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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Progress On Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing In Turbine Engine Rotor Components: Bore And Web Geometries, James H. Rose, T. A. Gray, R. Bruce Thompson, J. L. Opsal Jan 1983

Progress On Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing In Turbine Engine Rotor Components: Bore And Web Geometries, James H. Rose, T. A. Gray, R. Bruce Thompson, J. L. Opsal

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The application of generic flaw sizing techniques to specific components generally involves difficulties associated with geometrical complexity and simplifications arising from a knowledge of the expected flaw distribution. This paper is concerned with the case of ultrasonic flaw sizing in turbine engine rotor components. The sizing of flat penny shaped cracks in the web geometry will be discussed and new crack sizing algorithms based on the Born and Kirchhoff approximations will be introduced. Additionally we propose a simple method for finding the size of a flat, penny shaped crack given only the magnitude of the scattering amplitude. The bore geometry ...


Crack Mapping By Ray Methods, J. D. Achenbach, A. N. Norris, L. Ahlberg, B. R. Tittmann Jan 1983

Crack Mapping By Ray Methods, J. D. Achenbach, A. N. Norris, L. Ahlberg, B. R. Tittmann

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Two methods to map crack edges by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals have been briefly reviewed. They are a global triangulation method and a local crack-edge mapping technique. The local mapping technique, which generally has the greater accuracy, has been applied to both synthetic and experimental data. The effect of a uniform error in the data has been investigated. The experimental data were obtained at the Rockwell International Science Center for a doorknob specimen with a plane crack of elliptical shape at its center. Crack mappings of very satisfactory accuracy were achieved.


Classification Of Nde Waveforms With Autoregressive Models, R. B. Melton Jan 1983

Classification Of Nde Waveforms With Autoregressive Models, R. B. Melton

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

This paper describes a new approach for classifying NDE waveforms. Using this approach a set of matched filters is constructed one for each category of waveform, based on parameters from autoregressive models. The method offers advantages in terms of hardware implementation over conventional pattern recognition approaches. Feasibility is shown using computer generated data. Results are then presented for real data from acoustic emission experiments.


Rough Surface Effects Of Aluminum Castings On Ultrasonic Sizing Algorithms, Kent Lewis, Dale Fitting, Laszlo Adler Jan 1983

Rough Surface Effects Of Aluminum Castings On Ultrasonic Sizing Algorithms, Kent Lewis, Dale Fitting, Laszlo Adler

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Several techniques for characterizing flaws and inclusions using ultrasonic scattering information have been developed in recent years. These algorithms assume a noise-free medium and are sensitive to perturbations in the acquired spectra. However, surface roughness and volumetric porosity effects alter the available data.

In order to determine the effects of surface roughness typical of aluminum castings on inversion accuracy, a sequence of experiments was performed. Ultrasonic backscattering data were acquired from spheroidal defects in flat, smooth surfaced, diffusion bonded titanium samples. Next, the scattering spectra were perturbed using theoretically or experimentally determined transmission spectra obtained from rough surfaced cast aluminum ...


On The Effects Of A Finite Aperture On The Inverse Born Approximation, Vladimir G. Kogan, James H. Rose Jan 1983

On The Effects Of A Finite Aperture On The Inverse Born Approximation, Vladimir G. Kogan, James H. Rose

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

One of the most important effects of complex part geometry is that the available entrance and exit angles for ultrasound are limited. We will present a study of the Inverse Born Approximation in which we have data for incident (and exit) directions confined to a conical aperture. Modeling the direct problem by the Born Approximation, we obtained analytical results for (1) a weak spherical inclusion, and (2) a penny shaped crack (modeled by an oblate spheroid). General results are: (a) the value of the characteristic function γ is constant in the interior of the flaw, but reduced in value; (b ...


Eddy Current Characterization Of Applied And Residual Stresses, W. R. Junker, W. G. Clark Jr. Jan 1983

Eddy Current Characterization Of Applied And Residual Stresses, W. R. Junker, W. G. Clark Jr.

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate the applicability of state-of-the-art eddy current nondestructive evaluation techniques to the characterization of applied and residual stresses in structural steels. Eddy current response versus stress measurements were developed for ASTM Type A533B and A471 steels under tensile, bending and residual stress loading conditions. A “shrink fit” specimen was used to establish applicability to residual stresses. Results show that an eddy current approach can be used to provide an accurate quantitative measure of surface stresses. The technique can also be used to map surface stress contours. Details of the procedure are described along with ...


Acoustoelasticity: Scanning With Shear Waves, N. Shaikh, C. Steele, G. S. Kino Jan 1983

Acoustoelasticity: Scanning With Shear Waves, N. Shaikh, C. Steele, G. S. Kino

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Acoustoelasticity is a promising method for the in situ analysis of both applied and residual stresses. The object of this investigation is to establish a technique for scanned shear wave measurements so as to determine the individual components of an inhomogeneous stress state and their directions. A computer-controlled scanning system with a dry contact rubber backed transducer has been developed which provides complete automation of scanning and data reduction.

The theory of acoustoelasticity for anisotropic material has been developed using perturbation techniques. The experimental results on rolled aluminum plates confirm that, to a reasonable approximation, the effects of material anisotropy ...


The Effect Of Texture On Acoustoelasticity, George C. Johnson Jan 1983

The Effect Of Texture On Acoustoelasticity, George C. Johnson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The theory for stress determination using acoustoelasticity is most frequently based on the evaluation of the motion of an infinitesimal plane wave propagating through an isotropic, elastic body which is subjected to a homogeneous deformation. The assumption of isotropy in this analysis allows the characterization of the acoustoelastic response to be carried out in terms of two second-order and three third-order elastic constants. Unfortunately, most structural materials do not behave isotropically, but instead have some degree of texture caused by the crystals aligning themselves in certain preferred orientations during the forming process. This paper examines the effect of texture on ...


Residual Stress Characterization By Use Of Elastic Wave Scattering Measurements, E. Domany, J. E. Gubermatis Jan 1983

Residual Stress Characterization By Use Of Elastic Wave Scattering Measurements, E. Domany, J. E. Gubermatis

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The presence of a state of residual stress in a material can impair its structural quality by adversely affecting its elastic limit, yield point, etc.1 Most common nondestructive measurements of residual stress use x-ray techniques.2 However, these techniques determine only the surface residual stresses, while in many practical cases knowledge of the bulk residual stresses is desired. Ultrasonic methods3,4 appear most natural for measuring bulk residual stress but are used infrequently, in part because of difficulty in adequately measuring small effects and in part because of the absence of theoretical results treating the inhomogeneous nature of residual ...


Absolute Determination Of Stress In Textured Materials, R. Bruce Thompson, John F. Smith, S. S. Lee Jan 1983

Absolute Determination Of Stress In Textured Materials, R. Bruce Thompson, John F. Smith, S. S. Lee

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The continuum theory of elastic wave propagation in deformed, anisotropic solids is reviewed with emphasis on those features which might be used to distinguish between stress induced changes in ultrasonic velocity and changes due to material anisotropy, such as would be produced by preferred grain orientation in a polycrystalline metal As noted by previous authors, one such feature is the difference in velocity of two shear waves, whose directions of propagation and polarization have been interchanged. In particular, when these directions fall along the symmetry axes of a rolled plate (assuming orthorhombic symmetry) and these are also the directions of ...


Evaluation Of Residual Stress States Using Horizontally Polarized Shear Waves, R. B. King, C. M. Fortunko Jan 1983

Evaluation Of Residual Stress States Using Horizontally Polarized Shear Waves, R. B. King, C. M. Fortunko

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A new approach for using acoustic measurements to evaluate residual stresses in the presence of unknown material property variations is presented. It is shown that measurements using shear waves propagating along the normal to the surface of a plate do not provide sufficient information to separate the influences of stress and material property variations. To overcome this fundamental limitation, an alternative theory is developed that governs the propagation of shear waves polarized horizontally with respect to the surface of a plate (SH-waves), but propagating at oblique angles with respect to the surface normal. The question of separating the effects of ...


Detection Of Strain Induced Microstructural Changes In Aluminum (6061-T6) Using Ultrasonic Signal Analysis, G. H. Thomas, S. H. Goods, A. F. Emery Jan 1983

Detection Of Strain Induced Microstructural Changes In Aluminum (6061-T6) Using Ultrasonic Signal Analysis, G. H. Thomas, S. H. Goods, A. F. Emery

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A correlation between the change in ultrasonic wave forms and applied strain in aluminum (6061-T6) has been obtained at high strain levels. Sophisticated signal processing techniques have indicated a complex interaction of the frequency components of a high frequency ultrasonic pulse as it passes through an aluminum tensile specimen. Strain induced microstructural changes in the aluminum attenuate the acoustic energy. One of the attenuation mechanisms is the formation of deformation induced cavities at precipitates and inclusions which scatter the ultrasonic energy. Measuring the signal attenuation at the appropriate frequencies determines the degree of deformation induced damage.


The Use Of Acoustic Signal Attenuation In The Examination Of Residual Strains: Part B — The Use Of Experimentally Derived Acoustic Strain Correlations In The Evaluation Of Residual Strains And Stresses, A. F. Emery, G. H. Thomas Jan 1983

The Use Of Acoustic Signal Attenuation In The Examination Of Residual Strains: Part B — The Use Of Experimentally Derived Acoustic Strain Correlations In The Evaluation Of Residual Strains And Stresses, A. F. Emery, G. H. Thomas

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In a previous conference we presented a comparison of several different acoustic techniques to estimate residual stresses in complex situations.1 Of the several methods, the use of the attenuation of broad band pulses appeared to be better than the usual method of inferring strain from changes in the propagation velocity. The measurement of strain through changes in the velocity is effected through the equations 1 ΔV/V = f(εij), 2 Δt/t=Δd/d−ΔV/V where εij = strain tensor, t = time for the wave to traverse the specimen, d = specimen thickness, V = wave velocity.


The Use Of The Temperature Dependence Of Ultrasonic Velocity To Measure Residual Stress, K. Salama, J. J. Wang, G. C. Barber Jan 1983

The Use Of The Temperature Dependence Of Ultrasonic Velocity To Measure Residual Stress, K. Salama, J. J. Wang, G. C. Barber

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The behavior of the temperature dependence of longitudinal ultrasonic velocity in type A533B steel in the presence of external as well as residual stresses has been investigated. In all measurements, the ultrasonic velocity in the vicinity of room temperature is found to vary linearly with temperature, and the slope of the linear relationship increases or decreases according to whether the stress is applied in tension or in compression respectively. The results also indicate that the temperature dependence of the velocity is a linear function of applied stress, and the slope of this linear relationship is the same for all specimens ...


Energy Release Rates For Various Defects, Eugene Pak, Alicia Golebiewska-Herrmann, George Herrmann Jan 1983

Energy Release Rates For Various Defects, Eugene Pak, Alicia Golebiewska-Herrmann, George Herrmann

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

It is known that the energy-release rates associated with translation, rotation, and self-similar expansion of cavities or cracks in solids are expressed by path-independent integrals J, L and M, respectively. These integrals are of interest to NDE in that they can be used to characterize nondestructively defects in solids.

It is shown that these integrals for a crack may be evaluated by first considering an ellipse and then performing a limiting process. This obviates dealing with singularities at crack tips and holds promise for a more efficient numerical method in complicated cases, since modeling of singularities is always associated with ...


Ultrasonic Determination Of Grain Size In Uranium, William D. Brosey Jan 1983

Ultrasonic Determination Of Grain Size In Uranium, William D. Brosey

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

An ultrasonic technique has been developed that enables measurement of grain size in uranium without metallographic preparation or destructive analysis. Pitch-catch ultrasonic analysis using transverse (shear) waves was conducted in the determination of grain size in wrought uranium parts.


Finding Through Nde The Thermal History And Metallurgical Status Of A Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloy, Russell A. Chihoski Jan 1983

Finding Through Nde The Thermal History And Metallurgical Status Of A Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloy, Russell A. Chihoski

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In heat-treatable aluminum alloys it has long been accepted that decreased values of strength were accompanied by increases in electrical conductivity (C). In quality or processing control and trouble-shooting situations this has been useful for finding anomalies in or among aluminum alloy maill products. But the regression was always found as a wide scatterband where conductivity could not give a narrow range of possible strengths.

It was discovered for several alloys and quantified for 2219, that the scatterband formed by data from several lots and sources actually could be divided into groups with different histories. When specimens produced by created ...


Fiber Optics For A Damage Assessment System For Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite Structures, Roger M. Crane, Aleksander B. Macander, James Gagorik Jan 1983

Fiber Optics For A Damage Assessment System For Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite Structures, Roger M. Crane, Aleksander B. Macander, James Gagorik

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

There are a limited number of nondestructive evaluation techniques available for field inspection of large composite structures and practically no viable techniques for in-service inspection. With this in mind, an innovative Damage Assessment System is proposed which is based on a concept of using an optical fiber mesh, implanted into the body of a fiber reinforced composite structure. Such a mesh would become an integral part of the structure during the course of its fabrication. The selection of the mesh fibers would be predicated on their strain to failure characteristics and strain compatibility with the base, composite reinforcing fibers. This ...


Ultrasonic Steel Cleanliness System, James M. Smith Jan 1983

Ultrasonic Steel Cleanliness System, James M. Smith

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

It is well known that nonmetallic inclusions can adversely affect the metallurgical properties of engineering alloys. For critical components such as aircraft engine gears and bearings it is important then to quantitatively assess the severity of the inclusion content in the alloy material before performing costly manufacturing operations. This poster paper will describe the operation and the initial results of a computer controlled steel cleanliness inspection system.

The severity of the inclusion content is determined by this system through a statistical analysis of the internally reflected ultrasonic indications from the alloy material as a transducer is scanned in a raster ...


A Portable High Speed Ultrasonic Imaging System, B. P. Hildebrand, T. J. Davis, A. J. Boland, R. R. Silta Jan 1983

A Portable High Speed Ultrasonic Imaging System, B. P. Hildebrand, T. J. Davis, A. J. Boland, R. R. Silta

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Acoustical holography is rapidly approaching commercial status with applications to nondestructive evaluation, underwater imaging, and underground pipe location being pursued. In this paper we review the techniques involved, show some experimental results, and describe the latest commercial system.


The Clamping Force Of Heat Shrinkable Fittings, David K. Rehbein, B. J. Skillings, J. F. Smith, Donald O. Thompson Jan 1983

The Clamping Force Of Heat Shrinkable Fittings, David K. Rehbein, B. J. Skillings, J. F. Smith, Donald O. Thompson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A number of alloys exhibit a phenomenon which has come to be known as ‘shape memory’. Without exception these alloys undergo a rather special type of martensitic transformation which results from one or another of the elastic constants1–7 weakening with changing temperature to the point that at the transformation temperature the transforming phase becomes both mechanically and thermodynamically unstable. ‘Shape memory’ is exhibited in the following way. A specimen at a temperature above the martensitic transformation is shaped to some desired form. The specimen is then cooled below its transformation temperature and deformed. Subsequent heating of the specimen through ...


Application Of Fourier Elastodynamics To Direct And Inverse Problems For The Scattering Of Elastic Waves From Flaws Near Surfaces, J. M. Richardson, K. W. Fertig Jr. Jan 1983

Application Of Fourier Elastodynamics To Direct And Inverse Problems For The Scattering Of Elastic Waves From Flaws Near Surfaces, J. M. Richardson, K. W. Fertig Jr.

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In ultrasonic inspection one frequently encounters situations in which flaws lie too close to surfaces (or interfaces) for the applications of the conventional theory of scattering in an infinite host medium. One approach, pursued by Varadan, Pillai, and Varadan, is to rework scattering theory with a Green function suitably modified for the presence of surfaces. Our approach uses a Fourier elastodynamics formalism in which the scattering process is represented by the generalized transfer function for a slab of material containing the flaw. A sufficiently simple elastodynamic system can be built up of separately characterizable subsystems defined by intervals on the ...


Wave Scattering By Obstacles In Joined Fluid-Solid Half Spaces, V. V. Varadan, T. A. K. Pillai, V. K. Varadan Jan 1983

Wave Scattering By Obstacles In Joined Fluid-Solid Half Spaces, V. V. Varadan, T. A. K. Pillai, V. K. Varadan

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In recent years, attention has shifted from the ultrasonic NDE of bulk flaws to flaws in structural components that involve nearby surfaces. Very often it is convenient to exajnine the part in a water tank, locating the transmitting/receiving transducers in water. This paper is concerned with a theoretical study of a near surface flaw in an immersion tank experiment. The analytical problem to be studied is the scattering of ultrasound by an obstacle that is located near a solid-fluid (water) interface. The distance ‘d’ of the center of the flaw from the interface ranges from ‘a’ to ‘15a’ where ...


Scattering By Flaws In A Slab Or A Half-Space, William M. Visscher Jan 1983

Scattering By Flaws In A Slab Or A Half-Space, William M. Visscher

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

It is the main function of quantitative NDE to detect and to evaluate defects. Some of the most dangerous defects are cracks, especially cracks on or near surfaces. These cracks can be found by scattering ultrasonic waves from them (either bulk waves or surface waves), but up to now there is no theory (at least in the most interesting low-to-intermediate frequency region) which has been implemented to compute scattering from surface or near-surface cracks in 3d. The purpose of the present report is to explain, via a simple scalar example, the principles of a general boundary-integral-representation method which has been ...


Effects Of Microstructure On The Speed And Attenuation Of Elastic Waves: Formal Theory And Simple Approximations, J. E. Gubernatis, E. Domany Jan 1983

Effects Of Microstructure On The Speed And Attenuation Of Elastic Waves: Formal Theory And Simple Approximations, J. E. Gubernatis, E. Domany

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The sensitivity of the propagation of an elastic wave to changes in the microstructural details of a material is well known.1 In particular, numerous experiments have shown that the attenuation of the wave is sensitive to the inclusions, voids, cracks, grain boundaries, twin boundaries, interphase boundaries, magnetic domain walls, dislocations, substitutional impurities of a material. For attenuation studies in metals, ceramics and polycrystals, three formulas, each for different wavelength regimes, are generally used in the quantitative interpretation of experimental results.1–3 If λ is the wavelength of the elastic wave and is the average grain diameter, then in ...


On The Estimation Of Porosity In Composites By Oblique Angle Illumination, A. C. Kak, Mani Azimi, Malcolm Slaney Jan 1983

On The Estimation Of Porosity In Composites By Oblique Angle Illumination, A. C. Kak, Mani Azimi, Malcolm Slaney

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Reported here are some preliminary computer simulation results on the feasibility of using oblique incidence ultrasound for the detection and estimation of porosity in composites. In the oblique incidence approach, the composite is illuminated at off normal angles in such a manner that the reflected returns from the fibers are in directions away from the illuminating transducer. Since the scattered returns from porosity tend to be more omnidirectional than the fiber returns, there is a larger received signal in the presence of porosity.


Elastic Wave Scattering From Multiple Voids (Porosity), Donald O. Thompson, Samuel J. Wormley, James H. Rose, R. Bruce Thompson Jan 1983

Elastic Wave Scattering From Multiple Voids (Porosity), Donald O. Thompson, Samuel J. Wormley, James H. Rose, R. Bruce Thompson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The purpose of the work described in this paper is the development of an ultrasonic measurement technique which provides a convenient way to detect dilute porosity conditions in materials and to extract certain properties of the flaw distribution which are important in failure prediction. Use has been made entirely of ultrasonic backscatter measurements; thus, the technique differs considerably from other investigations which lead to porosity determinations in that no reliance is placed upon either attenuation measurements or precise ultrasonic velocity measurements [1,2]. The technique thus possesses a distinct advantage for practical implementation, i.e., it is a “one-sided” measurement ...


Backscattering Of Ultrasonic Leaky Waves From Liquid-Solid Interfaces, Laszlo Adler, Ken Bolland, Michel De Billy, Gerard Quentin Jan 1983

Backscattering Of Ultrasonic Leaky Waves From Liquid-Solid Interfaces, Laszlo Adler, Ken Bolland, Michel De Billy, Gerard Quentin

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

It is well known that when a finite ultrasonic beam of a given spatial distribution is incident at the Rayleigh angle to a liquid-solid interface, the spatial distribution of the reflected field may be altered significantly. The “energy redistribution” is due to the interference between the specularly reflected beam and a surface wave which has leaked back to the water. The “shape” of the reflected field depends on the so-called Schoch displacement (which is characteristic of the interface) and on the width of the ultrasonic beam. It has also been observed that significant energy is scattered back to the transmitter ...


An Inverse Problem In Viscoelasticity, Lewis Thigpen, Gerald W. Hedstrom, Brian P. Bonner Jan 1983

An Inverse Problem In Viscoelasticity, Lewis Thigpen, Gerald W. Hedstrom, Brian P. Bonner

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Calculation of attenuation and dispersion spectra for a general anelastic body may be posed as an inversion problem. We observe the time-dependent strain due to “instantaneous” changes in stress in order to characterize the anelastic response. This experimental technique reaches a range of frequencies which is lower than that used in resonance bar experiments, but we can make only indirect measurement of the viscoelastic properties. We employ the most general anelastic model which states that the observed compliance is due to the summed effect of an arbitrary spectrum of mechanisms. The analysis requires the solution of Fredholm integral equations of ...


Inverse Ray Tracing In Anisotropic Elastic Solids, Andrew Norris Jan 1983

Inverse Ray Tracing In Anisotropic Elastic Solids, Andrew Norris

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The problem of inverse ray tracing in a homogeneous anisotropic elastic solid is considered, with specific application to crack sizing. The data is assumed to be in the form of travel times of diffracted ultrasonic signals between transducers positioned on an exterior surface of the body. Both pulse-echo and pitch-catch data are considered. First, it is assumed that the wave speeds are unknown and must be obtained as part of the inversion procedure. The specific problem of locating a crack tip in a two-dimensional geometry is investigated. It is found that travel time data on the exterior surface suffices to ...