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Environmental Sciences

2001

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Full-Text Articles in Nuclear Engineering

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao Dec 2001

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao

Separations Campaign (TRP)

During the first quarter of the work, the tasks included training students in the use of Monte Carlo codes used in radiation transport studies and the assessment of neutron multiplication factors for specific problems outlined by ANL-East through Drs. Laidler and Vandegrift.

The proposal also included objectives for the first year of work on this project, as listed below. The work conducted in the first quarter of the project was in partial completion of these objectives.

• Train UNLV students in the use of SCALE and/or MCNP for the assessment of nuclear criticality.

• Assess neutron multiplication factor, keff, for ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth Dec 2001

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The national development of technology to transmute nuclear waste depends upon the generation of high energy neutrons produced by proton spallation. Proton accelerators, such as LANSCE at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, are capable of producing 800 MeV protons. By bombarding a lead/bismuth target, each proton may generate 500 or more neutrons that can activate fission products or induce the fission of transuranic isotopes.

The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX developed at LANL is an important tool in the design of transmuter technology. It must be validated, however, for the neutron energy that will be employed. Experiments are ...


Development Of A Mechanistic Understanding Of High-Temperature Deformation Of Alloy Ep-823: Task 10, First Quarter Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Nov 2001

Development Of A Mechanistic Understanding Of High-Temperature Deformation Of Alloy Ep-823: Task 10, First Quarter Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The objective of this task is to evaluate the elevated temperature tensile properties of Alloy EP-823, a leading target material for accelerator-driven waste transmutation applications. The test material will be thermally treated prior to evaluation of its tensile properties at temperatures relevant to the transmutation applications. The deformation characteristics of tensile specimens, upon completion of testing, will be evaluated by surface analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall results are expected to provide a mechanistic understanding of high-temperature deformation behavior of Alloy EP-823 as a function of heat treatment.

Highlights of Accomplishment

• Mr ...


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Aaa Task-4 Quarterly (September 1 – November 30, 2001) Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Nov 2001

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Aaa Task-4 Quarterly (September 1 – November 30, 2001) Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The primary objective of this task is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on environment-assisted cracking of candidate materials for applications in spallation-neutron-target (SNT) systems such as accelerator production of tritium (APT) and accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). The materials selected for evaluation and characterization are martensitic stainless steels including HT- 9, EP 823 and 422. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of these alloys will be evaluated in environments of interest using tensile specimens under constant load and slow-strain-rate (SSR) conditions. The extent and morphology of cracking of these alloys will further be evaluated ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/01- 11/15/01, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Nov 2001

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process: Quarterly Progress Report 8/16/01- 11/15/01, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program is developing technology for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address many of the long-term disposal issues. An integral part of this program is the proposed chemical separations scheme.

Two activities are proposed in this Phase I task: the development of a systems engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model is the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the AAA Program. A second portion of the project is to streamline and improve an integral part ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report August 16,2001- November 15, 2001, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Nov 2001

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics: Quarterly Progress Report August 16,2001- November 15, 2001, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) has been determined from previous experimental studies by the Russians and the European scientific community to be a potential material that can be used as a spallation target and coolant for the AAA proposed application.

Properly controlling the oxygen content in LBE can drastically reduce the LBE corrosion to structural steels. However, existing knowledge of material corrosion performance was obtained from point-wise testing with very limited density. The transport of oxygen and corrosion products, their interaction and variation of corrosion/precipitation along the flow are not well understood.

The first subtask of this project involves using ...


Assessment Of Criticality Safety For Cylindrical Containers To Be Used In The Processing Of Spent Fuel, William Culbreth, Daniel R. Lowe, Jason Viggato Oct 2001

Assessment Of Criticality Safety For Cylindrical Containers To Be Used In The Processing Of Spent Fuel, William Culbreth, Daniel R. Lowe, Jason Viggato

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The UREX process separates uranium from transuranic wastes (TRU) and fission products (FP). Nuclear reactors require fissile isotopes that will absorb neutrons and break apart into smaller nuclei while releasing a large amount of energy as well as multiple neutrons. Fissile isotopes in spent fuel include not only 235U, but also 239Pu, 241Pu, and several isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm).

TRU contains the actinides with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium. This includes Pu, Np, Am, and Cm. When TRU is separated from uranium, the TRU still poses a significant risk of sustaining a ...


University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program: Quarterly Report, Second Quarter (June To August 2001), Anthony Hechanova Oct 2001

University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program: Quarterly Report, Second Quarter (June To August 2001), Anthony Hechanova

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

This Quarterly Report is a primary deliverable from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) University Participation Program (UPP) Director to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as described in the UNLV AAA proposal.

The UNLV AAA UPP Director implements the program’s administration using staff from the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) to ensure that work conducted under the UNLV AAA UPP meets program objectives. The UNLV AAA UPP consists of three components: Program Administration, Research Infrastructure Augmentation, and Student Research.


Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Aaa Task-4 Quarterly (June 1 – August 31, 2001) Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Sep 2001

Environment-Induced Degradation And Crack-Growth Studies Of Candidate Target Materials: Aaa Task-4 Quarterly (June 1 – August 31, 2001) Report, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The subject task entitled “Hydrogen-Induced Embrittlement of Candidate Target Materials for Applications in Spallation-Neutron-Target Systems” had commenced during the quarter ending on August 31, 2001. A research account has been established, contracts for both faculty and students have been prepared, and efforts are well underway to embark on the related research activities, as proposed.

As the title of this project implies, the primary objective of this task is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on environment-assisted cracking of candidate materials for applications in spallationneutron- target (SNT) systems such as accelerator production of tritium (APT) and accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW ...


Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao Aug 2001

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao

Separations Campaign (TRP)

To mitigate the waste created by conventional fission reactors, spent nuclear fuel must be mechanically separated from its cladding. For the development of fuel processing technology to support the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program, aqueous and pyrochemical processes will be used to further separate technetium and iodine, uranium and the higher actinides (see Figure 1 for an example of the process layout)1. The higher actinides, including plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium will be separated from the waste to facilitate their fabrication into new fuel for placement in a transmuter. High-energy neutrons generated by spallation in the transmuter break down ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth Aug 2001

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program will rely on the use of an accelerator-based transmuter to expose spent nuclear fuel to high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux will be sufficient to activate or fission the long-lived isotopes of Tc, I, Pu, Am, Cm, and Np that present a significant safety hazard in commercial spent fuel. Transmuter fuel will be subcritical and a high-energy proton accelerator is needed to maintain the necessary neutron flux through the use of a neutron spallation target. The maximum neutron energy produced by spallation (~ 600 MeV) is significantly higher than that produced by a commercial light water reactor (~ 2 MeV ...


Development Of A Mechanistic Understanding Of High-Temperature Deformation Of Alloy Ep-823 For Transmutation Applications, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole Aug 2001

Development Of A Mechanistic Understanding Of High-Temperature Deformation Of Alloy Ep-823 For Transmutation Applications, Ajit K. Roy, Brendan O'Toole

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the elevated temperature tensile properties of Alloy EP- 823, a leading target material for accelerator-driven waste transmutation applications. This alloy has been proven to be an excellent structural material to contain the lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) nuclear coolant needed for fast spectrum operations. However, very little data exist in the open literature on the tensile properties of this alloy. The selection of Alloy EP-823 as the test material in the proposed task is based on the recommendation of our collaborator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The test material will be thermally treated ...


Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean Aug 2001

Development Of A Systems Engineering Model Of The Chemical Separations Process, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Two activities are proposed: the development of a Systems Engineering model and the refinement of the Argonne code AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction). The detailed systems engineering model will be the start of an integrated approach to the analysis of the materials separations associated with the national AAA program. A second portion of the project will streamline and improve an integral part of the overall systems model, which is the software package AMUSE. AMUSE analyzes the UREX process and other related solvent extraction processes and defines many of the process streams that are integral to the systems engineering ...


Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen Aug 2001

Modeling Corrosion In Oxygen Controlled Lbe Systems With Coupling Of Chemical Kinetics And Hydrodynamics, Samir Moujaes, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The proposed work will combine chemical kinetics and hydrodynamics in target and test-loop lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems to model system corrosion effects. This approach will result in a predicative tool that can be validated with corrosion test data, used to systematically design tests and interpret the results, and provide guidance for optimization in LBE system designs. The task includes of two subtasks. The first subtask is to try to develop the necessary predictive tools to be able to predict the levels of oxygen and corrosion products close to the boundary layer through the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling ...


Hydrogen-Induced Embrittlement Of Candidate Target Materials For Applications In Spallation-Neutron-Target Systems, Brendan O'Toole, Ajit K. Roy Aug 2001

Hydrogen-Induced Embrittlement Of Candidate Target Materials For Applications In Spallation-Neutron-Target Systems, Brendan O'Toole, Ajit K. Roy

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on cracking of candidate target materials for applications in spallation-neutron-target (SNT) systems such as accelerator production of tritium (APT) and accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). The test materials will undergo appropriate thermal treatments prior to being hydrogen-charged by potentiostatic cathodic polarization technique in a simulated aqueous environment at different temperatures of interest. The specimens, upon completion of testing, will be metallographically examined. Further, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) will be used to determine the extent and nature of cracking in the specimens tested. The thrust of the proposed ...


Report Of The State Nuclear Safety Advisor Submitted To The Governor And 120th Legislature As Of January 15, 2001, Paula M. Craighead Jan 2001

Report Of The State Nuclear Safety Advisor Submitted To The Governor And 120th Legislature As Of January 15, 2001, Paula M. Craighead

Maine Collection

Report of the State Nuclear Safety Advisor submitted to the Governor and 120th Legislature As of January 15, 2001

Paula M. Craighead, State Nuclear Safety Advisor, Executive Department, Maine State Planning Office, Augusta, Maine, 2001.

Contents: Introduction and Executive Summary / I. Maine Yankee Decommissioning / II. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) / III. Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) / IV. High Level Radioactive Waste / V. Transport Routes and Safety Response / VI. Shipments / VII. Status of Federal and State Legal and Administrative Proceedings / References and Resources / Glossary