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## Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Progress On Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing In Turbine Engine Rotor Components: Bore And Web Geometries, James H. Rose, T. A. Gray, R. Bruce Thompson, J. L. Opsal

#### Progress On Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing In Turbine Engine Rotor Components: Bore And Web Geometries, James H. Rose, T. A. Gray, R. Bruce Thompson, J. L. Opsal

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The application of generic flaw sizing techniques to specific components generally involves difficulties associated with geometrical complexity and simplifications arising from a knowledge of the expected flaw distribution. This paper is concerned with the case of ultrasonic flaw sizing in turbine engine rotor components. The sizing of flat penny shaped cracks in the web geometry will be discussed and new crack sizing algorithms based on the Born and Kirchhoff approximations will be introduced. Additionally we propose a simple method for finding the size of a flat, penny shaped crack given only the magnitude of the scattering amplitude. The bore geometry ...

On The Effects Of A Finite Aperture On The Inverse Born Approximation, Vladimir G. Kogan, James H. Rose

#### On The Effects Of A Finite Aperture On The Inverse Born Approximation, Vladimir G. Kogan, James H. Rose

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

One of the most important effects of complex part geometry is that the available entrance and exit angles for ultrasound are limited. We will present a study of the Inverse Born Approximation in which we have data for incident (and exit) directions confined to a conical aperture. Modeling the direct problem by the Born Approximation, we obtained analytical results for (1) a weak spherical inclusion, and (2) a penny shaped crack (modeled by an oblate spheroid). General results are: (a) the value of the characteristic function γ is constant in the interior of the flaw, but reduced in value; (b ...

Absolute Determination Of Stress In Textured Materials, R. Bruce Thompson, John F. Smith, S. S. Lee

#### Absolute Determination Of Stress In Textured Materials, R. Bruce Thompson, John F. Smith, S. S. Lee

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The continuum theory of elastic wave propagation in deformed, anisotropic solids is reviewed with emphasis on those features which might be used to distinguish between stress induced changes in ultrasonic velocity and changes due to material anisotropy, such as would be produced by preferred grain orientation in a polycrystalline metal As noted by previous authors, one such feature is the difference in velocity of two shear waves, whose directions of propagation and polarization have been interchanged. In particular, when these directions fall along the symmetry axes of a rolled plate (assuming orthorhombic symmetry) and these are also the directions of ...

The Clamping Force Of Heat Shrinkable Fittings, David K. Rehbein, B. J. Skillings, J. F. Smith, Donald O. Thompson

#### The Clamping Force Of Heat Shrinkable Fittings, David K. Rehbein, B. J. Skillings, J. F. Smith, Donald O. Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

A number of alloys exhibit a phenomenon which has come to be known as ‘shape memory’. Without exception these alloys undergo a rather special type of martensitic transformation which results from one or another of the elastic constants1–7 weakening with changing temperature to the point that at the transformation temperature the transforming phase becomes both mechanically and thermodynamically unstable. ‘Shape memory’ is exhibited in the following way. A specimen at a temperature above the martensitic transformation is shaped to some desired form. The specimen is then cooled below its transformation temperature and deformed. Subsequent heating of the specimen through ...

Elastic Wave Scattering From Multiple Voids (Porosity), Donald O. Thompson, Samuel J. Wormley, James H. Rose, R. Bruce Thompson

#### Elastic Wave Scattering From Multiple Voids (Porosity), Donald O. Thompson, Samuel J. Wormley, James H. Rose, R. Bruce Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

The purpose of the work described in this paper is the development of an ultrasonic measurement technique which provides a convenient way to detect dilute porosity conditions in materials and to extract certain properties of the flaw distribution which are important in failure prediction. Use has been made entirely of ultrasonic backscatter measurements; thus, the technique differs considerably from other investigations which lead to porosity determinations in that no reliance is placed upon either attenuation measurements or precise ultrasonic velocity measurements [1,2]. The technique thus possesses a distinct advantage for practical implementation, i.e., it is a “one-sided” measurement ...

A Computational Tool For The Design Of Ultrasonic Systems, Sam J. Wormley, Donald O. Thompson, Kenneth M. Lakin

#### A Computational Tool For The Design Of Ultrasonic Systems, Sam J. Wormley, Donald O. Thompson, Kenneth M. Lakin

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Advances in elastic wave scattering and inversion techniques have shown that advances in transducer technology are needed in order to fully exploit them. This is particularly true in the case of flaw sizing algorithms in which it has been demonstrated that a need exists for transducers with specified bandwidth characteristics. As a part of an effort to develop a composite, multiviewing ultrasonic transducer for flaw characterization, a computational tool has been developed which provides a convenient way to select driver pulse shapes and transducer characteristics which optimize this property. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this computational tool.

The Middle Ground Of The Nde R&D Spectrum, H. M. Burte, Dale E. Chimeti, R. Bruce Thompson, Donald O. Thompson

#### The Middle Ground Of The Nde R&D Spectrum, H. M. Burte, Dale E. Chimeti, R. Bruce Thompson, Donald O. Thompson

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Our keynote talk today has several objectives: First, we want to call attention, as some of us have before, to the interdisciplinary nature of NDE science and technology and some approaches for fostering R&D in such a situation. Next, we want to describe the objective of the DARPA, Air Force (and now Navy) core program for developing a science base for NDE and how it has evolved during the past two years. Some changes have indeed taken place; we feel that they were both necessary and evolutionary. Many of you are probably familiar with these changes by now but there may be some residual concerns or questions in your minds. Since I was the initiating influence behind most of them, it is appropriate for you to hear me say what they are and what they aren’t, and to have an opportunity to question ...

Effects Of Crack Closure On Ultrasonic Transmission, R. Bruce Thompson, B. J. Skillings, L. W. Zachary, L. W. Schmerr, Otto Buck

#### Effects Of Crack Closure On Ultrasonic Transmission, R. Bruce Thompson, B. J. Skillings, L. W. Zachary, L. W. Schmerr, Otto Buck

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Ultrasonic waves are attenuated as they propagate past the tip of a crack due to the reflection of the energy at the crack face and diffraction at the crack tip. Crack closure modifies the situation since partial transmission can occur at points along the crack face where asperities come in contact. This phenomenon is important in defining the ability to nondestructively detect closed cracks and in developing a more detailed understanding of the closure phenomenon itself. Modified compact tension specimens were used to investigate the effects of partial crack closure on focussed, through-transmission ultrasonic signals. Data obtained from fatigue cracks ...

Simulation Of Closure: Effects On Crack Detection Probability And Stress Distributions, Otto Buck, B. J. Skillings `, L. K. Reed

#### Simulation Of Closure: Effects On Crack Detection Probability And Stress Distributions, Otto Buck, B. J. Skillings `, L. K. Reed

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

It is well known that partial contact of two rough crack surfaces will lead to transmission of an acoustic signal across the crack, thus giving rise to a reduced probability of detection (POD). To explore the effects and consequences of such partial contact, impression experiments—using small spheres—have been performed to determine the effects of contact area on the amplitude transmitted. The results have been compared with a theory described elsewhere in these Proceedings. Based on the experimental results it will be speculated that the residual stress field responsible for the crack closure may be calculated based on a ...

Detection Of Closed Internal Fatigue Cracks, B. R. Tittmann, L. Ahlberg, Otto Buck, F. Cohen-Tenoudji, G. Quentin

#### Detection Of Closed Internal Fatigue Cracks, B. R. Tittmann, L. Ahlberg, Otto Buck, F. Cohen-Tenoudji, G. Quentin

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

This paper reviews some recent work on the detection and sizing of closed internal fatigue cracks by ultrasonic techniques. Major emphasis is put on the diffraction of shear waves at the crack tip. Both fully open as well as partially closed cracks were considered. The effect of crack closure stress on back- scattered (pulse-echo) shear waves was studied with the aid of an A1 compact tension specimen. Noticeable changes with crack closure stress were documented for the structure of both the time- domain and frequency-domain representations. The techniques acquired with this specimen were applied to the study of a 50 ...

Analytic Diffraction Corrections To Ultrasonic Scattering Measurements, R. Bruce Thompson, T. A. Gray

#### Analytic Diffraction Corrections To Ultrasonic Scattering Measurements, R. Bruce Thompson, T. A. Gray

*Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation*

Ultrasonic theories generally predict a scattering amplitude which relates a spherically spreading, far-field scattered wave to an incident plane wave. In ultrasonic immersion measurements, the frequency and angular dependences of the scattering amplitude are convolved with those of the transmitting and receiving transducers and the propagation through the liquid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces. This paper presents a set of approximate corrections for these effects for the cases of angle beam inspection through planar, spherically curved or cylindrically curved surfaces. The primary parameters in the correction are the function D, which corrects for the diffraction effects occurring during a transducer calibration experiment ...