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Graphene

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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Plasmonic Properties Of Nanoparticle And Two Dimensional Material Integrated Structure, Desalegn Tadesse Debu May 2019

Plasmonic Properties Of Nanoparticle And Two Dimensional Material Integrated Structure, Desalegn Tadesse Debu

Theses and Dissertations

Recently, various groups have demonstrated nano-scale engineering of nanostructures for optical to infrared wavelength plasmonic applications. Most fabrication technique processes, especially those using noble metals, requires an adhesion layer. Previously proposed theoretical work to support experimental measurement often neglect the effect of the adhesion layers. The first finding of this work focuses on the impact of the adhesion layer on nanoparticle plasmonic properties. Gold nanodisks with a titanium adhesion layer are investigated by calculating the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross-section with numerical simulations using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. I demonstrate that a gold nanodisk with an adhesive ...


Electrical Characterization Of Graphene And Nanodiamond Nanostructures, A Z M Nowzesh Hasan Nov 2018

Electrical Characterization Of Graphene And Nanodiamond Nanostructures, A Z M Nowzesh Hasan

Doctoral Dissertations

The electrical characterization on two-dimensional carbon-based graphene and nanodiamond materials was performed to improve charge transport properties for the label-free electrical biosensors. The charge transport in solution-gated graphene devices is affected by the impurities and disorders of the underlying dielectric interface and its interaction with the electrolytes. Advancement in field-effect ion sensing by introducing a dielectric isomorph, hexagonal boron nitride between graphene and silicon dioxide of a solution-gated graphene field-effect transistor was investigated. Increased transconductance due to increased charge carrier mobility is accompanied with larger ionic sensitivity. These findings define a standard to construct future graphene devices for biosensing and ...


Synthesis And Drop-On-Demand Deposition Of Graphene Derivative Inks For Flexible Thin Film Electronics, Dogan M. Sinar Aug 2018

Synthesis And Drop-On-Demand Deposition Of Graphene Derivative Inks For Flexible Thin Film Electronics, Dogan M. Sinar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation presents methods for deposition and post-processing of Graphene-Carboxymethyl Cellulose (G-CMC) and Graphene Oxide (GO) aqueous functional inks using a custom drop-on-demand (DOD) printer to fabricate mechanically flexible, non-transparent and transparent thin film electronic devices. Thin films on flexible substrates find use in lightweight, low profile, and conformable electronic devices. Such devices can include chemical sensors, flexible RFID tags, bioelectronics circuits, lightweight electronics for space systems, and transparent electrodes for optoelectronic systems. The goal of this research project is to provide simple methods for fabrication of these devices using environmentally friendly and easy to synthesize functional inks. Therefore, two ...


Two Dimensional Layered Materials And Heterostructures, A Surface Science Investigation And Characterization, Yujing Ma Sep 2017

Two Dimensional Layered Materials And Heterostructures, A Surface Science Investigation And Characterization, Yujing Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The isolation of single layers of van der Waals materials has shown that their properties can be significantly different compared to their bulk counterparts. These observations, illustrates the importance of interface interactions for determining the materials properties even in weakly interacting materials and raise the question if materials properties of single layer van der Waals materials can be controlled by appropriate hetero-interfaces. To study interface effects in monolayer systems, surface science techniques, such as photoemission spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy/spectroscopy, are ideally suited. However, before these characterization methods can be employed, approaches for the synthesis of hetero-van der Waals ...


Graphite And Graphene-Oxide Based Pgm-Free Model Catalysts For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Joseph Henry Dumont Jul 2017

Graphite And Graphene-Oxide Based Pgm-Free Model Catalysts For The Oxygen Reduction Reaction, Joseph Henry Dumont

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

The world currently relies heavily on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. One alternative source of energy are fuel cells, electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. They can be used in a wide range of applications, including transportation, stationary, portable and emergency power sources. Their development has been slowed by the high cost of PGM electrocatalysts needed at both electrodes as well as sluggish ...


Nano/Biosensors Based On Large-Area Graphene, Pedro Jose Ducos Jan 2017

Nano/Biosensors Based On Large-Area Graphene, Pedro Jose Ducos

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an ...


Solution-Based Assembly Of Conjugated Polymers Into Nanofibers For Organic Electronics, Daniel E. Acevedo Cartagena Jan 2017

Solution-Based Assembly Of Conjugated Polymers Into Nanofibers For Organic Electronics, Daniel E. Acevedo Cartagena

Doctoral Dissertations

Solution-based crystallization of conjugated polymers offers a scalable and attractive route to develop hierarchical structures for electronic devices. The introduction of well-defined nucleation sites into metastable solutions provides a way to regulate the crystallization behavior, and therefore the morphology of the material. A crystallization method for generating metastable solutions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was established. These metastable solutions allow P3HT to selectively crystallize into nanofibers (NFs) on graphene-coated surfaces. It was found that the crystallization kinetics is faster with increasing P3HT molecular weight and concentration. Through in situ atomic force microscopy, it was confirmed that NFs grow vertically in a ...


Mems Tunable Infrared Metamaterial And Mechanical Sensors, Qiugu Wang Jan 2017

Mems Tunable Infrared Metamaterial And Mechanical Sensors, Qiugu Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sub-wavelength resonant structures open the path for fine controlling the near-field at the nanoscale dimension. They constitute into macroscopic “metamaterials” with macroscale properties such as transmission, reflection, and absorption being tailored to exhibit a particular electromagnetic response. The properties of the resonators are often fixed at the time of fabrication wherein the tunability is demanding to overcome fabrication tolerances and afford fast signal processing. Hybridizing dynamic components such as optically active medium into the device makes tunable devices. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) compatible integrated circuit fabrication process is a promising platform that can be merged with photonics or novel 2D materials ...


Measuring Nonlinear Properties Of Graphene Thin Films Using Z-Scan Technique, Thekrayat Hassan Al Abdulaal Dec 2016

Measuring Nonlinear Properties Of Graphene Thin Films Using Z-Scan Technique, Thekrayat Hassan Al Abdulaal

Theses and Dissertations

The nonlinear studies of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, specifically graphene, are very significant since graphene is finding its usefulness in handling the enormous heat in nanoscale high-density power electronics. Graphene has emerged to be a promising nanomaterial as an excellent heat spreader due to its high thermal conductivity. However, the experimental nonlinear study of graphene materials and their application in developing future optoelectronic devices demands for more developed research.

The research objective is first to build a precise, and sensitive technique to investigate and understand the thermal nonlinear properties, including nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and thermo-optic coefficient ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Conductive Melt Electrospun Fibers, Brandon Ross Oct 2016

Fabrication And Characterization Of Conductive Melt Electrospun Fibers, Brandon Ross

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Conductive polymer nanocomposites are a type of particle reinforced plastic composite where the doping material is electrically conductive. The diverse properties of an engineered composite material allow for the material properties to be fine-tuned for the specific application. This research focuses on using carbon allotropes, such as two-dimensional graphene and one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, to achieve direct current electrical conductivity through a polymer fiber. Melt electrospinning is the process used for creating the micrometer scale fibers by melting thermoplastic materials. High electrostatic fields apply a force to the polymer melt and a single fiber is drawn out. The resistivity of the ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Van Der Waals Heterostructures, Horacio Coy Diaz Jun 2016

Preparation And Characterization Of Van Der Waals Heterostructures, Horacio Coy Diaz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation different van der Waals heterostructures such as graphene-MoS2 and MoTe2-MoS2 were prepared and characterized. In the first heterostructure, polycrystalline graphene was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred on top of MoS2 single crystal. In the second heterostructure, MoTe2 monolayers were deposited on MoS2 by molecular beam epitaxy.

Characterization of graphene-MoS2 heterostructures was conducted by spin and angle resolve spectroscopy which showed that the electronic structure of the bulk MoS2 and graphene in this van der Waals heterostructures is modified. For MoS2 underneath the graphene, a band ...


Graphene’S Electronic Surface States On Metal Substrates, Alex De Palma May 2016

Graphene’S Electronic Surface States On Metal Substrates, Alex De Palma

Nanoscale Science & Engineering (discontinued with class year 2014)

Graphene is a 2-­‐D sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms with exceptional electrical properties. Particularly, graphene has a very high carrier mobility (~200,000 cm2/V·∙s). This is largely due to graphene’s unique electronic structure, wherein charge carriers are effectively massless Dirac fermions. However, the unique electronic structure of graphene has been shown to be affected by the underlying substrate. In this study, we characterize the electronic structure of graphene on copper. Electron energy loss spectroscopy is employed to observe the surface plasmon excitations of graphene. A small pi plasmon excitation is observed, suggesting that the graphene ...


Liquid-Phase Exfoliation Of Two-Dimensional Graphite For Ink-Jet Printing, Monica Michel Jan 2016

Liquid-Phase Exfoliation Of Two-Dimensional Graphite For Ink-Jet Printing, Monica Michel

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Over the last decade, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has seen an incredible growth due to their unique thermal, mechanical and electronic properties. Solution phase manufacturing offers a way in which they can be produced at large scale by creating dispersions from the exfoliated material. Once created, different options for assembling devices exist. One technique for large scale manufacturing of materials in this form is ink-jet printing, which is a form of additive manufacturing that has proven to be attractive for the printed electronics industry. One challenge that ink-jet printing still faces is the shortage of inks with appropriate ...


Large-Scale Graphene Film Deposition For Monolithic Device Fabrication, Khaled Al-Shurman May 2015

Large-Scale Graphene Film Deposition For Monolithic Device Fabrication, Khaled Al-Shurman

Theses and Dissertations

Since 1958, the concept of integrated circuit (IC) has achieved great technological developments and helped in shrinking electronic devices. Nowadays, an IC consists of more than a million of compacted transistors.

The majority of current ICs use silicon as a semiconductor material. According to Moore's law, the number of transistors built-in on a microchip can be double every two years. However, silicon device manufacturing reaches its physical limits. To explain, there is a new trend to shrinking circuitry to seven nanometers where a lot of unknown quantum effects such as tunneling effect can not be controlled. Hence, there is ...


Nano-Bio Hybrid Electronic Sensors For Chemical Detection And Disease Diagnostics, Nicholas John Kybert Jan 2015

Nano-Bio Hybrid Electronic Sensors For Chemical Detection And Disease Diagnostics, Nicholas John Kybert

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The need to detect low concentrations of chemical or biological targets is ubiquitous in environmental monitoring and biomedical applications. The goal of this work was to address challenges in this arena by combining nanomaterials grown via scalable techniques with chemical receptors optimized for the detection problem at hand. Advances were made in the CVD growth of graphene, carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide. Field effect transistors using these materials as the channel were fabricated using methods designed to avoid contamination of the nanomaterial surfaces. These devices were used to read out electronic signatures of binding events of molecular targets in both ...


Improving The Signal-To-Noise Of Nanopore Sensors, Matthew Puster Jan 2015

Improving The Signal-To-Noise Of Nanopore Sensors, Matthew Puster

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Over the last five years, solid state nanopore technology advanced to rival biological pores as a platform for next generation DNA sequencing. Fabrication improvements led to a reduction in nanopore diameter and membrane thickness, offering high precision sensing. Custom electronics were developed concomitant with low capacitance membranes for low-noise, high-bandwidth measurements. These advances improved our ability to detect small differences between translocating molecules and to measure short molecules translocating at high speeds.

This work focuses specifically on the challenge of maximizing the signal magnitude generated by the solid state nanopore. One way that this can be achieved is by thinning ...


Mechanisms Controlling Friction And Adhesion At The Atomic Length-Scale, Xin Zhou Liu Jan 2015

Mechanisms Controlling Friction And Adhesion At The Atomic Length-Scale, Xin Zhou Liu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing atomic-scale adhesion and friction creates ongoing challenges as technologically-relevant devices are miniaturized. One major class of failure mechanisms of such devices results from high friction, adhesion, and wear. This thesis presents investigations into methods by which atomic-scale friction and adhesion can be controlled. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), friction and adhesion properties of graphene were examined. While friction between the tip and graphene depends on thickness, as explained by the â??puckering effectâ??, adhesion is independent of the thickness when measured conventionally. However, adhesion is transiently higher when measured after the ...


Transport And Optical Properties Of Low-Dimensional Complex Systems, Andrii Iurov Oct 2014

Transport And Optical Properties Of Low-Dimensional Complex Systems, Andrii Iurov

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the last five years of my research work, I, my research was mainly concerned with certain crucial tunneling, transport and optical properties of novel low-dimensional graphitic and carbon-based materials as well as topological insulators. Both single-electron and many-body problems were addressed. We investigated the Dirac electrons transmission through a potential barrier in the presence of circularly polarized light. An anomalous photon-assisted enhanced transmission is predicted and explained in a comparison with the well-known Klein paradox. It is demonstrated that the perfect transmission for nearly-head-on collision in an infinite graphene is suppressed in gapped dressed states of electrons, which is ...


Structural, Electronic And Catalytic Properties Of Graphene-Supported Platinum Nanoclusters, Ioanna Fampiou Aug 2014

Structural, Electronic And Catalytic Properties Of Graphene-Supported Platinum Nanoclusters, Ioanna Fampiou

Doctoral Dissertations

Carbon materials are predominantly used as catalytic supports due to their high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, resistance to corrosion and structural stability. Graphene, a 2D monolayer of graphite, with its excellent thermal, electronic and mechanical features, has been considered a promising support material for next generation metal-graphene nanocatalysts. The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of such metal-graphene nanocomposites using computational methods, and to develop a comprehensive understanding of the experimentally observed enhanced catalytic activity of graphene-supported Platinum (Pt) clusters.

In particular, we seek to understand the role of graphene supports on the ground-state morphology ...


Nanoscale Manipulation Of Pristine And Functionalized Freestanding Graphene Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Matthew Ackerman Aug 2014

Nanoscale Manipulation Of Pristine And Functionalized Freestanding Graphene Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Matthew Ackerman

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past ten years the 2D material graphene has attracted an enourmous amount of attention from researchers from across diciplines and all over the world. Many of its outstanding electronic properties are present only when it is not interacting with a substrate but is instead freestanding. In this work I demonstrate that pristine and functionalized freestanding graphene can be imaged using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and that imaging a flexible 2D surface is fundamentally different from imaging a bulk material due to the attraction between the STM tip and the sample. This attraction can be used to manipulate ...


Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar Oct 2013

Graphene Decorated Substrates And Their Interfacial Characteristics, Anurag Kumar

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes and graphene have been extensively studied for their excellent properties. As research on carbon expands, two major issues face the scientific community: (i) Expanding the scale of synthesis and (ii) Integration of different carbon structures for improved functionality. While significant advancements have been made in large-scale synthesis, room for improvement remains. As the scale of production increases, issues such as time, cost and energy that may otherwise not be very significant, begin to play greater roles. Thus, in order to effectively transition from laboratory prototypes to industrial products, a synthesis method that can address these issues is strongly ...


Nanostructured Tin-Based Anodes For Lithium Ion Batteries With X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies, Dongniu Wang Sep 2013

Nanostructured Tin-Based Anodes For Lithium Ion Batteries With X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies, Dongniu Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The practical applications of lithium ion batteries are highly dependent on the choice of electrodes, where boosting the materials innovations to design and achieve high capacity, excellent cycling performance, rate capability, low-cost and safe electrode materials provide the best solution. Based on this, tin-based anodes have gained great attention due to its high theoretical capacity, low cost and nontoxic nature to environment. Nevertheless, it undergoes significant volume variation(259%)during the operation of the battery, leading to pulverization and significant capacity fade. Thus, the practical application of tin-based anodes is still quite challenging. This thesis tackles issues related to tin-based ...


Development Of Nanostructured Limpo4 (M=Fe, Mn) As Cathodes For High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jinli Yang Sep 2013

Development Of Nanostructured Limpo4 (M=Fe, Mn) As Cathodes For High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jinli Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Olivine LiFePO4 has garnered the most interest because of its environmental benignity, high safety and theoretical capacity. However, the major limitation for LiFePO4 is the intrinsically poor electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity. The sluggish kinetics for LiFePO4 could be overcome by reducing the size, coating with conductive carbon, or doping with isovalent ions. The decrease of the size to nanoscale could shorten the diffusion time of Li ions in LiFePO4 during intercalation/deintercalation process, but the nano-size active material usually accompanies with low tap density. Carbon coating and carbon addition could alleviate the poor electronic conductivity ...


Use Of Ultra High Vacuum Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition For Graphene Fabrication, Shannen Adcock May 2012

Use Of Ultra High Vacuum Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition For Graphene Fabrication, Shannen Adcock

Theses and Dissertations

Graphene, what some are terming the "new silicon", has the possibility of revolutionizing technology through nanoscale design processes. Fabrication of graphene for device processing is limited largely by the temperatures used in conventional deposition. High temperatures are detrimental to device design where many different materials may be present. For this reason, graphene synthesis at low temperatures using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is the subject of much research. In this thesis, a tool for ultra-high vacuum plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (UHV-PECVD) and accompanying subsystems, such as control systems and alarms, are designed and implemented to be used in future graphene growths ...


Development Of Nanocomposites For Energy Storage Devices, Md Ashiqur Rahaman Khan Jan 2012

Development Of Nanocomposites For Energy Storage Devices, Md Ashiqur Rahaman Khan

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

With the ever-increasing need in improving the performance and operation life of future mobile devices, developing higher power density energy storage devices has been receiving more attention. Lithium ion battery (LIB) and capacitor are two of the most widely used energy storage devices and have attracted increasing interest from both industrial and academic fields. Batteries have higher power density than capacitor but significantly longer charge/discharge rates. In order to further improve the performance of these energy storage devices, one of the approaches is to use high specific surface area nano-materials. Among all the nano-materials developed so far, one-dimensional nanowires ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi Jan 2012

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanocomposites For Electrochemical Capacitors, Farah Alvi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Presently there are deep concerns over the environmental consequences and the consumption of non-renewable energy sources, with the accelerated greenhouse effect, triggered enormous interest in the use of renewable energy sources e.g., solar, hydropower, wind and geothermal. However the intermittent nature of harvesting renewable energy sources has recently gained considerable attention in the alternative reliable, cost effective, and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. The supercapacitor and lithium ion batteries are considered more efficient electrical energy storage devices than conventional energy storage systems.

Both devices have many useful and important applications; they could be an excellent source for high power ...


Graphene Stuctures For Energy Storage Application, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque Shuvo Jan 2012

Graphene Stuctures For Energy Storage Application, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque Shuvo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Energy storage devices are receiving extensive attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of energy. Super-capacitor is one of the energy storage devices with high specific power density and wide applications in electronic vehicles, commercial mobile electronics, and military devices. Carbon based materials are widely used in making Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) or super-capacitor for their excellent porous nature along with their electron transport capability. By increasing the specific surface area of the porous carbon materials, specific capacitance of the super-capacitor can be significantly improved. Graphene, a newly discovered material, has been incorporated in making super-capacitor electrodes ...