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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

A Plasma Model Combined With An Improved Two-Temperature Equation For Ultrafast Laser Ablation Of Dielectrics, Lan Jiang, Hai-Lung Tsai Nov 2008

A Plasma Model Combined With An Improved Two-Temperature Equation For Ultrafast Laser Ablation Of Dielectrics, Lan Jiang, Hai-Lung Tsai

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

It remains a big challenge to theoretically predict the material removal mechanism in femtosecond laser ablation. To bypass this unresolved problem, many calculations of femtosecond laser ablation of nonmetals have been based on the free electron density distribution without the actual consideration of the phase change mechanism. However, this widely used key assumption needs further theoretical and experimental confirmation. by combining the plasma model and improved two-temperature model developed by the authors, this study focuses on investigating ablation threshold fluence, depth, and shape during femtosecond laser ablation of dielectrics through nonthermal processes (the Coulomb explosion and electrostatic ablation). The predicted ...


Three-Dimensional Modeling Of The Plasma Arc In Arc Welding, Gu Xu, J. Hu, Hai-Lung Tsai Nov 2008

Three-Dimensional Modeling Of The Plasma Arc In Arc Welding, Gu Xu, J. Hu, Hai-Lung Tsai

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such ...


High Bandwidth Control Of Precision Motion Instrumentation, Douglas A. Bristow, Jingyan Dong, Andrew G. Alleyne, Srinivasa M. Salapaka, Placid M. Ferreira Oct 2008

High Bandwidth Control Of Precision Motion Instrumentation, Douglas A. Bristow, Jingyan Dong, Andrew G. Alleyne, Srinivasa M. Salapaka, Placid M. Ferreira

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This article presents a high-bandwidth control design suitable for precision motion instrumentation. Iterative learning control (ILC), a feedforward technique that uses previous iterations of the desired trajectory, is used to leverage the repetition that occurs in many tasks, such as raster scanning in microscopy. Two ILC designs are presented. The first design uses the motion system dynamic model to maximize bandwidth. The second design uses a time-varying bandwidth that is particularly useful for nonsmooth trajectories such as raster scanning. Both designs are applied to a multiaxis piezoelectric-actuated flexure system and evaluated on a nonsmooth trajectory. The ILC designs demonstrate significant ...


Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, Xiyue Zhao, Robert G. Landers, Ming-Chuan Leu Oct 2008

Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, Xiyue Zhao, Robert G. Landers, Ming-Chuan Leu

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication. Due to effects such as the air bubble release, agglomerate breakdown, change in paste properties during extrusion as a result of liquid phase migration, etc., the extrusion force is difficult to control. In this paper, an adaptive controller is proposed to regulate the extrusion force. Recursive Least Squares is used to estimate extrusion force model parameters during fabrication and a low-order control scheme capable of tracking general reference trajectories is designed ...


Issues On Stability Of Adp Feedback Controllers For Dynamical Systems, S. N. Balakrishnan, Jie Ding, F. L. Lewis Aug 2008

Issues On Stability Of Adp Feedback Controllers For Dynamical Systems, S. N. Balakrishnan, Jie Ding, F. L. Lewis

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This paper traces the development of neural-network (NN)-based feedback controllers that are derived from the principle of adaptive/approximate dynamic programming (ADP) and discusses their closed-loop stability. Different versions of NN structures in the literature, which embed mathematical mappings related to solutions of the ADP-formulated problems called “adaptive critics” or “action-critic” networks, are discussed. Distinction between the two classes of ADP applications is pointed out. Furthermore, papers in “model-free” development and model-based neurocontrollers are reviewed in terms of their contributions to stability issues. Recent literature suggests that work in ADP-based feedback controllers with assured stability is growing in diverse ...


A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, Kemal Yuksek, Weihan Zhang, Boryslaw Iwo Ridzalski, Ming-Chuan Leu Jul 2008

A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, Kemal Yuksek, Weihan Zhang, Boryslaw Iwo Ridzalski, Ming-Chuan Leu

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This paper presents a novel method of contour reconstruction from dexel data solving the shape anomalies for the complex geometry in virtual sculpting. Grouping and traversing processes are developed to find connectivity between dexels along every two adjacent rays. After traveling through all the rays on one slice, sub-boundaries are connected into full boundaries which are desired contours. The complexity of the new method has been investigated and determined as O(n). We also demonstrate the ability of the described method for viewing a sculpted model from different directions.


Frequency Domain Analysis And Design Of Iterative Learning Control For Systems With Stochastic Disturbances, Douglas A. Bristow Jun 2008

Frequency Domain Analysis And Design Of Iterative Learning Control For Systems With Stochastic Disturbances, Douglas A. Bristow

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this work we examine the performance of iterative learning control (ILC) for systems with non-repeating disturbances and random noise. Single-input, single- output linear time-invariant systems and iteration-invariant learning filters are considered. We find that a tradeoff exists between the convergence rate and converged error spectrum. Optimal filter designs, which are dependant on the disturbance and noise spectra, are developed. We also present simple design guidelines for the case when explicit models of disturbance and noise spectra are not available. A numerical design example is presented.


Formation Control Of Car-Like Mobile Robots: A Lyapunov Function Based Approach, S. A. Panimadai Ramaswamy, S. N. Balakrishnan Jun 2008

Formation Control Of Car-Like Mobile Robots: A Lyapunov Function Based Approach, S. A. Panimadai Ramaswamy, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In literature leader - follower strategy has been used extensively for formation control of car-like mobile robots with the control law being derived from the kinematics. This paper takes it a step further and a nonlinear control law is derived using Lyapunov analysis for formation control of car-like mobile robots using robot dynamics. Controller is split into two parts. The first part is the development of a velocity controller for the follower from the error kinematics (linear and angular). The second part involves the use of the dynamics of the robot in the development of a torque controller for both the ...


Weighting Matrix Design For Robust Monotonic Convergence In Norm Optimal Iterative Learning Control, Douglas A. Bristow Jun 2008

Weighting Matrix Design For Robust Monotonic Convergence In Norm Optimal Iterative Learning Control, Douglas A. Bristow

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this paper we examine the robustness of norm optimal ILC with quadratic cost criterion for discrete-time, linear time-invariant, single-input single-output systems. A bounded multiplicative uncertainty model is used to describe the uncertain system and a sufficient condition for robust monotonic convergence is developed. We find that, for sufficiently large uncertainty, the performance weighting can not be selected arbitrarily large, and thus overall performance is limited. To maximize available performance, a time-frequency design methodology is presented to shape the weighting matrix based on the initial tracking error. The design is applied to a nanopositioning system and simulation results are presented.


Optimal Controller Synthesis Of Variable-Time Impulsive Problems Using Single Network Adaptive Critics, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan Jun 2008

Optimal Controller Synthesis Of Variable-Time Impulsive Problems Using Single Network Adaptive Critics, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This paper presents a systematic approach to solve for the optimal control of a variable-time impulsive system. First, optimality condition for a variable-time impulsive system is derived using the calculus of variations method. Next, a single network adaptive critic technique is proposed to numerically solve for the optimal control and the detailed algorithm is presented. Finally, two examples-one linear and one nonlinear-are solved applying the conditions derived and the algorithm proposed. Numerical results demonstrate the power of the neural network based adaptive critic method in solving this class of problems.


Optimal Neuro-Controller Synthesis For Variable-Time Impulse Driven Systems, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan Jun 2008

Optimal Neuro-Controller Synthesis For Variable-Time Impulse Driven Systems, Xiaohua Wang, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

This paper develops a systematic scheme to solve for the optimal controls of variable time impulsive systems. First, the optimality conditions for variable time impulse driven systems are derived using the calculus of variation. After wards, a neural network based adaptive critic method is proposed to numerically solve the two-point boundary value problems formulated based on the optimality conditions derived. Finally, two examples - one linear and one nonlinear - are presented to illustrate the conditions derived and to show the power of the neural network based adaptive critic method proposed.


Design Of A Linear Time-Varying Cross-Coupled Iterative Learning Controller, K. L. Barton, Douglas A. Bristow, Andrew G. Alleyne Jun 2008

Design Of A Linear Time-Varying Cross-Coupled Iterative Learning Controller, K. L. Barton, Douglas A. Bristow, Andrew G. Alleyne

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In many manufacturing applications contour tracking is more important than individual axis tracking. Many control techniques, including iterative learning control (ILC), target individual axis error. Because individual axis error only indirectly relates to contour error, these approaches may not be very effective for contouring applications. Cross-coupled ILC (CCILC) is a variation on traditional ILC that targets the contour tracking directly. In contour trajectories with rapid changes, high frequency control is necessary in order to meet tracking requirements. This paper presents an improved CCILC that uses a linear time-varying (LTV) filter to provide high frequency control for short durations. The improved ...


Monotonic Convergence Of Iterative Learning Control For Uncertain Systems Using A Time-Varying Filter, Douglas A. Bristow, Andrew G. Alleyne Mar 2008

Monotonic Convergence Of Iterative Learning Control For Uncertain Systems Using A Time-Varying Filter, Douglas A. Bristow, Andrew G. Alleyne

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Iterative learning control (ILC) is a learning technique used to improve the performance of systems that execute the same task multiple times. Learning transient behavior has emerged as an important topic in the design and analysis of ILC systems. In practice, the learning control is often low-pass filtered with a ldquoQ-filterrdquo to prevent transient growth, at the cost of performance. In this note, we consider linear time-invariant, discrete-time, single-input single-output systems, and convert frequency-domain uncertainty models to a time-domain representation for analysis. We then develop robust monotonic convergence conditions, which depend directly on the choice of the Q-filter and are ...


Nonlinear H(Infinity) Missile Longitudinal Autopilot Design With Theta-D Method, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan Jan 2008

Nonlinear H(Infinity) Missile Longitudinal Autopilot Design With Theta-D Method, Ming Xin, S. N. Balakrishnan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this paper, a new nonlinear H 1 control technique, called μ¡D H 1 method, is employed to design a missile longitudinal autopilot. The μ ¡D H 1 design has the same structure as that of linear H 1 , except that the two Riccati equations that are part of the solution process are state dependent. The μ ¡D technique yields suboptimal solutions to nonlinear optimal control problems in the sense that it provides an approximate solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. It is also shown that this method can be used to provide an approximate closed-form solution to the ...


Efficient Uncertainty Quantification Applied To The Aeroelastic Analysis Of A Transonic Wing, Serhat Hosder, Robert W. Walters, Michael Balch Jan 2008

Efficient Uncertainty Quantification Applied To The Aeroelastic Analysis Of A Transonic Wing, Serhat Hosder, Robert W. Walters, Michael Balch

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The application of a Point-Collocation Non-Intrusive Polynomial Chaos method to the uncertainty quantification of a stochastic transonic aeroelastic wing problem has been demonstrated. The variation in the transient response of the first aeroelastic mode of a three-dimensional wing in transonic flow due to the uncertainty in free-stream Mach number and angle of attack was studied. A curve-fitting procedure was used to obtain time-independent parameterization of the transient aeroelastic responses. Among the uncertain parameters that characterize the time-dependent transients, the damping factor was chosen for uncertainty quantification, since this parameter can be thought as an indicator for flutter. Along with the ...