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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang Jul 2017

Understanding The Surface Fouling Mechanism Of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Microelectrodes Using Microfluidics For Neurochemical Detection, An-Yi Chang

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrochemical methods are widely used for chronic neurochemical sensing, but thus far, the organic solution redox reactions fouled the electrodes' surface. It caused the reduction of sensitivity and the electrodes' lifetime.

Here, we present the boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrodes (BDUNCD) as the next generation electrode material for neurochemical sensor development. To aid in long-term chronic monitoring of neurochemicals, they have a wide window of electrochemical potential, extremely low background current, and excellent chemical inertness. The main research goal is to reduce the rate of electrode fouling due to the reaction by-products, and significantly extend their useful lifetime.

We systematically characterize ...


Electrochemical Behavior Of Dense Electrodes For Impedancemetric Nox Sensors, Nabamita Pal Jul 2017

Electrochemical Behavior Of Dense Electrodes For Impedancemetric Nox Sensors, Nabamita Pal

Doctoral Dissertations

NOx (NO and NO2) exhaust gas sensors for diesel powered vehicles have traditionally consisted of porous platinum (Pt) electrodes along with a dense ZrO2 based electrolyte. Advancement in diesel engine technology results in lower NOx emissions. Although Pt is chemically and mechanically tolerant to the extreme exhaust gas environment, it is also a strong catalyst for oxygen reduction, which can interfere with the detection of NOx at concentrations below 100 ppm. Countering this behavior can add to the complexity and cost of the conventional NO x sensor design. Recent studies have shown that dense electrodes are less prone to heterogeneous ...


Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii May 2017

Characterization Of Coupled Gold Nanoparticles In A Sparsely Populated Square Lattice, Roy Truett French Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Metal nanoparticles deposited in regular arrays spaced at optical wavelengths support a resonance due to a coherent coupling between localized surface plasmon mode and lattice diffraction allowing for engineering of tunable devices for use in biological sensors, nanoantennae, and enhanced spectroscopy. Techniques such as electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, nanosphere lithography, and nanoimprint lithography are used for fabrication but are limited by cost, device throughput, and small deposition. Polymer soft lithography and continuous dewetting of particles is a potentially viable alternative showing promise in all of those areas. This thesis developed the fabrication of a refined hydrophilic nanoimprinted ...


Investigation Of Fes2 Nanoparticles For Use In Optoelectronic And Thermoelectric Applications, Rick Tefal Eyi Nkoghe May 2017

Investigation Of Fes2 Nanoparticles For Use In Optoelectronic And Thermoelectric Applications, Rick Tefal Eyi Nkoghe

Theses and Dissertations

Iron pyrite (FeS2) is the most abundant sulfide material on earth. This material has been widely investigated by researchers because of its optical properties. However, it has been difficult to produce High efficiency FeS2 based solar cells. This is due to many different impurities that arise when making the materials. The ability to synthesize pure pyrite FeS2 material is therefore critical for applications.

Pure Iron pyrite nanocrystals were synthesized using hot injection by mixing sulfur with an iron precursor in the presence of an amine. To improve the stability, shorter ligands replaced the native amines ligands. The stability of the ...


Infrared Energy Conversion In Plasmonic Fields At Two-Dimensional Semiconductors, Gregory Thomas Forcherio May 2017

Infrared Energy Conversion In Plasmonic Fields At Two-Dimensional Semiconductors, Gregory Thomas Forcherio

Theses and Dissertations

Conversion of infrared energy within plasmonic fields at two-dimensional, semiconductive transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) through plasmonic hot electron transport and nonlinear frequency mixing has important implications in next-generation optoelectronics. Drude-Lorentz theory and approximate discrete dipole (DDA) solutions to Maxwell’s equations guided metal nanoantenna design towards strong infrared localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Excitation and damping dynamics of LSPR in heterostructures of noble metal nanoantennas and molybdenum- or tungsten-disulfide (MoS2; WS2) monolayers were examined by parallel synthesis of (i) DDA electrodynamic simulations and (ii) near-field electron energy loss (EELS) and far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Susceptibility to second-order nonlinear ...


Morphology Controlled Synthesis Of Copper Based Multimetallic Nanostructures And Their Electrocatalytic Properties For Methanol Oxidation Reaction, Leanne Elizabeth Mathurin May 2017

Morphology Controlled Synthesis Of Copper Based Multimetallic Nanostructures And Their Electrocatalytic Properties For Methanol Oxidation Reaction, Leanne Elizabeth Mathurin

Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on the development of shape-controlled synthesis of Cu NM, Cu-based bimetallic and trimetallic nanostructures, and their electrocatalytic properties for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Copper nanomaterials (Cu NM) with specific surface facets can tailor their catalytic activity. Understanding reagents responsible for Cu NM growth is important for morphology-controlled synthesis of the nanostructures. This research studies the halide influence on Cu NM growth and morphology in an oil-based synthesis. The morphology of the Cu NM varies with the halide type (i.e., Cl-, Br-, I-), and the halide concentration. Additionally, the type of Cu precursor also influenced the morphology ...


Exploring Thermoresponsive Affinity Agents To Enhance Microdialysis Sampling Efficiency Of Proteins, Thaddeus Vasicek May 2017

Exploring Thermoresponsive Affinity Agents To Enhance Microdialysis Sampling Efficiency Of Proteins, Thaddeus Vasicek

Theses and Dissertations

Affinity agents increase microdialysis protein relative recovery, yet they have not seen widespread use within the microdialysis community due to their additional instrumentation requirements and prohibitive cost. This dissertation describes new affinity agents for microdialysis that require no additional instrumentation to use, have nearly 100% particle recovery, are 7 times more cost efficient than alternatives, and have low specificity enabling their use for a wide variety of proteins. Initially gold nanoparticles were chosen as an affinity ligand support due to their high surface area/volume ratio and colloidal stability. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) was immobilized to the gold nanoparticles, which served to ...


Detection And Interpretation Of Fluorescence Signals Generated By Excitable Cells And Tissues, Anthony J. Costantino Jan 2017

Detection And Interpretation Of Fluorescence Signals Generated By Excitable Cells And Tissues, Anthony J. Costantino

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Part 1: High-Sensitivity Amplifiers for Detecting Fluorescence
Monitoring electrical activity and Cai 2+ transients in biological tissues and individual cells increasingly utilizes optical sensors based on voltage-dependent and Cai 2+-dependent fluorescent dyes. However, achieving satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) often requires increased illumination intensities and/or dye concentrations, which results in photo-toxicity, photo-bleaching and other adverse effects limiting the utility of optical recordings. The most challenging are the recordings from individual cardiac myocytes and neurons. Here we demonstrate that by optimizing a conventional transimpedance topology one can achieve a 10-20 fold increase of sensitivity with photodiode-based recording systems ...


A Study Of Mathematics Achievement, Placement, And Graduation Of Engineering Students, Sara Hahler Blazek Jan 2017

A Study Of Mathematics Achievement, Placement, And Graduation Of Engineering Students, Sara Hahler Blazek

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine how background knowledge impacts freshmen engineering students' success at Louisiana Tech University in terms of grades in two different freshman classes and graduation. To determine what factors impact students, three different studies were implemented. The first study used linear regression to analyze which demographic and academic variables significantly impacted freshman math and engineering courses. Using regression discontinuity, the second study determined if the university's placement requirement for Pre-Calculus was appropriate. The final study analyzed factors that impact graduation for engineering students as well as other disciplines to determine which significant variables ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Activity Of Co/Fe Alumina/Silica Supported Ft Catalysts And The Study Of Promoter Effect Of Ruthenium, Sunday Azubike Esumike Jan 2017

Synthesis, Characterization, And Activity Of Co/Fe Alumina/Silica Supported Ft Catalysts And The Study Of Promoter Effect Of Ruthenium, Sunday Azubike Esumike

Doctoral Dissertations

The alumina and hybrid alumina-silica FT catalyst were prepared by one-step solgel/oil-drop methods using metal-nitrate-solutions (method-I), and nanoparticle-metaloxides (method-2). The nanoparticle-metal-oxides did not participate in solubility equilibria in contrast to metal nitrate in method-1 causing no metal ion seepage; therefore, method-2 yields higher XRF metal loading efficiency than method-1. The thermal analysis confirmed that the metal loading by method-1 and method-2 involved two different pathways. Method-1 involves solubility equilibria in the conversion of metal-nitrate to metal- hydroxide and finally to metal-oxide, while in method-2 nanoparticle-metal-oxide remained intact during sol-gel-oil-drop and calcination steps.

The alumina supported catalysts were dominated by ...


Plasmon-Mediated Energy Conversion In Metal Nanoparticle-Doped Hybrid Nanomaterials, Jeremy Dunklin Jan 2017

Plasmon-Mediated Energy Conversion In Metal Nanoparticle-Doped Hybrid Nanomaterials, Jeremy Dunklin

Theses and Dissertations

Climate change and population growth demand long-term solutions for clean water and energy. Plasmon-active nanomaterials offer a promising route towards improved energetics for efficient chemical separation and light harvesting schemes. Two material platforms featuring highly absorptive plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are advanced herein to maximize photon conversion into thermal or electronic energy. Optical extinction, attributable to diffraction-induced internal reflection, was enhanced up to 1.5-fold in three-dimensional polymer films containing AuNPs at interparticle separations approaching the resonant wavelength. Comprehensive methods developed to characterize heat dissipation following plasmonic absorption was extended beyond conventional optical and heat transfer descriptions, where good agreement ...


Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum Dec 2016

Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum

Open Access Dissertations

In the past decade, there have been many breakthroughs in the field of plasmonics and nanophotonics that have enabled optical devices with unprecedented functionalities. Even though remarkable demonstration of at photonic devices has been reported, constituent materials are limited to the noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) due to their abundance of free electrons which enable the support of plasmon resonances in the visible range. With the strong demand for extension of the optical range of plasmonic applications, it is now a necessity to explore and develop alternative materials which can overcome intrinsic issues of noble metals ...


Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares Dec 2016

Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares

Open Access Dissertations

In this work, the ability to use high frequency mechanical excitation to generate significant heating within plastic bonded explosives, as well as single energetic particles embedded within a viscoelastic binder, is studied. In this work, the fundamental mechanisms associated with the conversion of high-frequency mechanical excitation to heat as applied to these composite energetic systems are thoroughly investigated.

High-frequency contact excitation has been used to generate a significant amount of heat within samples of PBX 9501 and representative inert mock materials. Surface temperature rises on the order of 10 °C were observed at certain frequencies over a range from 50 ...


Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes Dec 2016

Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes

Open Access Dissertations

Gravity-assist trajectories to Uranus and Neptune are found (with the allowance of impulsive maneuvers using chemical propulsion) for launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038 for Uranus and 2020 to 2070 for Neptune. Solutions are found using a patched conic model with analytical ephemeris via the Satellite Tour Design Program (STOUR), originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Delivered payload mass is computed for all solutions for select launch vehicles, and attractive solutions are identified as those that deliver a specified amount of payload mass into orbit at the target body in minimum time. The best cases for each ...


Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim Dec 2016

Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles.

This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound ...


Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee Dec 2016

Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysis Enhancement Using Bsa, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos Dec 2016

Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysis Enhancement Using Bsa, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos

Open Access Theses

Lignocellulose is composed of polysaccharides linked to lignin and other aromatic compounds, making the sugars not readily available to fermentation. This entails that biomass must go through the unit operations of pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis. Pretreatment opens the structure to allow the enzymes to act on and hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and/or xylose which in turn are fermented to ethanol. Concomitantly, the enzymes interact with soluble phenols and insoluble solids derived from lignin that inhibit hydrolysis. This leads to high enzyme loadings and higher production costs. Soluble phenols can be eliminated through washing. Insoluble lignin, however, demands ...


Measuring Nonlinear Properties Of Graphene Thin Films Using Z-Scan Technique, Thekrayat Hassan Al Abdulaal Dec 2016

Measuring Nonlinear Properties Of Graphene Thin Films Using Z-Scan Technique, Thekrayat Hassan Al Abdulaal

Theses and Dissertations

The nonlinear studies of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, specifically graphene, are very significant since graphene is finding its usefulness in handling the enormous heat in nanoscale high-density power electronics. Graphene has emerged to be a promising nanomaterial as an excellent heat spreader due to its high thermal conductivity. However, the experimental nonlinear study of graphene materials and their application in developing future optoelectronic devices demands for more developed research.

The research objective is first to build a precise, and sensitive technique to investigate and understand the thermal nonlinear properties, including nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and thermo-optic coefficient ...


Design, Fabrication And Measurement Of A Plasmonic Enhanced Terahertz Photoconductive Antenna, Nathan Matthias Burford Dec 2016

Design, Fabrication And Measurement Of A Plasmonic Enhanced Terahertz Photoconductive Antenna, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

Generation of broadband terahertz (THz) pulses from ultrafast photoconductive antennas (PCAs) is an attractive method for THz spectroscopy and imaging. This provides a wide frequency bandwidth (0.1-4 THz) as well as the straightforward recovery of both the magnitude and phase of the transmitted and/or reflected signals. The achieved output THz power is low, approximately a few microwatts. This is due to the poor conversion of the femtosecond laser used as the optical pump to useable current inside the antenna semiconducting material. The majority of THz power comes from the photocarriers generated within ~ 100 nm distance from the antenna ...


Interactive Physics And Characteristics Of Photons And Photoelectrons In Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Garrett Edward Torix Dec 2016

Interactive Physics And Characteristics Of Photons And Photoelectrons In Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Garrett Edward Torix

Theses and Dissertations

As is commonly known, the world is full of technological wonders, where a multitude of electronic devices and instruments continuously help push the boundaries of scientific knowledge and discovery. These new devices and instruments of science must be utilized at peak efficiency in order to benefit humanity with the most advanced scientific knowledge. In order to attain this level of efficiency, the materials which make up these electronics, or possibly more important, the fundamental characteristics of these materials, must be fully understood. The following research attempted to uncover the properties and characteristics of a selected family of materials. Herein, zinc ...


Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu Dec 2016

Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Membrane chromatography, or membrane adsorber, represents an attractive alternative to conventional packed bed chromatography used in downstream processing. Membrane chromatography has many advantages, including high productivity, low buffer consumption and ease to scale up. This doctoral dissertation focuses on developing novel polymeric ligands for protein separations using membrane chromatography. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), known as a controlled radical polymerization technique, has been used to control the architecture of grafted polymeric ligands. The center theme of this dissertation is to develop new polymeric ligands and investigate how the polymer’s property (e.g. flexibility, hydrophobicity) and architecture (e.g. chain ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Fabrication Of All Inorganic Quantum Dot Leds, Haider Baqer Salman Dec 2016

Synthesis, Characterization, And Fabrication Of All Inorganic Quantum Dot Leds, Haider Baqer Salman

Theses and Dissertations

Quantum Dot LEDs with all inorganic materials are investigated in this thesis. The research was motivated by the potential disruptive technology of core shell quantum dots in lighting and display applications. These devices consisted of three main layers: hole transport layer (HTL), electron transport layer (ETL), and emissive layer where the emission of photons occurs. The latter part was formed of CdSe / ZnS core-shell quantum dots, which were synthesized following hot injection method. The ETL and the HTL were formed of zinc oxide nanocrystals and nickel oxide, respectively. Motivated by the low cost synthesis and deposition, NiO and ZnO were ...


Fabrication Of Infrared Photodetectors Utilizing Lead Selenide Nanocrystals, Justin Anthony Hill Dec 2016

Fabrication Of Infrared Photodetectors Utilizing Lead Selenide Nanocrystals, Justin Anthony Hill

Theses and Dissertations

Colloidal lead selenide and lead selenide / lead sulfide core/shell nanocrystals were grown using a wet chemical synthesis procedure. Absorbance and photoluminescence measurements were made to verify the quality of the produced nanocrystals. Absorbance spectra were measured at room temperature, while photoluminescence spectra were measured at 77 K. Organic ligands were exchanged for shorter ligands in order to increase the conductivity of the nanocrystals. Absorption and PL spectra for both core and core/shell nanocrystals were compared. Interdigital photodetector devices with varying channel widths were fabricated by depositing gold onto a glass substrate. Lead selenide nanocrystals were deposited onto these ...


Ab Initio Based State Specific Modeling Of N2+O System, Han Luo Aug 2016

Ab Initio Based State Specific Modeling Of N2+O System, Han Luo

Open Access Theses

Nitrogen and atomic oxygen play an important role in high temperature gas systems. Their Zeldovich reaction product nitric oxide not only affects aerothermal loads and emissions of hypersonic vehicles, but also has the possibility to influence the efficiency of hypersonic propulsion. Atomic oxygen induced nitrogen dissociation is another reaction mechanism of the N2+O system. However, due to the difficulty of conducting ground tests, there are no experimental data for this reaction now. Thermo-chemical nonequilibrium could make the problem more difficult since experiments could only track macroscopic gas properties instead of internal energy distribution. On the other hand, current reaction ...


Polymerizable Lipids For Controlled Functionalization Of Layered Materials, Kortney Kaye Rupp Aug 2016

Polymerizable Lipids For Controlled Functionalization Of Layered Materials, Kortney Kaye Rupp

Open Access Theses

Self-assembled monolayers (SAM’s) offer a straightforward approach to tailoring the interfacial properties of metals, metal oxides and semiconductors. Noncovalent functionalization of single-layer graphene offers the possibility to finely tune surface chemistry for future applications in electronics. Polymerization of photochemically reactive molecules in a lying-down phase has been used to increase the strength of intermolecular interactions between long alkanes and HOPG substrates. Long-chain fatty acid derivatives with internal diyne groups yield a conjugated ene-yne polymer upon UV irradiation. Diyne lipids with phosphocholine (diyne PC) and phosphoethanolamine (diyne PE) groups offer a charged form of the head group that is robust ...


Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu Aug 2016

Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Motivated by the need to develop efficient acoustics simulations for sources in different room environments, a modeling procedure has been proposed that consists of two steps in general: (1) the modeling of the free-space radiation of the source based on measurements in a anechoic environment, and (2) the prediction of the sound field in a room environment based on that free-space information.

To achieve a high modeling efficiency, i.e., to reduce the number of modeling parameters while still maintaining acceptable accuracy, a Multipole Equivalent Source Model (ESM) with undetermined source locations has been developed for the free-space sound field ...


Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi Aug 2016

Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi

Open Access Dissertations

As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS.

Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL.

Second, we investigated reliable design of ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...