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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Refractive Index Chemical Sensing With Noble Metal Nanoparticles, Phillip Blake Dec 2012

Refractive Index Chemical Sensing With Noble Metal Nanoparticles, Phillip Blake

Theses and Dissertations

Chemical sensing is a key component in modern society, especially in engineering applications. Because of their widespread impact, improvements to chemical sensors are a significant area of research. One class of sensors, plasmonic sensors, is being heavily researched because of their ability to detect low levels of analyte in near real time without destroying the analyte. This work studies a new class of plasmonic sensor that utilizes diffractive coupling to improve sensor performance. Specifically, this work outlines the first study of diffractive coupling sensors with typical nanoparticle shapes. Sensitivity of this new class of sensor is directly compared to typical ...


Nanoencapsulated Copper Pthalocyanine As Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Prathima Arrabelly Jul 2012

Nanoencapsulated Copper Pthalocyanine As Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Prathima Arrabelly

All Capstone Projects

The growing resistance developed by microbes towards antimicrobial agents has driven our focus on developing alternative treatment modalities such as Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). It would be difficult for the microbes to develop resistance towards singlet oxygen generated during the PACT process. Photosensitizers are the vehicles of the transfer and translation of light energy into a type II chemical reaction (singlet oxygen generation) in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy. PACT is proposed as a potential, low cost approach to treatment of locally occurring infection.

Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus has been studied in cultures treated with photoactivated copper ...


Mechanism Of Heat Generation From Loading Gaseous Hydrogen Isotopes Into Palladium Nanoparticles, Olga Dmitriyeva Apr 2012

Mechanism Of Heat Generation From Loading Gaseous Hydrogen Isotopes Into Palladium Nanoparticles, Olga Dmitriyeva

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

I have carried out the study of hydrogen isotope reactions in the presence of palladium nanoparticles impregnated into oxide powder. My goal was to explain the mechanisms of heat generation in those systems as a result of exposure to deuterium gas. Some researchers have associated this heating with a nuclear reaction in the Pd lattice. While some earlier experiments showed a correlation between the generation of excess heat and helium production as possible evidence of a nuclear reaction, the results of that research have not been replicated by the other groups and the search for radiation was unsuccessful. Therefore, the ...


Encapsulation And Controlled Release Of Rhu-Erythropoietin From Chitosan Biopolymer Nanoparticles, Cody Bulmer Apr 2012

Encapsulation And Controlled Release Of Rhu-Erythropoietin From Chitosan Biopolymer Nanoparticles, Cody Bulmer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this research project was to develop a drug delivery system for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO), a glycoprotein hormone used in the treatment of renal anaemia and chemotherapy induced anaemia, using the biopolymer chitosan as the base component. Two types of chitosan nanoparticles were produced through ionotropic gelation using flush mixing with either tripolyphosphate (TPP) or carrageenan polymer. Chitosan-TPP and chitosan-carrageenan nanoparticles were generated under a variety of conditions to evaluate the effects of chitosan concentration, chitosan to anion mass ratio and solution pH on the nanoparticle characteristics of particle diameter, surface charge and particle size distribution. A ...


Rna Mediated Assembly Of Nanostructures, Jessica Lynn Rouge Jan 2012

Rna Mediated Assembly Of Nanostructures, Jessica Lynn Rouge

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

The first chapter of this work presents a comprehensive look at RNA mediated nanoparticle formation. The overall goal of this research is to gain a deeper understanding of the RNA-particle formation mechanism and the basic properties of the materials selected by modified RNA molecules. Understanding such RNA-substrate interactions and how they translate into the physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles they create are important fundamental concepts when considering these biotemplated materials as potential chemical catalysts. The RNA sequences discussed in the first chapter (referred to as Pdases) were discovered using RNA in vitro selection techniques. These Pdases were found ...


Virus-Size Nanoparticles Coated With A Synthetic "Self" Peptide Inhibit Phagocytic Clearance And Enhance Delivery Of An Anti-Cancer Drug, Pia Lorena Rodriguez Nunez Jan 2012

Virus-Size Nanoparticles Coated With A Synthetic "Self" Peptide Inhibit Phagocytic Clearance And Enhance Delivery Of An Anti-Cancer Drug, Pia Lorena Rodriguez Nunez

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Professional phagocytes are white blood cells of the innate immune system that protect humans and other animals from attacks by foreign pathogens by ingesting potentially harmful circulating particles. However, phagocytes such as macrophages may also attack elements that have been intentionally introduced into the body, such as implants, artificial tissues, artificial organs and vesicles bearing therapeutic agents, reducing their lifetime in the body. Nanoparticles and liposomes are similar in size to viruses, and are frequently decorated with antibodies for targeted therapeutics or imaging purposes. Although such particles are sufficiently small to avoid passive entrapment within capillaries in vivo, macrophages in ...


Synthesis And Self-Assembly Of Polymeric Hybrid Nanomaterials, Amanda C. Kamps Jan 2012

Synthesis And Self-Assembly Of Polymeric Hybrid Nanomaterials, Amanda C. Kamps

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ability to construct functional polymeric hybrid nanomaterials is critically important for many applications. In this thesis I present the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers of various compositions including insulating coil-coil, semiconducting rod-coil, semiconducting brush-coil, and bioconjugated rod-coil polymers. The self-assembly of these polymers is presented along with methodologies for controlling the organization of nanomaterials and polymers towards the construction of functional hybrid materials with controllable structures and properties.

In this thesis, an analysis of the conditions necessary to stabilize the cooperative self-assembly of nanoparticles and amphiphilic block copolymers into a unique cavity-like structure is presented. This work reveals the mechanism ...


Design And Evaluation Of "Pathogen-Mimicking" Polyanhydride Delivery Platforms For Drug And Vaccine Applications, Yashdeep Phanse Jan 2012

Design And Evaluation Of "Pathogen-Mimicking" Polyanhydride Delivery Platforms For Drug And Vaccine Applications, Yashdeep Phanse

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines and antibiotics have had a profound impact on human and animal health in the last century. Despite their success, there are several disadvantages associated with current regimens, including multiple immunizations that result in poor patient compliance, high reactogenicity, unpleasant side effects, and poor efficacy against intracellular pathogens. In this regard, innovative delivery platforms can facilitate the development of effective single-dose treatment regimens to control emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. The work presented in this dissertation describes how rational design principles can be successfully employed to develop targeted polyanhydride platforms for drug and vaccine delivery. Initial studies sought to define ...


Investigations Of Oxidative Stress Effects And Their Mechanisms In Rat Brain After Systemic Administration Of Ceria Engineered Nanomaterials, Sarita S. Hardas Jan 2012

Investigations Of Oxidative Stress Effects And Their Mechanisms In Rat Brain After Systemic Administration Of Ceria Engineered Nanomaterials, Sarita S. Hardas

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Advancing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in various fields create the opportunity for intended (e.g. drug and gene delivery) or unintended (e.g. occupational and environmental) exposure to ENM. However, the knowledge of ENM-toxicity is lagging behind their application development. Understanding the ENM hazard can help us to avoid potential human health problems associated with ENM applications as well as to increase their public acceptance. Ceria (cerium [Ce] oxide) ENM have many current and potential commercial applications. Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of ceria ENM applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel ...