justice policy shift has begun to place a greater focus on the prosecution of individuals within corporations. This shift has led to increased prosecutions of compliance personnel and bank officials in recent years.

Through analysis of recent cases, this Note seeks to explore how the requirement of intentional and/or willful conduct defines the potential for criminal and/or civil exposure for compliance ...


Book Review, Roberto Rosas Jan 2020

Book Review, Roberto Rosas

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming.


Anticipating Venezuela’S Debt Crisis: Hidden Holdouts And The Problem Of Pricing Collective Action Clauses, Robert E. Scott, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati Jan 2020

Anticipating Venezuela’S Debt Crisis: Hidden Holdouts And The Problem Of Pricing Collective Action Clauses, Robert E. Scott, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati

Faculty Scholarship

A creditor who asks for stronger enforcement rights upon its debtor’s default will rationally accept a lower interest rate reflecting the greater expected recovery the exercise of those rights provides. Over a dozen studies, however, have failed to document this basic relationship in the context of the collective action clause, a key provision in sovereign bonds. We conjecture that this failure is because enforcing the rights in question requires collective decision-making among anonymous creditors with different interests, impeding market predictions regarding future price effects. The pricing of rights that require collective enforcement thus turns on whether the market observes ...


Extended Shareholder Liability For Systematically Important Financial Institutions, Alessandro Romano, Luca Enriques, Jonathan R. Macey Jan 2020

Extended Shareholder Liability For Systematically Important Financial Institutions, Alessandro Romano, Luca Enriques, Jonathan R. Macey

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Why Financial Regulation Keeps Falling Short, Dan Awrey, Kathryn Judge Jan 2020

Why Financial Regulation Keeps Falling Short, Dan Awrey, Kathryn Judge

Faculty Scholarship

This article argues that there is a fundamental mismatch between the nature of finance and current approaches to financial regulation. Today’s financial system is a dynamic and complex ecosystem. For these and other reasons, policy makers and market actors regularly have only a fraction of the information that may be pertinent to decisions they are making. The processes governing financial regulation, however, implicitly assume a high degree of knowability, stability, and predictability. Through two case studies and other examples, this article examines how this mismatch undermines financial stability and other policy aims. This examination further reveals that the procedural ...


Foreign Direct Investments Into Fintech And Blockchain Technology Startups In Latin America, Y. Tatiana Clavijo, Hernán Pantaleón Dec 2019

Foreign Direct Investments Into Fintech And Blockchain Technology Startups In Latin America, Y. Tatiana Clavijo, Hernán Pantaleón

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

Technology is changing our everyday lives at a faster rate every minute from artificial intelligence and medical advances in robotics to the upcoming self-driving cars. Every sector of our lives is being impacted, disrupted, and constantly altered by innovations, including our finances. In the developed markets, fintech, or financial technology, is the new and exciting area of product innovation for financial services. The innovations rely on the internet, blockchain technology, and the new and highly controversial digital currencies. Consequently, new digital platforms and mobile applications create new possibilities while being accessible to more people at a lower cost across borders ...


Nipped In The Bud: How Legal Disparities Create Financial Growth Hurdles In The State-Sanctioned Marijuana Industry And Why Bankruptcy Courts Can Provide A Remedy, Caitlyn Cullen Nov 2019

Nipped In The Bud: How Legal Disparities Create Financial Growth Hurdles In The State-Sanctioned Marijuana Industry And Why Bankruptcy Courts Can Provide A Remedy, Caitlyn Cullen

University of Miami Law Review

A new marijuana industry has emerged in the United States in the wake of state-by-state legalization of marijuana, and entrepreneurs, investors, and other advisory services are increasingly viewing the marijuana industry as an area of legitimate business opportunity. However, potential investors have been hesitant to establish formal relationships with marijuana businesses that operate legitimately in the eyes of the state but in a cloud of legal uncertainty at the federal level because the Controlled Substances Act criminalizes marijuana. This Note identifies two economic consequences of the conflicts of state and federal law and suggests a temporary solution that would allow ...


European Banking Union D: Cross-Border Resolution—Dexia Group, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick Nov 2019

European Banking Union D: Cross-Border Resolution—Dexia Group, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In September 2008, Dexia Group, SA, the world’s largest provider of public finance, experienced a sudden liquidity crisis. In response, the governments of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg provided the company a capital infusion and credit support. In February 2010, the company adopted a European Union (EU)-approved restructuring plan that required it to scale back its businesses and cease proprietary trading. In June 2011, Dexia withdrew from the government-sponsored credit support program before its expiration date, and in July, the company announced that it had passed an EU stress test. However, just three months later, Dexia wrote down its ...