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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Integrative Computational Modeling For Developing Means To Manipulate Biological Cells And For Solving Complex Engineering Problems, Yu Zhao, Guigen Zhang Oct 2017

Integrative Computational Modeling For Developing Means To Manipulate Biological Cells And For Solving Complex Engineering Problems, Yu Zhao, Guigen Zhang

Commonwealth Computational Summit

A brief discussion on reductive vs integrative investigation

A case study: how integrative computational modeling helps advance the understanding and application of dielectrophoresis (DEP) in various situations

Other applications in advancing the design and development of nanopore, medical devices, novel materials, actuation devices, and coupled spectroscopic techniques, etc.


Integrative Computational Modeling For Developing Means To Manipulate Biological Cells And For Solving Complex Engineering Problems, Yu Zhao, Guigen Zhang Oct 2017

Integrative Computational Modeling For Developing Means To Manipulate Biological Cells And For Solving Complex Engineering Problems, Yu Zhao, Guigen Zhang

Commonwealth Computational Summit

Computational modeling has become more widely used to guide the design of microfluidic devices for manipulating cells using Dielectrophoresis (DEP), and devise novel means for advancing the study of cellular science and engineering. Conventionally, cells are treated as volumeless points in the system, which allows study of the movement of groups of particles under the effect of field. However, this approach often neglects the distortion effect of particle on external field, as well as interactions among particles. Moreover, it ignores the complex inner structures of cell, which are the causes of distinctive cell behavior. To more accurately model the behavior ...


Parallelization Of A Three-Dimensional Full Multigrid Algorithm To Simulate Tumor Growth, Dylan Goodin, Chin F. Ng, Hermann B. Frieboes Oct 2017

Parallelization Of A Three-Dimensional Full Multigrid Algorithm To Simulate Tumor Growth, Dylan Goodin, Chin F. Ng, Hermann B. Frieboes

Commonwealth Computational Summit

We present the performance gains of an openMP implementation of a fully adaptive nonlinear full multigrid (FMG) algorithm to simulate three-dimensional multispecies desmoplastic tumor growth on computer systems of varying processing capabilities. The FMG algorithm is applied to solve a recently published thermodynamic mixture model that uses a diffuse interface approach with fourth-order reaction-advection-diffusion PDEs (Cahn-Hilliard-type equations) that are coupled, nonlinear, and numerically stiff. The model includes multiple cell species and extracellular matrix (ECM), with adhesive and elastic energy contributions in chemical potential terms, as well as including blood and lymphatic vessels represented as continuous vasculatures. Advection-reaction-diffusion PDEs are employed ...


Using A Respiratory Navigator Significantly Reduces Variability When Quantifying Left Ventricular Torsion With Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Kristin N. Andres, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt Mar 2017

Using A Respiratory Navigator Significantly Reduces Variability When Quantifying Left Ventricular Torsion With Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Kristin N. Andres, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Left ventricular (LV) torsion is an important indicator of cardiac function that is limited by high inter-test variability (50% of the mean value). We hypothesized that this high inter-test variability is partly due to inconsistent breath-hold positions during serial image acquisitions, which could be significantly improved by using a respiratory navigator for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) based quantification of LV torsion.

Methods: We assessed respiratory-related variability in measured LV torsion with two distinct experimental protocols. First, 17 volunteers were recruited for CMR with cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) in which a respiratory navigator was used to measure ...


An Interactive Videogame Designed To Improve Respiratory Navigator Efficiency In Children Undergoing Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Jonathan D. Grabau, Kristin N. Andres, Moriel H. Vandsburger, David K. Powell, Vincent L. Sorrell, Brandon K. Fornwalt Sep 2016

An Interactive Videogame Designed To Improve Respiratory Navigator Efficiency In Children Undergoing Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Sean M. Hamlet, Christopher M. Haggerty, Jonathan D. Suever, Gregory J. Wehner, Jonathan D. Grabau, Kristin N. Andres, Moriel H. Vandsburger, David K. Powell, Vincent L. Sorrell, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) acquisitions often require long scan durations that necessitate respiratory navigator gating. The tradeoff of navigator gating is reduced scan efficiency, particularly when the patient’s breathing patterns are inconsistent, as is commonly seen in children. We hypothesized that engaging pediatric participants with a navigator-controlled videogame to help control breathing patterns would improve navigator efficiency and maintain image quality.

Methods: We developed custom software that processed the Siemens respiratory navigator image in real-time during CMR and represented diaphragm position using a cartoon avatar, which was projected to the participant in the scanner as visual feedback ...


Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemoradiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong, Mahesh Kudrimoti, Daniel Irwin, Li Chen, Sameera Kumar, Yu Shang, Chong Huang, Ellis L. Johnson, Scott D. Stevens, Brent J. Shelton, Guoqiang Yu Aug 2016

Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemoradiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong, Mahesh Kudrimoti, Daniel Irwin, Li Chen, Sameera Kumar, Yu Shang, Chong Huang, Ellis L. Johnson, Scott D. Stevens, Brent J. Shelton, Guoqiang Yu

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

This study used a hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument to monitor tumor hemodynamic responses to chemoradiation therapy for early prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-seven patients were measured once per week to evaluate the hemodynamic status of clinically involved cervical lymph nodes as surrogates for the primary tumor response. Patients were classified into two groups: complete response (CR) (n = 29) and incomplete response (IR) (n = 18). Tumor hemodynamic responses were found to be associated with clinical outcomes (CR/IR), wherein the associations differed depending on human papillomavirus (HPV-16) status. In HPV-16 positive patients, significantly ...


Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemo-Radiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong Jan 2015

Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemo-Radiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Chemo-radiation therapy is a principal modality for the treatment of head and neck cancers, and its efficacy depends on the interaction of tumor oxygen with free radicals. In this study, we adopted a novel hybrid diffuse optical instrument combining a commercial frequency-domain tissue oximeter (Imagent) and a custom-made diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flowmeter, which allowed for simultaneous measurements of tumor blood flow and blood oxygenation. Using this hybrid instrument we continually measured tumor hemodynamic responses to chemo-radiation therapy over the treatment period of 7 weeks. We also explored monitoring dynamic tumor hemodynamic changes during radiation delivery. Blood flow data analysis ...


Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke Jan 2015

Inhalable Nanocomposites And Anticancer Agents For Cancer Therapy, Nathanael A. Stocke

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer is designated as the leading cause of mortality worldwide and lung cancer is responsible for nearly 30% of all cancer related deaths. Over the last few decades mortality rates have only marginally increased and rates of recurrence remain high. These factors, among others, suggest the need for more innovative treatment modalities in lung cancer therapy. Targeted pulmonary delivery is well established for treating pulmonary diseases such as asthma and provides a promising platform for lung cancer therapy. Increasing local deposition of anticancer agents (ACAs) and reducing systemic exposure of these toxic moieties could lead to better therapeutic outcomes and ...


Bifunctional Bisphosphonates For Delivering Biomolecules To Bone, Jivan N. Yewle Jan 2012

Bifunctional Bisphosphonates For Delivering Biomolecules To Bone, Jivan N. Yewle

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Active targeting with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents to bone is an ideal approach for treatment of several bone diseases. Since bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to have high affinity to bone mineral and are being widely used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-suited for drug targeting to bone. For this purpose, bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs) with spacers of various lengths and lipophilicity were synthesized and studied. Crystal growth inhibition assays demonstrated that the HBPs with shorter spacers bound more strongly to bone mineral, hydroxyapatite (HA), than did alendronate. HBPs were also demonstrated to be non-toxic to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. The targeted ...


Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang Jan 2011

Modeling And Quantitative Analysis Of White Matter Fiber Tracts In Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Xuwei Liang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to record incoherent motion of water molecules and has been used to detect micro structural white matter alterations in clinical studies to explore certain brain disorders. A variety of DTI based techniques for detecting brain disorders and facilitating clinical group analysis have been developed in the past few years. However, there are two crucial issues that have great impacts on the performance of those algorithms. One is that brain neural pathways appear in complicated 3D structures which are inappropriate and inaccurate to be approximated by simple 2D structures ...