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## Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Comparison Of Suppression Across Frequencies, Linda M. Thibodeau, Marc A. Fagelson

#### Comparison Of Suppression Across Frequencies, Linda M. Thibodeau, Marc A. Fagelson

*Marc A. Fagelson*

Scattering Of A Sagittal Surface Acoustic Wave From A Large Amplitude Ridge Or A Deep Groove, A. Baghai-Wadji, A. A. Maradudin

#### Scattering Of A Sagittal Surface Acoustic Wave From A Large Amplitude Ridge Or A Deep Groove, A. Baghai-Wadji, A. A. Maradudin

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In [1] we presented a Green’s function theory for obtaining the frequencies of acoustic surface shape resonances of sagittal polarization associated with an isolated ridge or groove of rather general shape on a planar, stress-free surface of an isotropic elastic medium (for details we refer to [2]). It was shown that employing Green’s second theorem, and using tensor Green’s functions associated with the boundary value problem, the initial coupled partial differential equations can be converted into a coupled system of integral equations. Further, it was shown that by discretizing the boundary and using the method of moments ...

Interaction Of Gaussian Acoustic Beams With Plane And Cylindrical Fluid-Loaded Elastic Structures, Jinguang Zhang, Dale E. Chimenti, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen

#### Interaction Of Gaussian Acoustic Beams With Plane And Cylindrical Fluid-Loaded Elastic Structures, Jinguang Zhang, Dale E. Chimenti, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Nonspecular reflection effects for ultrasonic beams incident from a fluid onto solid surfaces have been studied continuously since the early investigations by Schoch [1]. He calculated the reflected held for both the fluid-loaded halfspace and the plate using a series expansion for the phase of the reflection coefficient. A more accurate expression for Gaussian beam reflection has been derived by Bertoni and Tamir [2], who approximated the reflection coefficient by leading terms in a Laurent series, performing the resulting integrals analytically. Many researchers have contributed to this literature from the experimental [3–5], theoretical [6,7], and numerical sides [8 ...

Acoustic Emissions From Pressurized Microballoons, G. Hawkins, James R. Lhota, J. R. Hribar, E. C. Johnson

#### Acoustic Emissions From Pressurized Microballoons, G. Hawkins, James R. Lhota, J. R. Hribar, E. C. Johnson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Microballoons are tiny, hollow, thin-walled, glass spheres ranging in diameter from ~ 1 to 160 μm. They are commercially available in bulk for use as low cost, lightweight filler to be mixed with resins and other materials. As reported last year, the unique properties of microballoons have been exploited in a number of instances for recording the maximum of a pressure excursion [1]. To understand the technique, consider first what happens when microballoons are mixed in a carrier fluid, placed on the surface of an Acoustic Emission (AE) transducer and then subjected to a pneumatic pressure. Since the microballoons within a ...

Laser Generation Of Rayleigh And Lamb Waves For Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing, R. Costley Jr., Yves H. Berthelot

#### Laser Generation Of Rayleigh And Lamb Waves For Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing, R. Costley Jr., Yves H. Berthelot

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Laser ultrasonics has been the focus of several research efforts over the last two decades. The main advantage of the technique is its noncontact nature which alleviates the problem of sensor coupling inherent in conventional techniques. However, laser ultrasonics has some limitations When operated in the thermoelastic regime, where no damage is inflicted on the surface of the specimen, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is very small, particularly when compared with conventional piezoelectric generation.[1] Several authors have proposed increasing the SNR by producing a source with spatial periodicity designed to enhance a particular wavelength. Royer and Dieulasaint [2] have used ...

Laser Ultrasonic And Photoacoustic Characterization Of Subsurface Structures, Meng-Chou Wu, F. Raymond Parker, William P. Winfree

#### Laser Ultrasonic And Photoacoustic Characterization Of Subsurface Structures, Meng-Chou Wu, F. Raymond Parker, William P. Winfree

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

There is a strong interest in applying laser ultrasonic and photoacoustic techniques to the NDE of some high performance structures, for example, the actively cooled panels of the National Aero-Space Plane. Both laser ultrasonic and photoacoustic techniques have been developed for years. Much significant work has been done on either the generation of waves, the mechanisms [1–3] or various techniques for the detection of these waves [4–6]. A few applications being pursued or conducted since the early stage of the development for these techniques [5–7]. However, there is little work concentrating on the interaction of these waves ...

An Application Of Object-Oriented Technology To Unified Life Cycle Engineering, Samuel Wormley, H. Shah, D. Sheth, B. Forouraghi, Lester W. Schmerr

#### An Application Of Object-Oriented Technology To Unified Life Cycle Engineering, Samuel Wormley, H. Shah, D. Sheth, B. Forouraghi, Lester W. Schmerr

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) at Iowa State University and in conjunction with Northwestern University is involved in continued development of an integrated system that assesses the inspectability and reliability of manufactured parts from a description of their geometry, materials, expected loads, and performance requirements. The main objective of this program, Integrated Design, NDE, and the Manufacturing Sciences, is to combine a variety of rapidly emerging disciplines associated with structural integrity with established techniques of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). The contributing disciplines include quantitative nondestructive evaluation, statistical modeling for quality assurance, process control, fracture mechanics and ...

Custom Pvdf Transducers For Pulse-Echo Testing Of Solid Rocket Motors For Detection Of Propellant-To-Boot-Liner Unbonds, Lewis Brown, William M. Sisson, Christopher P. Guerin

#### Custom Pvdf Transducers For Pulse-Echo Testing Of Solid Rocket Motors For Detection Of Propellant-To-Boot-Liner Unbonds, Lewis Brown, William M. Sisson, Christopher P. Guerin

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Solid rocket motor segments (SRMs) typically consist of a rigid cylindrical shell, an elastomeric insulation liner, and a core of solid propellant. A rubber boot-liner is often included to relieve stresses between the propellant and insulation liner, produced near the ends of the SRM during the cure of the solid propellant. In the manufacture of the SRM, good bond integrity is required between the boot liner and propellant to prevent detrimental effects on motor performance, thus, a reliable NDE technique is required to detect possible unbond regions. One SRM manufacturer’s approach was a radiographic method consisting of analyzing overlapping ...

Ultrasonic Propagation Through A Surface With A Step Discontinuity: Validation Of A Hybrid, Gauss-Hermite Ray Tracing Beam Model, M. Greenwood, J.-L. Mai, A. Minachi, I. Yalda-Mooshabad, R. Bruce Thompson

#### Ultrasonic Propagation Through A Surface With A Step Discontinuity: Validation Of A Hybrid, Gauss-Hermite Ray Tracing Beam Model, M. Greenwood, J.-L. Mai, A. Minachi, I. Yalda-Mooshabad, R. Bruce Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

This research continues our cooperative effort to study the effects of large-scale surface roughness on ultrasonic transmission through interfaces and updates our previously-reported results [1], The Center for Nondestructive Evaluation has developed a model for the propagation of ultrasound through a surface and into an isotropic metal and this model is undergoing experimental validation at Battelle PNL. Once validated, this model will be used as an engineering tool to study the effects of surface conditions upon an ultrasonic inspection of nuclear reactor components. The goal is to quantify and develop requirements to limit the adverse effects of surface conditions during ...

Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White

#### Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect and size crack-like defects in pressure vessels and pipework used in the nuclear industry. Reliable inspection can only be achieved if the inspection technique is understood, is optimised and subsequently applied correctly. Austenitic steels are used because of their corrosion resistance and toughness. Welds and centrifugally cast materials tend to crystallise with grains larger than the ultrasonic wavelength required to achieve the desired resolution in the inspection and thus appear anisotropic. Since the grains in a weld grow along the, varying, directions of maximum heat flux during cooling, the welds are inhomogeneous as well ...

Ultrasonic Scattering From Spherically Orthotropic Shells, John Mittleman, Ron Roberts, R. Bruce Thompson

#### Ultrasonic Scattering From Spherically Orthotropic Shells, John Mittleman, Ron Roberts, R. Bruce Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Concerns over the detectability of embrittlement in high strength alloys has led to studying a simple anisotropic shell model [1] for grain boundaries decorated by precipitates, or otherwise enriched by segregated inhomogenieties. In this model the shell is presumed to be “spherically orthotropic,” having five independent elastic constants and symmetry about the origin of a spherical coordinate system. This structure is analogous to transversely isotropic materials in a Cartesian coordinate system. By studying ultrasonic scattering from such shells (embedded in an isotropic host, and surrounding an isotropic core), we hope to learn whether their presence could be detected, and differentiated ...

2-D Elastodynamic Scattering From A Finite Closed Crack, Gert Persson

#### 2-D Elastodynamic Scattering From A Finite Closed Crack, Gert Persson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In the present paper the problem of 2-D elastodynamic scattering of horizontally polarized transverse waves from a finite planar or nonplanar closed crack is studied. The boundary conditions on the flaw are of a type which incorporate restoring forces (as well as energy dissipation), and this enables the modelling of a crack which is partly closed under a static background pressure. Given an incident plane wave and the crack geometry we calculate the backscattered far field in the time-harmonic case. In this study there are also a numerical comparison between two well known theoretical methods for 2-D scattering of ultrasonic ...

The T Matrix For Elastic Scattering By A Partly Closed Circular Crack, Arne Eriksson

#### The T Matrix For Elastic Scattering By A Partly Closed Circular Crack, Arne Eriksson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The object of this work is to calculate the T (transition) matrix for a circular crack in a homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic medium. The T matrix method is a building block technique for multiple scattering, where the T matrix is calculated for each scatterer separately without prior knowledge of the other scatterers (cracks, inclusions, surfaces, etc.).This means that we solve the scattering problem for arbitrary incoming time harmonic elastic waves. A solution for the scattering by an open circular crack can be found in [1], and for multiple scattering see [2]. On the crack surface the so called spring ...

A Theoretical Approach For The Discrimination Of Crack Tip And Small Defect Echoes, Alain Lhemery, Raphaele Raillon, Mourad Ouamer

#### A Theoretical Approach For The Discrimination Of Crack Tip And Small Defect Echoes, Alain Lhemery, Raphaele Raillon, Mourad Ouamer

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Due to diffraction of US by crack tips, a misinterpretation of C-Scans can be made by mistaking detection of a large misoriented crack for a small flaw. As the latter is often tolerable, the former jeopardizes the life of the piece. Fig. 1. shows C-Scans at various amplification levels. The two spots due to diffraction by the near and far tips of a crack can be interpreted as arising from two small defects, even at high amplification level (+18 dB) for which S/N ratio becomes unacceptable.

Ultrasonic Scattering From A Crack Which Emanates From A Rivet Hole, David Budreck

#### Ultrasonic Scattering From A Crack Which Emanates From A Rivet Hole, David Budreck

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In this article we present the exact solution, to first order of the interacting field, of the following canonical problem. We consider the scattering system consisting of an isotropic elastic medium containing an infinite cylindrical void (= hole), from which emanates a half-penny-shaped crack. The crack lies in a plane containing the axis of the cylindrical void, also the crack intersects the void at its own axis of symmetry. In the paragraph below we define what is meant by obtaining the solution ‘to first order’.

Reflection Of Elastic Waves By An Array Of Interface Cracks, Jianmin Qu

#### Reflection Of Elastic Waves By An Array Of Interface Cracks, Jianmin Qu

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

An imperfect diffusion bond between two dissimilar materials may be modeled by an interface with an array of interface cracks. The analytical treatment of the reflection and transmission of elastic waves by an array of interface cracks provides the prerequisite for nondestructive characterization of the diffusion bond by ultrasonic techniques. This paper is to develop approximate solutions for the reflection and transmission coefficients from an array of interface cracks.

Scattering By An Infinite Array Of Randomly Spaced Coplanar Cracks, Yozo Mikata

#### Scattering By An Infinite Array Of Randomly Spaced Coplanar Cracks, Yozo Mikata

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In this paper, the investigation is carried out for the scattering of an anti-plane shear (SH) wave by an infinite array of randomly spaced coplanar cracks. This study was motivated by the desire to better understand the detection and characterization of a flaw plane, i.e., a plane of microcracks, in a more realistic situation. The first thing we can do to model a flaw plane is to model it as a periodic array of cracks [1–5]. In reality, however, an array of cracks is never periodic but rather random. Thus in a previous paper [6], we have treated ...

Acoustic Ray Tracing With The Connection Machine, C. Sullivan, Y. Wang, R. A. Kline, R. B. Mignogna, R. S. Schechter, P. P. Delsanto, L. Ferrero

#### Acoustic Ray Tracing With The Connection Machine, C. Sullivan, Y. Wang, R. A. Kline, R. B. Mignogna, R. S. Schechter, P. P. Delsanto, L. Ferrero

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Acoustic rays do not travel in straight raypaths in nonhomogeneous media. This causes difficulty in tomographic image reconstruction. A method for acoustic ray tracing in nonhomogeneous media has been developed using the parallel processing capabilities of the Connection Machine. This method of ray tracing is intended to facilitate a parallel processing approach to tomographic image reconstruction.

Ultrasonic Field Patterns And Broadband Imaging-Simulations In Transversely Isotropic Media, M. Spies, P. Fellinger, U. Schleichert, K. J. Langenberg

#### Ultrasonic Field Patterns And Broadband Imaging-Simulations In Transversely Isotropic Media, M. Spies, P. Fellinger, U. Schleichert, K. J. Langenberg

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Thorough application of NDE — and imaging techniques in anisotropic media has to overcome those inherent problems like beam splitting, beam distortion and deviation between wave propagation direction and energy flow, known as beam skewing. A theory of elastic wave propagation in transversely isotropic media which properly accounts for these effects has been presented previously [1], an overview has been presented at last year’s conference [2]. Analytic expressions have been derived characterizing the propagation of Gaussian Wave Packets (GWPs) in these media thus making possible the simulation of real pulse propagation. In order to provide information from a practical point ...

An Efficient Fem Approach For The Study Of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation In Solids, John Sullivan Jr., R. Ludwig, W. J. Grimes

#### An Efficient Fem Approach For The Study Of Ultrasonic Wave Propagation In Solids, John Sullivan Jr., R. Ludwig, W. J. Grimes

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The need for the numerical analysis of the elastic wave equation in solids is driven by the application of ultrasonic techniques to non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds and bondlines. Unfortunately, the physics of the problem require numerical models with an excessive number of degrees of freedom and time steps to analyze the response of a system to an ultrasonic pulse input. In the past, super computers and vector processors were used to tackle these problems. Alternately, purely closed form solutions were investigated with idealized boundary conditions. This work presents plane strain and axisymmetric finite element formulations which include viscous damping ...

Improved Finite Difference Method For Long Distance Propagation Of Waves, Doron Kishoni, Shlomo Ta'asan

#### Improved Finite Difference Method For Long Distance Propagation Of Waves, Doron Kishoni, Shlomo Ta'asan

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Evaluation of aging aircraft involves inspection of large areas of plates, including lap joints, bonded material and other complex geometries. These inspections need to be done within a reasonable time in order to be economical. Ultrasonic measurements of plate-modes propagating for large distances [1] are a promising method for fast detection of these defects in a commercial environment. There is a need to predict the waveforms of such waves in order to analyze the results of the experimental data. Analytic solution cannot always be found for general cases, therefore, numerical prediction of elastic wave propagation for long distances is desired ...

High Accuracy Method Of Measuring Travelling Time Of Ultrasonic Waves, A. Khedher, B. De Halleux

#### High Accuracy Method Of Measuring Travelling Time Of Ultrasonic Waves, A. Khedher, B. De Halleux

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In this paper we consider a method of measuring travelling time of ultrasonic waves with high accuracy. The block diagram of this method is shown in figure 1.

Phase Velocity And Attenuation Of Sh Waves In A Fiber-Reinforced Composite, Ruey-Bin Yang, Ajit K. Mal

#### Phase Velocity And Attenuation Of Sh Waves In A Fiber-Reinforced Composite, Ruey-Bin Yang, Ajit K. Mal

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

We consider SH wave propagation in a fiber-reinforced composite which consists of a homogeneous, isotropic matrix, containing long, parallel, randomly distributed circular fibers of identical properties. The scattering of waves in the elastically inhomogeneous medium results in a frequency dependent velocity and attenuation of the coherent wave.

Ultrasonic Oblique Incidence In Anisotropic Media, Xiang Zhao, Davis M. Egle

#### Ultrasonic Oblique Incidence In Anisotropic Media, Xiang Zhao, Davis M. Egle

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Determining the elastic moduli of anisotropic materials via non-destructive testing techniques is one of the most difficult subjects of acoustoelasticity theory today. The major difficulty comes from the fact that the elastic waves propagating in anisotropic media have different phase and group velocities in both magnitude and direction, which was considered to greatly complicate the analysis of the problem. Therefore, previous work in this area has been restricted to either measurements conducted only in symmetry planes, as mentioned in [1,2], or the slight anisotropy case in which the ultrasonic measurement was approximately related to the phase velocity, such as ...

Guided Waves In Piezoelectric Plates, Hual-Te Chien, Adnan H. Nayfeh, Che-Hua Yang, Dale E. Chimenti

#### Guided Waves In Piezoelectric Plates, Hual-Te Chien, Adnan H. Nayfeh, Che-Hua Yang, Dale E. Chimenti

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

In recent paper [1] Nayfeh and Chimenti presented the analysis of the propagation of free waves in a general anisotropic plate. Closed form secular equations which isolate the mathematical conditions for symmetric and antisymmetric wave mode propagation in completely separate terms were obtained. By paralleling the procedure of Nayfeh and Chimenti [1], Nayfeh and Chien [2] presented exact solutions for the interaction of elastic waves with fluid-loaded piezoelectric plates. The technique used was shown to formally handle the most general anisotropy (i.e. the triclinic) case. The plate was immersed in liquid and incident waves impinged upon it from the ...

Interaction Of Ultrasound With Imperfectly Contacting Interfaces, R. Bruce Thompson

#### Interaction Of Ultrasound With Imperfectly Contacting Interfaces, R. Bruce Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The need to characterize imperfectly contacting interfaces is encountered in a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Parts (a)–(c) illustrate the stages of diffusion bonding, [1,2] in which the condition of the interface evolves from one of isolated contacts at the initial stages of bonding through one containing distributed micropores, which exist during intermediate stages, to a state in which the material is fully bonded but in which there may be some near-interface microstructural variations. The ability to determine the degree to which bonding has passed through these conditions is presently needed ...

Visualization Of Displacement Fields Generated By Axisymmetric Sources On An Elastic Half-Space, F. Stulen, D. B. Pape, L. J. House

#### Visualization Of Displacement Fields Generated By Axisymmetric Sources On An Elastic Half-Space, F. Stulen, D. B. Pape, L. J. House

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Different analytical methods have been used to study the waves generated by transient sources of finite extent. Methods have included: high-frequency approximations, Fourier superposition, linear superposition of the fields from elementary sources, and finite difference and finite element methods. Bresse and Hutchins [1] reported an exact analytical solution to an axisymmetric source on an elastic half-space, which is more numerically efficient compared with the previous methods.

Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin

#### Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Ultrasonic techniques are widely used in industry for thickness gauging, flaw detection and materials characterization. The ultrasonic waves are usually generated and detected by piezoelectric transducers and coupled to the inspected part either by direct contact or through a water bath or a water jet. Although widespread and generally cost effective, these conventional ultrasonic techniques suffer from essentially two severe limitations, which impact upon their use for on-line process control and the inspection of advanced materials.

Rapid Inspection Of Composites Using Laser-Based Ultrasound, Andrew Mckie, Robert C. Addison Jr.

#### Rapid Inspection Of Composites Using Laser-Based Ultrasound, Andrew Mckie, Robert C. Addison Jr.

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Current techniques for automated ultrasonic inspection of airframe structures can only be used to examine limited areas which have large radii of curvature. Manual inspection techniques are required in areas having small radii. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) offers the potential to rapidly inspect large-area composite structures having contoured geometries, without restriction to large radii of curvature [1–4]. The key components that comprise an LBU rapid inspection system are the generation and detection lasers, a 2D scanner and a suitably fast data acquisition system. These must be integrated to provide an areal scan rate of at least 100 ft2/hr based ...

Source Efficiency And Sensor Detectability Factors In Laser Ultrasonics, James Wagner

#### Source Efficiency And Sensor Detectability Factors In Laser Ultrasonics, James Wagner

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Perhaps the greatest fundamental deterrent to the application of current laser ultrasonic technology has been the fact that the detection sensitivity or detectability of laser receiver systems, compared with their piezoelectric counterparts, is rather poor. That is to say that in general, and especially on a dollar-for-dollar basis, piezoelectric transducers are able to detect much smaller surface displacements than can easily be detected by laser methods. As will be discussed shortly, there are several strategies which may be used to overcome these detectability shortcomings. Indeed, several of these strategies have been investigated at the laboratory level and some implemented in ...