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2019

Environmental Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr Dec 2019

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The development of effective treatment processes for the removal contaminants, such as fluoride and heavy metals, from polluted water have been urgently needed due to serious environmental health and safety concerns. In this dissertation, a variety of materials including various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, biochars and surface modified biochar were studied to evaluate their effectiveness and mechanism on removing fluoride or mixed heavy metals from water.

In the Chapter 2, this study investigated the adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, focusing on ferrihydrite, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brucite, which have the potential to be used as sorbents ...


Partial Nitritation Anammox Process For Sidestream Wastewater Treatment In Mabr Technology, Panagiota Stamatopoulou Dec 2019

Partial Nitritation Anammox Process For Sidestream Wastewater Treatment In Mabr Technology, Panagiota Stamatopoulou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There has been an increased interest in alternative wastewater treatment systems to improve nutrients removal and energy consumptions while achieving acceptable discharge limits. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have shifted their interest in treating the sidestream wastewater; a reject liquid post anaerobic digestion, rich in ammonium-nitrogen. A dedicated sidestream wastewater treatment unit has become an attractive option with the finding of a relatively new species of bacteria, anaerobic ammonium oxidizers (anammox), able to convert ammonium and nitrite into nitrogen gas. However, anammox bacteria are sensitive in environmental changes, and in combination with their low growth rate, it is challenging to establish ...


Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty Dec 2019

Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through the application of a computerized model (BioWin), anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of source separated organics (SSO) and a high rate acidification technology (pretreatment) for a conventional wastewater treatment plant was reviewed. Through this combined approach of high rate acidification, and co-digestion techniques it was found that the experimental modeling scenarios offered increases when compared to the existing base scenario production levels. With the addition of the high rate acidification technology and application of source separated organics the maximum increases in biogas production came when an OLR of 5.24 kg-COD/m³/day and 97g COD/L/d was experimentally modeled ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier Dec 2019

Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of bench scale sand tank experiments at assessing permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design. Our criteria for meeting this goal was that differences between PRB designs could be identified solely by measuring concentration in outflow from the sand tank models. For our PRB designs (funnel-and-gate, staggered wells, and parallel bars), numerical simulations clearly showed that PRB design had a quantifiable effect on outflow concentration, provided that the solute reacted with the PRB materials. Conversely, use of a conservative (non-reactive) solute did not allow us to discern between PRB design alternatives. Employing ...


Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani Dec 2019

Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lakes and freshwater reservoirs often serve as the primary drinking and irrigation water sources for surrounding communities. They provide recreational and tourism opportunities, thereby promoting the prosperity of neighboring communities. Reliable estimates of water quality in lakes and reservoirs can improve management practices to protect water resources.

Seasonal water temperature and solar shortwave radiation variations, and their subsequent interactions with water column aquatic life, combined with seasonal variations of mixing intensity throughout the water column, result in variations of water quality constituents with depth during the annual cycle. The complexity of these variations entails the use of advanced water quality ...


Evaluation Of Titanosilicate Materials For The Sorption Of Cesium And Strontium From High Level Wastes, Matheus Tolentino Lauar Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Titanosilicate Materials For The Sorption Of Cesium And Strontium From High Level Wastes, Matheus Tolentino Lauar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Treatment of high-level waste (HLW) stored in the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) sites of Hanford and Savannah River involves the separation of radioactive cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr). Challenges in treating the liquid HLW includes high alkalinity or acidity, and high salt content, many orders of magnitude above Cs and Sr concentrations. Ion exchange is the preferred process for removing these compounds, due to the availability of selective media and large volume-processing capacity by column operations. The crystalline silicotitanate (Na2Ti2O3SiO4·2H2O), i.e. CST, which structure is analog to the mineral sitinakite, is considered the reference ...


Design Of Efficient Carbon-Based Adsorbents For The Removal Of Organic And Inorganic Water Contaminants, Sayedeh Soroosh Mortazavian Dehkordi Dec 2019

Design Of Efficient Carbon-Based Adsorbents For The Removal Of Organic And Inorganic Water Contaminants, Sayedeh Soroosh Mortazavian Dehkordi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Granular activated carbon (AC) and biochar (BC) are two carbon-based adsorbents commonly used for water and wastewater treatment. However, these adsorbents have drawbacks that suppress their aqueous contaminants removal efficiency. Their major disadvantages are that AC has low selectivity and reusability potential, and BC has a hydrophobic nature.

The scope of this dissertation is to enhance the performance of commonly-used carbon-based adsorbents for the removal of organic and inorganic water contaminants and to understand the interactive mechanism of contaminants’ ions/molecules with adsorbents. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are two types of inorganic and organic water contaminants, respectively ...


Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke Dec 2019

Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An increasing number of treatment plants are required to remove nutrients from domestic wastewater to lessen the impact of nutrient loading to water bodies. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is one of the processes commonly used to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The presence of an adequate quantity of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the wastewater influent to EBPR is important for process efficiency and stability. The objective of this research was to investigate the production of VFAs through fermentation of sludge in primary clarifiers as it related to improving nutrient removal, primarily targeting phosphorus.

The research tested, in full-scale ...


Treatment Of Perchlorate And Multiple Oxyanions: Chemical And Biological Investigations, Mark Elkouz Dec 2019

Treatment Of Perchlorate And Multiple Oxyanions: Chemical And Biological Investigations, Mark Elkouz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Groundwater contamination with oxyanions is an issue that must be addressed for environmental, ecological and societal reasons. Chemical and biological treatment methods of reduction are already known and practiced, but the simultaneous presence of multiple oxyanions can add complicating effects to treatment sequence and efficacy. This research was concerned with the investigation of the chemical reductive treatment of Cr(VI) using both calcium polysulfide (CaSx) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), and the biological reductive treatment of chlorate, Cr(VI), nitrate and perchlorate using multiple organic substrates. The chemical treatment phase consisted of initial jar tests, using CaSx and FeSO4, followed by ...


Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu Dec 2019

Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Aggregation of nanoparticles in aerosols is a fundamental phenomenon with important implications to diverse fields ranging from material synthesis to pollutant control. The past few decades have witnessed extensive research on investigating the structure and growth mechanism of aerosol aggregates with sizes spanning across several orders of magnitude. This dissertation focuses on some contemporary problems that remain unaddressed in this topical area. Aerosol aggregates in sub-micron regimes, which are formed via the irreversible collision and aggregation of solid nanoparticle monomers, are fractal-like in their morphology. A mathematical description of this seemingly random structure dates to the seminal works by Forest ...


Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Temperature-Precipitation Covariability Across Canada In A Changing Climate, Harsimrenjit Singh Dec 2019

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Temperature-Precipitation Covariability Across Canada In A Changing Climate, Harsimrenjit Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Changes in the regional characteristics of temperature and precipitation can intensify the occurrence and severity of extreme events such as rain-on-snow induced flooding, droughts and wildfires. Analyzing these climate variables in isolation without considering their interdependencies might result in severe underestimation of their combined effects. In this study, copula functions are used to describe the joint behaviour of temperature and precipitation across Canada over a historical period of 1910-present using observations and further till the end of the 21st century using three large ensembles of regional climate models. Moreover, given the lack of observation data over Canada, gridded datasets are ...


College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2019, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Dec 2019

College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2019, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas

Senior Projects (COE)

Part of every UNLV engineering student’s academic experience, the senior design project stimulates engineering innovation and entrepreneurship. Each student in their senior year chooses, plans, designs, and prototypes a product in this required element of the curriculum. A capstone to the student’s educational career, the senior design project encourages the student to use everything learned in the engineering program to create a practical, real world solution to an engineering challenge. The senior design competition helps focus the senior students in increasing the quality and potential for commercial application for their design projects. Judges from local industry evaluate the ...


Energy & Carbon Neutral Nyc, Evan Banks, Elena Zimareva, Elena Malysheva Dec 2019

Energy & Carbon Neutral Nyc, Evan Banks, Elena Zimareva, Elena Malysheva

Publications and Research

In 2016, the world's leading countries signed the Paris Agreement which focused on reducing anthropogenic climate change on the planet. On May 2019, New York State and New York City declared its own ambitious goals aimed at decarbonizing the city and restricting the state’s energy use to relying completely on renewables.

Some of these goals specifically target infrastructure in the city since estimates cite buildings as accounting for nearly 70% of New York’s energy use. The main law of New York’s Climate Policy, Local Law 97, requires all buildings over 25,000 sq ft to reduce ...


Modeling The Effects Of Distribution System Topology On Water Quality, Chun-Ying Chao Dec 2019

Modeling The Effects Of Distribution System Topology On Water Quality, Chun-Ying Chao

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Inadequate treatment of drinking water causes the formation of disinfection by-products and the regrowth of harmful microbial species. Various studies have addressed the problem of water quality monitoring, but very few have employed topological analysis, a valuable mathematical tool widely applied in biological, business, and social research. This thesis examines the relationship between the topological properties of water distribution systems and water-quality models. In particular, the research proposes a novel framework for mapping network topological attributes to water-quality models. This research adopts topological metrics to assess the accuracy of the predictions of chlorine concentrations in dead ends. It examines four ...


Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) Measurement Of Turbulence Over Mussel Bed In A Deepsite Of Lake Michigan, Tong Jin Dec 2019

Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) Measurement Of Turbulence Over Mussel Bed In A Deepsite Of Lake Michigan, Tong Jin

Theses and Dissertations

The influence of the benthic filter feeders, such as bivalves, on ecosystem plankton, and nutrient dynamics is considered significant in shallow marine and freshwater systems. Recent indirect evidence showed that the profundal quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) have fundamentally altered energy flow and dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton in Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes. To investigate the phytoplankton grazing rate of the quagga mussel and the mussel siphon currents induced bio-mixing, a self-contained in situ Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry was developed to measure the turbulence structure and the turbulent diffusion coefficient immediately above the profundal quagga mussel covered substrate ...


Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Tanner Burns Dec 2019

Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Tanner Burns

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As human space exploration increases, the development of a more efficient potable water treatment system suited for spacecraft becomes crucial. This Waste-management Education Research Consortium (WERC) challenge was designed to explore the viability of microbial control through the utilization of silver ions as a biocide for possible integration into the Tranquility Node 3 water purification system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Current systems using iodine risk causing hyperthyroidism from overexposure; however, silver can be safely ingested without this side effect. After researching silver delivery methods including electrochemical ion production, controlled release, or a combination of the two, our team ...


Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon Dec 2019

Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Coastal economies are often supported by activities that rely on commercial or recreational vessels to move people or goods, such as shipping, transportation, cruising, and fishing. Unintentionally, frequent or intense vessel traffic can contribute to erosion of coastlines; this can be particularly evident in sheltered systems where shoreline erosion should be minimal in the absence of boat waves. We reviewed the state of the science of known effects of boat waves on shoreline stability, examined data on erosion, turbidity, and shoreline armoring patterns for evidence of a response to boat waves in Chesapeake Bay, and reviewed existing management and policy ...


Model Block Press Design, Ben Todd Van Hamersveld, Chester Wong, Alexander Wing-Jon Giannousis Dec 2019

Model Block Press Design, Ben Todd Van Hamersveld, Chester Wong, Alexander Wing-Jon Giannousis

Mechanical Engineering

This project’s goal is to redesign the Center for Vocational Building Technology (CVBT) BP9 earth block press, which makes 1/3 scale compressed earth blocks to build demonstration model homes in Thailand. The full-scale block press, the BP6, provides a sustainable and affordable technique for constructing habitable homes in Thailand. The BP9 serves as a tool to inform the public of the advantages of human-powered earth block presses through demonstration. The BP9 press design has multiple problems: it is too expensive to manufacture, there is too much friction when used, it has several weak points due to users unintentionally ...


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin Dec 2019

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Using Tio2 To Optimize The Photocatalytic Degradation Of Kraft Black Liquor Using Response Surface Methodology, Zihan Wang Nov 2019

Using Tio2 To Optimize The Photocatalytic Degradation Of Kraft Black Liquor Using Response Surface Methodology, Zihan Wang

Major Papers

The Canadian pulp and paper industry has been concerned with reducing annual emissions of pollutants into water bodies, air and landfills. Black liquor is a major byproduct from pulp mills such as Kraft. Black liquor is utilized in boilers to produce steam and electricity. Black liquor is a low-value chemical and researchers have employed thermal and chemical processes to produce products such as oils, adhesives, and dispersants. In recent years, photocatalysis has become an alternative to degrade black liquor into short chain carbon chemicals.

This study aims to optimize the performance of black liquor photocatalytic degradation using the TiO2 ...


Innovating Green Stormwater Infrastructure For Nutrient Management: Long-Term Field And Modeling Studies Of Conventional And Modified Denitrifying Bioretention Systems, Emma V. Lopez-Ponnada Nov 2019

Innovating Green Stormwater Infrastructure For Nutrient Management: Long-Term Field And Modeling Studies Of Conventional And Modified Denitrifying Bioretention Systems, Emma V. Lopez-Ponnada

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Urban stormwater and nutrient management are increasingly important topics to address globally, as coastal urbanization increases, disturbing the natural landscape, hydrology, and water quality. Untreated urban stormwater runoff carries pollutants that enter our waterways, such as rivers and marine environments, which serve as drinking water sources, recreational sites, and locations for economic livelihood. One pollutant and nutrient of concern for water quality is reactive nitrogen (N). Since pre-industrial time, reactive nitrogen has doubled from human activity. When found in excess in waterways, nitrogen causes an overabundant growth of algae, which can result in eutrophic and hypoxic conditions, impacting ecosystems, human ...


Recovery Of Gypsum & Magnesium Hydroxide From Brackish Water By Chemical Precipitation, Sugam Tandukar Nov 2019

Recovery Of Gypsum & Magnesium Hydroxide From Brackish Water By Chemical Precipitation, Sugam Tandukar

Civil Engineering ETDs

Exhaust gases from coal combustion contain contaminants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxide (NOx), and traces of other pollutants such as arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nitrate (NO3), and selenium (Se). Exhaust gas scrubbers are used to limit the emissions of these constituents to air. Treating exhaust gases to remove SO2 is referred to as flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and the most common method is the use of wet scrubbers using limestone slurries. The limestone slurry is recycled multiple times in the scrubber, and to limit the concentration of dissolved constituents, a fraction of this ...


Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41 Nov 2019

Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Chemical Coagulants On The Decolorization Of Dyes By Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology (Rsm), Erick B. Butler, Yung-Tse Hung, Oliver Mulamba Nov 2019

The Effects Of Chemical Coagulants On The Decolorization Of Dyes By Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology (Rsm), Erick B. Butler, Yung-Tse Hung, Oliver Mulamba

Yung-Tse Hung

This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant ...


Comparative Assessment Of Downscaling Methods And Application Towards Analysis Of Climate Change Impact On Urban Regions, Markus Eichenbaum Nov 2019

Comparative Assessment Of Downscaling Methods And Application Towards Analysis Of Climate Change Impact On Urban Regions, Markus Eichenbaum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global climate models (GCM) are sophisticated numerical models used to make long term climate projections. However, the resolution of their output is too coarse for climate change related local impact studies on urban regional scales. Downscaling efforts are taken to address this and increase GCM projection resolution. Physical Scaling (SP) downscaling methodology attempts to incorporate the physical basis of dynamical downscaling efforts with the computational efficiency of statistical methods. In this study, North American Regional Reanalysis surface skin temperature and precipitation data for a 1°x1° region centered on Houston, TX are downscaled to a resolution of 500m via SP ...


Moving From Walkability? Evaluation Traditional And Merging Data Sources For Evaluating Changes In Campus-Generated Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Troy Kawahara, Bo Liu, Anurag Pande, Calvin Thigpen, Carolw Turley Voulgaris Nov 2019

Moving From Walkability? Evaluation Traditional And Merging Data Sources For Evaluating Changes In Campus-Generated Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Troy Kawahara, Bo Liu, Anurag Pande, Calvin Thigpen, Carolw Turley Voulgaris

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Universities are increasingly committing to reduce campus-generated greenhouse gas emissions, whether voluntarily or in response to a legal mandate. As an initial step to keeping these commitments, universities need an accounting of baseline greenhouse gas emissions levels and means of monitoring changes in campus-generated greenhouse gas emissions over time. Commute-generated greenhouse gas emissions from travel to and from campus by students and employees are among the most difficult to quantify. This report examines some of the challenges associated with estimating campus-generated greenhouse gas emissions and evaluates ways to address those challenges. The purpose of this study is to identify changes ...


Chemolithotrophic Denitrification Of Nitrate Contaminated Groundwater Using Sulfur-Bearing Minerals, John Sutton Oct 2019

Chemolithotrophic Denitrification Of Nitrate Contaminated Groundwater Using Sulfur-Bearing Minerals, John Sutton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrate contamination in groundwater resources poses a serious threat, not only to the health of those who would drink it, but also as a potential nutrient for eutrophication. Current methods of nitrate removal can efficiently remove nitrate below 10 mg/L as nitrogen, but may require resources unavailable to small community water systems (SCWS). Sulfur-oxidizing biological denitrification is a promising alternative that may be more suitable for SCWS. Sulfur-oxidizing denitrification has previously been shown to have a high nitrate removal efficiency; however, it produces water high in sulfate. Utilization of sulfide-bearing minerals, rather than elemental sulfur as an electron donor ...


P-12 Potential Compact Fiberboard From Combining Shredded Corrugated Cardboard And Pet Water Bottles, Joshua Lim Khye Shuen Oct 2019

P-12 Potential Compact Fiberboard From Combining Shredded Corrugated Cardboard And Pet Water Bottles, Joshua Lim Khye Shuen

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

Corrugated cardboard and plastic bottles (PET) can each be recycled; however the current research is looking at recycling both cardboard and PET into a new combined material. The current method of recycling corrugated cardboard is to shred and recombine the material to make new cardboard. According to the Container Recycling Institute (http://www.container-recycling.org/), only 7.5% of PET manufactured in the US and Canada are recycled. The sheer amount of corrugated cardboard and PET bottles can be recycled for other practical uses. Corrugated cardboard and PET bottles, when shredded and placed into a 3x3x6 inch mold, can be ...


Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke Oct 2019

Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the early twentieth century, the amplitudes of tidal constituents in the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy display clear secular trends that are among the largest anywhere observed for a regional body of water. The M2 amplitude at Eastport, Maine, increased at a rate of 14.1 ± 1.2 cm per century until it temporarily dropped during 1980–1990, apparently in response to changes in the wider North Atlantic. Annual tidal analyses indicate M2 reached an all‐time high amplitude last year (2018). Here we report new estimates of tides derived from nineteenth century water‐level measurements found ...