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2019

Additive manufacturing

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Application Of Micro-Scale 3d Printing In Pharmaceutics, Andrew Kjar, Yu Huang Aug 2019

Application Of Micro-Scale 3d Printing In Pharmaceutics, Andrew Kjar, Yu Huang

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

3D printing, as one of the most rapidly-evolving fabrication technologies, has released a cascade of innovation in the last two decades. In the pharmaceutical field, the integration of 3D printing technology has offered unique advantages, especially at the micro-scale. When printed at a micro-scale, materials and devices can provide nuanced solutions to controlled release, minimally invasive delivery, high-precision targeting, biomimetic models for drug discovery and development, and future opportunities for personalized medicine. This review aims to cover the recent advances in this area. First, the 3D printing techniques are introduced with respect to the technical parameters and features that are ...


A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou Aug 2019

A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou

Frank W. Liou

Metallic components can gain defects such as dents, cracks, wear, heat checks, deformation, etc., that need to be repaired before reinserting into service for extending the lifespan of these parts. In this study, a hybrid process was developed to integrate reverse engineering, pre-repair processing, additive manufacturing, and material testing for the purpose of part remanufacturing. Worn components with varied defects were scanned using a 3D scanner to recreate the three-dimensional models. Pre-repair processing methods which include pre-repair machining and heat-treatment were introduced. Strategies for pre-repair machining of defects including surface impact damage, surface superficial damage and cracking were presented. Pre-repair ...


A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou Jun 2019

A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Metallic components can gain defects such as dents, cracks, wear, heat checks, deformation, etc., that need to be repaired before reinserting into service for extending the lifespan of these parts. In this study, a hybrid process was developed to integrate reverse engineering, pre-repair processing, additive manufacturing, and material testing for the purpose of part remanufacturing. Worn components with varied defects were scanned using a 3D scanner to recreate the three-dimensional models. Pre-repair processing methods which include pre-repair machining and heat-treatment were introduced. Strategies for pre-repair machining of defects including surface impact damage, surface superficial damage and cracking were presented. Pre-repair ...


Evaluation Of Tensile Properties For Selective Laser Melted 316l Stainless Steel And The Influence Of Inherent Process Features, Paul Swartz Jun 2019

Evaluation Of Tensile Properties For Selective Laser Melted 316l Stainless Steel And The Influence Of Inherent Process Features, Paul Swartz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Optimal print parameters for additively manufacturing 316L stainless steel using selective laser melting (SLM) at Cal Poly had previously been identified. In order to further support the viability of the current settings, tensile material characteristics were needed. Furthermore, reliable performance of the as-printed material had to be demonstrated. Any influence on the static performance of parts in the as-printed condition inherent to the SLM manufacturing process itself needed to be identified. Tensile testing was conducted to determine the properties of material in the as-printed condition. So as to have confidence in the experimental results, other investigations were also conducted to ...


Mechanical Properties And Applications Of Recycled Polycarbonate Particle Material Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Matthew J. Reich, Aubrey Woern, Nagendra Gautam Tanikella, Joshua M. Pearce May 2019

Mechanical Properties And Applications Of Recycled Polycarbonate Particle Material Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Matthew J. Reich, Aubrey Woern, Nagendra Gautam Tanikella, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

Past work has shown that particle material extrusion (fused particle fabrication (FPF)/fused granular fabrication (FGF)) has the potential for increasing the use of recycled polymers in 3D printing. This study extends this potential to high-performance (high-mechanical-strength and heat-resistant) polymers using polycarbonate (PC). Recycled PC regrind of approximately 25 mm2 was 3D printed with an open-source Gigabot X and analyzed. A temperature and nozzle velocity matrix was used to find useful printing parameters, and a print test was used to maximize the output for a two-temperature stage extruder for PC. ASTM type 4 tensile test geometries as well as ...


Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri Mar 2019

Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Ensuring adequate quality for additive manufactured (AM) materials presents unique metrology challenges to the on-line process measurement and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) communities. AM parts now have complex forms that are not possible using subtractive manufacturing and there are moves for their use in safety criticality components. This paper briefly reviews the status, challenges and metrology opportunities throughout the AM process from powder to finished parts. The primary focus is on new acoustic signatures that have been demonstrated to correlate process parameters with on-line measurement for monitoring and characterization during the build. In-process, quantitative characterization and monitoring of material state is ...


Application Of Metamaterials For Multifunctional Satellite Bus Enabled Via Additive Manufacturing, Michael A. Macchia Mar 2019

Application Of Metamaterials For Multifunctional Satellite Bus Enabled Via Additive Manufacturing, Michael A. Macchia

Theses and Dissertations

Space systems require materials with superior stiffness to weight ratios to provide structural integrity while minimizing mass. Additive manufacturing processes enable the design of metamaterials that exceed the performance of naturally occurring materials in addition to allowing the integration of non-structural functions. This research explored the use of a high stiffness, high density, small melt pool track width AM material, Inconel 718, to enable the production of metamaterials with finer features possible than can possibly be created using a lower density aluminum alloy material. Various metamaterials were designed utilizing thin wall triply periodic minimal surface infilled sandwich structures. The performance ...


On The Role Of Composition And Processing Parameters On The Microstructure Evolution Of Ti-Xmo Alloys, Michael Y. Mendoza, Peyman Samimi, David A. Brice, Iman Ghamarian, Matt Rolchigo, Richard Lesar, Peter Collins Jan 2019

On The Role Of Composition And Processing Parameters On The Microstructure Evolution Of Ti-Xmo Alloys, Michael Y. Mendoza, Peyman Samimi, David A. Brice, Iman Ghamarian, Matt Rolchigo, Richard Lesar, Peter Collins

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) was used to produce a compositionally graded Ti-xMo (0 ≤ x ≤ 12 wt %) specimen and nine Ti-15Mo (fixed composition) specimens at different energy densities to understand the composition–processing–microstructure relationships operating using additive manufacturing. The gradient was used to evaluate the effect of composition on the prior-beta grain size. The specimens deposited using different energy densities were used to assess the processing parameters influence the microstructure evolutions. The gradient specimen did not show beta grain size reduction with the Mo content. The analysis from the perspective of the two grain refinement mechanisms based on a ...


Additive Manufacturing Of Transparent Fused Quartz, Junjie Luo, John M. Hostetler, Luke Gilbert, Jonathan T. Goldstein, Augustine M. Urbas, Douglas A. Bristow, Robert G. Landers, Edward C. Kinzel Jan 2019

Additive Manufacturing Of Transparent Fused Quartz, Junjie Luo, John M. Hostetler, Luke Gilbert, Jonathan T. Goldstein, Augustine M. Urbas, Douglas A. Bristow, Robert G. Landers, Edward C. Kinzel

Robert G. Landers

This paper investigates a filament-fed process for additive manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Glasses such as fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications, which include optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. AM has several attractive benefits such as increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research into glass AM has focused primarily on nonoptical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for use in high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser-generated molten region, smoothly depositing ...


Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Of Laser-Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes, Niranjan D. Parab, Cang Zhao, Ross Cunningham, Luis I. Escano, Kamel Fezzaa, Wes Everhart, Anthony D. Rollett, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun Jan 2019

Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Of Laser-Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes, Niranjan D. Parab, Cang Zhao, Ross Cunningham, Luis I. Escano, Kamel Fezzaa, Wes Everhart, Anthony D. Rollett, Lianyi Chen, Tao Sun

Lianyi Chen

The high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging technique was synchronized with a custom-built laser-melting setup to capture the dynamics of laser powder-bed fusion processes in situ. Various significant phenomena, including vapor-depression and melt-pool dynamics and powder-spatter ejection, were captured with high spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging frame rates of up to 10 MHz were used to capture the rapid changes in these highly dynamic phenomena. At the same time, relatively slow frame rates were employed to capture large-scale changes during the process. This experimental platform will be vital in the further understanding of laser additive manufacturing processes and will be particularly helpful ...


An Energy Profile Model For Fused Deposition Modeling 3d Printing Process, Calvin Hawkins Jan 2019

An Energy Profile Model For Fused Deposition Modeling 3d Printing Process, Calvin Hawkins

ROEU 2018-19

This project develops a strategy to monitor and estimate the energy consumption of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing, which will benefit manufacturers and designers seeking to design and manufacture products with minimal energy consumption.


Glocal Integrity In 420 Stainless Steel By Asynchronous Laser Processing, Michael P. Sealy, Haitham Hadidi, Cody Kanger, X. L. Yan, Bai Cui, J. A. Mcgeough Jan 2019

Glocal Integrity In 420 Stainless Steel By Asynchronous Laser Processing, Michael P. Sealy, Haitham Hadidi, Cody Kanger, X. L. Yan, Bai Cui, J. A. Mcgeough

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Cold working individual layers during additive manufacturing (AM) by mechanical surface treatments, such as peening, effectively “prints” an aggregate surface integrity that is referred to as a glocal (i.e., local with global implications) integrity. Printing a complex, pre-designed glocal integrity throughout the build volume is a feasible approach to improve functional performance while mitigating distortion. However, coupling peening with AM introduces new manufacturing challenges, namely thermal cancellation, whereby heat relaxes favorable residual stresses and work hardening when printing on a peened layer. Thus, this work investigates glocal integrity formation from cyclically coupling LENS® with laser peening on 420 stainless ...


Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli Jan 2019

Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions, an already prevalent problem, is expected to double by 2020 from the rate in 2013 due to factors such as higher life expectancies and lower levels of physical activity. Every year in the United States, over half a million patients receive bone defect repairs, with costs greater than $2.5 billion. Current repairs are typically done with bone grafts, which are often costly and can result in added complications in the donor surgical site. Tissue engineering, a growing field that seeks to assist and enhance tissue defect repairs through the use of synthetic ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis Jan 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


Towards Understanding Material Characteristics Through The Additive Manufacturing Arc, Alden Watts Jan 2019

Towards Understanding Material Characteristics Through The Additive Manufacturing Arc, Alden Watts

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The directed energy powder feed additive manufacturing (AM) process fabricates components with good quality, accuracy, and efficiency. However, this is a complex process and without careful consideration can lead to discontinuities in the final product such as porosity, cracks, or unfavorable microstructure. These material discontinuities may occur due to the limited understanding of the relationship between AM source materials and the evolution of the composition and microstructure during the deposition process. This makes it vital to study and correlate the composition, morphology, and characteristics of both the source material and of the final printed parts. In this research the properties ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro Jan 2019

Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Mechanical strength of polylactic acid (PLA) is increasingly relevant with time because of its attractive mechanical properties and 3D printability. Additive manufacturing (AM) methods, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), and selective laser sintering (SLS), serve a vital role in assisting designers with cheap and efficient generation of the desired components. This document presents research to investigate the anisotropic response of multi-oriented PLA subjected to multiple monotonic loading conditions. Although empirical data has previously been captured for multi-oriented PLA under tensile and compressive loading conditions, the data has yet to be applied with regard to a representative component ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Development Of Test Methods For Characterizing Extrudability Of Cement-Based Materials For Use In 3d Printing, Jonathan Thomas Kuchem Jan 2019

Development Of Test Methods For Characterizing Extrudability Of Cement-Based Materials For Use In 3d Printing, Jonathan Thomas Kuchem

Masters Theses

"3D printing is the process of creating three-dimensional objects using an automated additive manufacturing process. The 3D printing process has been used with materials such as metals and polymers, but application with cement based materials for the construction industry has yet to be developed. In this research, two main problems were investigated for printing cement based composite materials: extrudability and tensile reinforcement. Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) was studied as an internal reinforcing system to increase tensile/flexural strength. First, FRC was studied to investigate mechanical properties and use of fibers from waste tires as an environmentally friendly option. A reference mixture ...