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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum Dec 2016

Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum

Open Access Dissertations

In the past decade, there have been many breakthroughs in the field of plasmonics and nanophotonics that have enabled optical devices with unprecedented functionalities. Even though remarkable demonstration of at photonic devices has been reported, constituent materials are limited to the noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) due to their abundance of free electrons which enable the support of plasmon resonances in the visible range. With the strong demand for extension of the optical range of plasmonic applications, it is now a necessity to explore and develop alternative materials which can overcome intrinsic issues of noble metals ...


Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares Dec 2016

Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares

Open Access Dissertations

In this work, the ability to use high frequency mechanical excitation to generate significant heating within plastic bonded explosives, as well as single energetic particles embedded within a viscoelastic binder, is studied. In this work, the fundamental mechanisms associated with the conversion of high-frequency mechanical excitation to heat as applied to these composite energetic systems are thoroughly investigated.

High-frequency contact excitation has been used to generate a significant amount of heat within samples of PBX 9501 and representative inert mock materials. Surface temperature rises on the order of 10 °C were observed at certain frequencies over a range from 50 ...


Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes Dec 2016

Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes

Open Access Dissertations

Gravity-assist trajectories to Uranus and Neptune are found (with the allowance of impulsive maneuvers using chemical propulsion) for launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038 for Uranus and 2020 to 2070 for Neptune. Solutions are found using a patched conic model with analytical ephemeris via the Satellite Tour Design Program (STOUR), originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Delivered payload mass is computed for all solutions for select launch vehicles, and attractive solutions are identified as those that deliver a specified amount of payload mass into orbit at the target body in minimum time. The best cases for each ...


Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim Dec 2016

Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles.

This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound ...


Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee Dec 2016

Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu Aug 2016

Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Motivated by the need to develop efficient acoustics simulations for sources in different room environments, a modeling procedure has been proposed that consists of two steps in general: (1) the modeling of the free-space radiation of the source based on measurements in a anechoic environment, and (2) the prediction of the sound field in a room environment based on that free-space information.

To achieve a high modeling efficiency, i.e., to reduce the number of modeling parameters while still maintaining acceptable accuracy, a Multipole Equivalent Source Model (ESM) with undetermined source locations has been developed for the free-space sound field ...


Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi Aug 2016

Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi

Open Access Dissertations

As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS.

Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL.

Second, we investigated reliable design of ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...


Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift Aug 2016

Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift

Open Access Dissertations

Exposure of sailors to high levels of noise in the aircraft carrier deck environment is a problem that has serious human and economic consequences. A variety of approaches to quieting exhausting jets from high-performance aircraft are undergoing development. However, testing of noise abatement solutions at full-scale may be prohibitively costly when many possible nozzle treatments are under consideration. A relatively efficient and accurate means of predicting the noise levels resulting from engine-quieting technologies at personnel locations is needed. This is complicated by the need to model both the direct and the scattered sound field in order to determine the resultant ...


Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti Aug 2016

Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti

Open Access Dissertations

Non-equilibrium microplasmas at atmospheric pressures have been investigated for active flow control, micropropulsion and electronic display applications to name a few. The operational voltages for these microplasmas are on the order of kilovolts. When the electric field at the electrodes reaches GV/m or tens of GV/m either due to reduced interelectrode spacing and surface irregularities or due to carefully designed nanostructures on the electrodes, quantum processes such as field emission and field ionization come into effect. These can potentially reduce the operational voltages of microplasma devices by an order of magnitude. Due to the rarefied and non-equilibrium nature ...


Preliminary Design Tools In Turbomachinery: Non-Uniformly Spaced Blade Rows, Multistage Interaction, Unsteady Radial Waves, And Propeller Horizontal-Axis Turbine Optimization, Yujun Leng Apr 2016

Preliminary Design Tools In Turbomachinery: Non-Uniformly Spaced Blade Rows, Multistage Interaction, Unsteady Radial Waves, And Propeller Horizontal-Axis Turbine Optimization, Yujun Leng

Open Access Dissertations

Turbomachinery flow fields are inherently unsteady and complex which makes the related CFD analyses computationally intensive. Physically based preliminary design tools are desirable for parametric studies early in the design stage, and to provide deep physical insight and a good starting point for the later CFD analyses. Four analytical/semi-analytical models are developed in this study: 1) a generalized flat plate cascade model for investigating the unsteady aerodynamics of a blade row with non-uniformly spaced blades; 2) a multistage interaction model for investigating rotor-stator interactions; 3) an analytical solution for quantifying the impeller wake convection and pressure wave propagating between ...


Coupled Resonator Based Wireless Power Transfer For Bioelectronics, Henry Mei Apr 2016

Coupled Resonator Based Wireless Power Transfer For Bioelectronics, Henry Mei

Open Access Dissertations

Implantable and wearable bioelectronics provide the ability to monitor and modulate physiological processes. They represent a promising set of technologies that can provide new treatment for patients or new tools for scientific discovery, such as in long-term studies involving small animals. As these technologies advance, two trends are clear, miniaturization and increased sophistication i.e. multiple channels, wireless bi-directional communication, and responsiveness (closed-loop devices). One primary challenge in realizing miniaturized and sophisticated bioelectronics is powering. Integration and development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology, however, can overcome this challenge.

In this dissertation, I propose the use of coupled resonator WPT ...


Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su Apr 2016

Direct Drug Screening And Lipid Profiling Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry, Yuan Su

Open Access Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) stands in an outstanding position in analysis of biological specimens owing to its abundant structural information, high accuracy, incomparable sensitivity, high speed, and the large variety of its applications. The ion source, an instrumental part for converting the analyte into ions, has played an important role in analyzing biological specimens by MS. However, the performance of conventional spray-based ionization methods always suffers from chemical interferences derived from complex biological matrices. A series of sample extraction, purification, and separation steps is required before the ionization, so as to ensure excellent performance of MS analysis. In order to simplify ...


Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam Jan 2016

Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are sub-wavelength structures which exhibit strong optical (Mie) resonances in the visible range. In addition to such optical resonances, the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in metal and semiconductor (or dielectric) based core-shell (CS) and core-multishell (CMS) NWs can be tailored to achieve novel negative-index metamaterials (NIM), extreme absorbers, invisibility cloaks and sensors. Particularly, in this dissertation, the versatility of CS and CMS NWs for the design of negative-index metamaterials in the visible range and, plasmonic light harvesting in ultrathin photocatalyst layers for water splitting are studied.

Utilizing the LSPR in the metal layer and the magnetic ...


Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller Oct 2013

Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities.

To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor ...


Propagation Of Sound In The Vicinity Of Rigid Porous Interfaces, Hongdan Tao Oct 2013

Propagation Of Sound In The Vicinity Of Rigid Porous Interfaces, Hongdan Tao

Open Access Dissertations

Propagation of sound in the vicinity of rigid porous interfaces is investigated systematically to facilitate the acoustical characterization of sound absorption materials for noise reduction applications. Various rigid porous interfaces are considered: (1) a semi-infinite porous layer; (2) a porous hard-backed surface; and (3) a porous impedance-backed layer. A closed-form solution and numerical methods are derived with respect to each rigid porous interface condition.

A modified saddle-point method is exploited to investigate the sound field emanating from a monopole source above and below a rigid porous interface. The solutions can be expressed in a form that resembles the classical Weyl-Van ...


Elucidation Of Chiral Recognition Mechanisms Of Solutes By Amylose Tris[(S)-Alpha-Methylbenzylcarbamate] Sorbent, Hung-Wei Tsui Oct 2013

Elucidation Of Chiral Recognition Mechanisms Of Solutes By Amylose Tris[(S)-Alpha-Methylbenzylcarbamate] Sorbent, Hung-Wei Tsui

Open Access Dissertations

Enantioselective separations of chiral molecules are important in various chemical fields, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals industries. Polysaccharide-based sorbents have been widely used in chiral liquid chromatography. The recognition mechanisms which determine their enantioselectivities are not completely understood.

In this dissertation, the chiral recognition mechanisms of a widely used commercial sorbent, amylose tris[(S)-alpha-methylbenzylcarbamate], for benzoin (B) enantiomers were first studied. The HPLC data for benzoin with pure n-hexane as the mobile phase have been obtained. The behavior of sorbent-solute-hexane systems can be interpreted by considering only sorbent solute two-component interactions. Infrared (IR) spectra showed evidence of substantial hydrogen ...


Mechanisms Of Microstructure Formation Under The Influence Of Ultrasonic Vibrations, Milan Rakita Oct 2013

Mechanisms Of Microstructure Formation Under The Influence Of Ultrasonic Vibrations, Milan Rakita

Open Access Dissertations

Positive effects of ultrasound on crystallization have been known for almost 90 years. Application of ultrasound has been very successful in many industries, most notably in chemistry, creating a new branch of science - sonochemistry. However, ultrasonication has not found wide commercial application in the solidification processing. The reason for that is the complexity of underlying phenomena and the lack of predicting models which correlate processing parameters with the properties of a product. The purpose of this study is to give some contribution toward better understanding of mechanisms that lead to changes in the solidifying microstructure. It has been found that ...


Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study Of Copper-Exchanged Zeolites For The Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nox With Ammonia, Shane Adam Bates Oct 2013

Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study Of Copper-Exchanged Zeolites For The Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nox With Ammonia, Shane Adam Bates

Open Access Dissertations

The recent application of metal-exchanged, small-pore zeolites for use in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia NH3 for automotive deNOx applications has been a great stride in achieving emission standard goals. Copper-exchanged SSZ-13 (Cu-SSZ-13), the small-pore zeolite in this study, has been shown to be very hydrothermally stable and active under conditions presented in the exhaust of the lean-burn diesel engine. In this work, detailed studies were performed to identify many aspects of the active site(s) in Cu-SSZ-13 in order to learn about the standard SCR mechanism.

A series of seven Cu-SSZ-13 samples ...


Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng Oct 2013

Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng

Open Access Dissertations

By quantitating the amplitude of the unbounded stress, the continuum fracture mechanics defines the stress intensity factor K to characterize the stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of the crack tip, thereby developing the relation between the stress singularity and surface energy (energy release rate G). This G-K relation, assigning physical meaning to the stress intensity factor, makes these two fracture parameters widely used in predicting the onset of crack propagation. However, due to the discrete nature of the atomistic structures without stress singularity, there might be discrepancy between the failure prediction and the reality of nanostructured materials. Defining ...


Atomistic Simulation Of Plasma Interaction With Plasma Facing Components In Fusion Reactors, Xue Yang Oct 2013

Atomistic Simulation Of Plasma Interaction With Plasma Facing Components In Fusion Reactors, Xue Yang

Open Access Dissertations

The interaction between plasma and fusion relevant materials is one of the critical issues in successfully using those materials in Tokamak reactors. This research uses molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and binary collision approximation methods to model fusion relevant material bombarded by energetic particles to investigate retention, deposition, sputtering, erosion, blistering effects, diffusion, and so on.

The deuterium bombardment of monocrystalline tungsten was modeled by LAMMPS code using Tersoff type interatomic potential. The deuterium trapping rate, implantation depth, and stopping time in 600-2000 K tungsten bombarded by 5-100 eV deuterium atoms were simulated. Irradiated monocrystalline tungsten became amorphous prior to ...