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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi Dec 2016

Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi

Open Access Dissertations

As participation in women’s soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes’ careers continues to increase, prevention of mTBI in women’s soccer has become a major concern for female athletes as the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women’s sports, soccer exhibits the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men’s football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that “concussive hits” occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision ...


X-Ray Fluorescence For Quantification Of Lead And Strontium In Vivo, Aaron James Specht Aug 2016

X-Ray Fluorescence For Quantification Of Lead And Strontium In Vivo, Aaron James Specht

Open Access Dissertations

Lead (Pb) is a toxicant well known for its effects on almost every organ system in the body. Pb use in industry has declined since removal of Pb from gasoline, but many developing countries still have significant use of Pb. Exposure to Pb has been linked with diseases causing neurodegeneration and thus have lasting effects long after the initial exposure. Another metal, strontium (Sr), has been linked with bone disease in particular situations and shown to have uses in treating osteoporosis as a supplement. However, there are no studies of the effects of Sr using a meaningful biomarker. The most ...


Evaluating The Two-Stage Ditch As A New Best Management Practice, Andi Hodaj Aug 2016

Evaluating The Two-Stage Ditch As A New Best Management Practice, Andi Hodaj

Open Access Dissertations

A two-stage ditch involves modifications of a traditional drainage ditch to resemble more the features of a natural stream. The idea is to create or simulate extended benches on both sides of the ditch that would develop naturally over a period of time in a stream because of geomorphological processes. Previous research in Indiana and Ohio has shown that two-stage ditches offer the potential to reduce sediment load and extend the interaction time between water and vegetation on the benches allowing larger uptake of nutrients from the vegetation on the extended benches, and increasing the denitrification rates in the bench ...


Is Metabolism Goal-Directed? Investigating The Validity Of Modeling Biological Systems With Cybernetic Control Via Omic Data, Frank T. Devilbiss Apr 2016

Is Metabolism Goal-Directed? Investigating The Validity Of Modeling Biological Systems With Cybernetic Control Via Omic Data, Frank T. Devilbiss

Open Access Dissertations

Cybernetic models are uniquely juxtaposed to other metabolic modeling frameworks in that they describe the time-dependent regulation of cellular reactions in terms of dynamic "metabolic goals." This approach contrasts starkly with purely mechanistic descriptions of metabolic regulation which seek to explain metabolic processes in high resolution — a clearly daunting undertaking. Over a span of three decades, cybernetic models have been used to predict metabolic phenomena ranging from resource consumption in mixed-substrate environments to intracellular reaction fluxes of intricate metabolic networks. While the cybernetic approach has been validated in its utility for the prediction of metabolic phenomena, its central feature, the ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Enhancing Bioethanol Fermentation Through Removal Of Acetic Acid Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Mahdieh Aghazadeh Apr 2016

Enhancing Bioethanol Fermentation Through Removal Of Acetic Acid Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Mahdieh Aghazadeh

Open Access Dissertations

The concern for the ever growing human population as well as the depletion of fossil fuel resources and their impact on global warming have long been motivations for the researchers to investigate means for sustainable producing carbon-neutral energy. Second-generation biofuel refers to liquid fuels that are produced from non-food resources and reduce the total greenhouse gas emission by at least 60 %. Acetic acid has been shown to be one of the most ubiquitous fermentation inhibitors in a bioethanol production facility which slows down the bioethanol production and reduces its yield through inhibition of the ethanol producing microorganisms. The use of ...


Hydrologic And Water Quality Impacts From Perennial Crop Production On Marginal Lands, Qingyu Feng Mar 2016

Hydrologic And Water Quality Impacts From Perennial Crop Production On Marginal Lands, Qingyu Feng

Open Access Dissertations

Marginal lands are proposed as a viable option for producing biofeedstocks as these lands are not heavily engaged in agricultural production or may not be suitable for intensive row-crop food/feed production. However, meeting biofeedstock production goals will require large amount of marginal lands and the unintended consequences of producing biofeedstocks on marginal lands are not fully clear. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the productivity of biofeedstocks on marginal lands and the potential impacts on hydrologic and water quality processes from the land use conversion.

This study was conducted in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB ...


A Novel In Vivo Tumor Oxygen Profiling Assay: Combining Functional And Molecular Imaging With Multivariate Mathematical Modeling, Chung-Wein Lee Apr 2015

A Novel In Vivo Tumor Oxygen Profiling Assay: Combining Functional And Molecular Imaging With Multivariate Mathematical Modeling, Chung-Wein Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop and test a novel high spatio-temporal in vivo assay to quantify tumor oxygenation and hypoxia. The assay implements a biophysical model of oxygen transport to fuse parameters acquired from in vivo functional and molecular imaging modalities. ^ Introduction: Tumor hypoxia plays an important role in carcinogenesis. It triggers pathological angiogenesis to supply more oxygen to the tumor cells and promotes cancer cell metastasis. Preclinical and clinical evidence show that anti-angiogenic treatment is capable of normalizing the tumor vasculature both structurally and functionally. The resulting normalized vasculature provides a more efficient and uniform ...


Optimizing The Neural Response To Electrical Stimulation And Exploring New Applications Of Neurostimulation, Kurt Yuqin Qing Apr 2015

Optimizing The Neural Response To Electrical Stimulation And Exploring New Applications Of Neurostimulation, Kurt Yuqin Qing

Open Access Dissertations

Electrical stimulation has been successful in treating patients who suffer from neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders that are resistant to standard treatments. For deep brain stimulation (DBS), its official approved use has been limited to mainly motor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Alcohol use disorder, and addictive disorders in general, is a prevalent condition that is difficult to treat long-term. To determine whether DBS can reduce alcohol drinking in animals, voluntary alcohol consumption of alcohol-preferring rats before, during, and after stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell were compared. Intake levels in the low stimulus intensity group (n ...


The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully Apr 2015

The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully

Open Access Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy that affects nearly 2.5 million people worldwide. Despite substantial efforts, few treatments are currently available largely due to limited knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease. The immune-inflammatory nature of the pathology has prompted investigation of the role of oxidative stress in disease development and progression; however targeting reactive oxygen species for neutralization has had marginal success therapeutically, suggesting that an alternate oxidative stress-related target would prove beneficial. Recently, our lab has implicated acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is both a byproduct and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, as a potential ...


Nano-Engineered Polymers In Drug Delivery: Potential Approaches For Attenuation Of Secondary Injury After Spinal Cord Trauma, Wen Gao Oct 2014

Nano-Engineered Polymers In Drug Delivery: Potential Approaches For Attenuation Of Secondary Injury After Spinal Cord Trauma, Wen Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Secondary injury elicits a complex series of pathophysiological events after the primary spinal cord trauma and even after its implantation treatment for neural functional recovery. These secondary injuries include an up-regulation of glial cells associated reactive oxygen species, nitrogen species, and reactive astrogliosis, and they can result in various levels of cellular and tissue damage. The inhibition of them has been proved to lead to functional recovery of the spinal cord. In this study, we concentrated on developing polymers and nano-techniques based drug delivery strategies to eliminate these secondary injuries. ^ To maintain and improve the performance of the implants during ...


Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park Oct 2014

Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park

Open Access Dissertations

Despite years of research, post-spinal cord injury (SCI) chronic neuropathic pain remains refractory to treatment and drastically impairs quality of life for SCI victims beyond paralysis. Although inflammation and free radicals contribute to neuropathic pain in SCI, the mechanism is not completely clear. We have recently demonstrated that acrolein, a product and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, induces a vicious cycle of oxidative stress, amplifying its effects and perpetuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the current study, we have confirmed that acrolein is elevated significantly at least two weeks post-SCI which coincides with the emergence of hyperalgesia (mechanical, cold and thermal ...


Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen Oct 2014

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen

Open Access Dissertations

Despite advancement in the field of robotics, current legged robots still cannot achieve the kind of locomotion stability animals and humans have. In order to develop legged robots with greater stability, we need to better understand general locomotion dynamics and control principles. Here we demonstrate that a mathematical modeling approach could greatly enable the discovery and understanding of general locomotion principles. ^ It is found that animal leg stiffness when scaled by its weight and leg length falls in a narrow region between 7 and 27. Rarely in biology does such a universal preference exist. It is not known completely why ...


Assessment Of Irrigation Use On Crop Yield And Water Supplies In The Midwestern U.S., Wei-Chih Chen Oct 2014

Assessment Of Irrigation Use On Crop Yield And Water Supplies In The Midwestern U.S., Wei-Chih Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Climate plays an important role in many aspects of hydrological and agricultural systems. Temperature and precipitation are usually the main forcing inputs for hydrological and agricultural simulations, while wind effect has generally been neglected in previous research. Wind speed is, however, an important factor for many physical processes, including evaporation from soil, and transpiration from plants. In order to investigate how climate variability impacts agricultural production, there are three hypotheses addressed in this dissertation. Hypothesis 1 is that the representation of changing wind speed will play an important role in the simulation of hydrological processes, and that the effect of ...


Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare Oct 2014

Irrigation With Treated Wastewater: Potential And Limitations, Anne Dare

Open Access Dissertations

As the world population increases and resources become more coveted, water emerges as a key component to global food security. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is among the driest regions in the world: containing just one percent of the world's freshwater resources. An increasing population creates greater quantities of wastewater and demands greater quantities of food, so an obvious connection arises. However logical wastewater reuse may be for bridging the irrigation supply-demand gap in this arid region, significant limitations prevent widespread adoption. The overall goal of this research is to take a holistic view of the limitations ...


Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh Oct 2014

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchical structural interactions between components of cell microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus and fluid, are important phenomena that decide cell level physiological process and tissue engineering applications. One of those tissue engineering modalities is freezing of biomaterials, important in a wide variety of biomedical applications including cryopreservation and cryosurgeries. In order to design these applications, freezing-induced changes of the cells and tissues and corresponding biophysical mechanisms need to be well understood. Although the effects of freezing on cells in suspension have been extensively studied, the intracellular mechanics of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during freezing are ...


Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li Oct 2014

Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li

Open Access Dissertations

We develop a theory for encounter rates in a three-dimensional system of connected compartments. The model of connected compartments exhibits the length-scale dependent diffusion that is observed in many heterogeneous environments, such as porous catalysts and biological environments. We discovered a dimensionless number that is the dominant scaling variable and obtained, for the first time, an analytical expression for the encounter rate. The new theory generalizes the classic Smoluchowski diffusion limit to the case of heterogeneous environments. The new theory is tested using Brownian dynamics simulations.^ We also experimentally investigated the behavior of multivalent electrolyte near a charged solid-liquid interface ...


Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park Oct 2014

Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park

Open Access Dissertations

Tissue engineering is a promising technology that enables scientists to create artificial organs or replace damaged tissues using animal cells and other components. For successful tissue regeneration, many factors should be taken into account, however, three components are most crucial: cell, scaffold, and soluble factor(s). In order to check the functionality after regeneration of desired tissues, various approaches have been attempted, depending on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of the tissues. Recently, the importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure is being considered to be important in this regard. The ECM is closely associated with various functional properties ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Role Of Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 (Mglur2) In Appetitive And Consummatory Aspects Of Ethanol Reinforcement, Kyle Allyson Windisch Oct 2014

Role Of Group Ii Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 (Mglur2) In Appetitive And Consummatory Aspects Of Ethanol Reinforcement, Kyle Allyson Windisch

Open Access Dissertations

Background: Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are predominately presynaptically located Gi/o coupled receptors that are highly expressed in the cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus. Previous studies suggest that group II mGluRs are involved in regulating ethanol (EtOH) consumption and seeking following extinction (Backstrom and Hyytia, 2005; Kufahl, et al., 2011). The sipper tube model, which allows for procedural separation of seeking and consumption, was used to further clarify the role of mGluR2/3 in EtOH-seeking and consumption. The non-selective group II mGluR agonist LY379268 (LY37) and selective mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) BINA were used ...


An Analysis Of The Impact Of Storage Temperature, Moisture Content & Duration Upon The Chemical Components & Bioprocessing Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Arun Athmanathan Oct 2013

An Analysis Of The Impact Of Storage Temperature, Moisture Content & Duration Upon The Chemical Components & Bioprocessing Of Lignocellulosic Biomass, Arun Athmanathan

Open Access Dissertations

The successful utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals necessitates storage for 2-6 months. It is correspondingly important to understand the impact of storage parameters - moisture concentration, temperature and duration - on biomass quality.

As aerobic storage is the most viable large-scale solution, aerobic storage experiments were carried out with three projected bioenergy feedstocks - sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bagasse, corn (Zea mays) stover and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Stored samples of each were examined for dry matter loss and composition change to develop a material balance around carbohydrates and lignin.

A mean dry matter loss of 24% was ...


Effects Of Dip-Coated Films On The Properties Of Implantable Intracortical Microelectrodes, Salah Sommakia Oct 2013

Effects Of Dip-Coated Films On The Properties Of Implantable Intracortical Microelectrodes, Salah Sommakia

Open Access Dissertations

The successful clinical use of implantable intracortical microelectrodes (ICMs) to treat certain types of deafness, blindness, and paralysis is limited by a reactive tissue response (RTR) of the brain. This RTR culminates in the formation of a tight glial scar and a loss of neuronal density around implanted ICMs, and is accompanied by a decrease in signal to noise ratio and an increase in impedance. While no comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the underlying biology is currently agreed upon in the field, a general consensus exists around a highly volatile acute RTR phase. During this acute phase, the electrical properties of ...


Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley Oct 2013

Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley

Open Access Dissertations

Hearing aids are able to restore some hearing abilities for people with auditory impairments, but background noise remains a significant problem. Unfortunately, we know very little about how speech is encoded in the auditory system, particularly in impaired systems with prosthetic amplifiers. There is growing evidence that relative timing in the neural signals (known as spatiotemporal coding) is important for speech perception, but there is little research that relates spatiotemporal coding and hearing aid amplification.

This research uses a combination of computational modeling and physiological experiments to characterize how hearing aids affect vowel coding in noise at the level of ...


Using X-Ray Imaging Techniques To Determine Density Of Foods, Shivangi Mohan Kelkar Oct 2013

Using X-Ray Imaging Techniques To Determine Density Of Foods, Shivangi Mohan Kelkar

Open Access Dissertations

Density depends on the experimental technique and structural properties of food. True, apparent and bulk are different types of densities. For porous foods such as baked food products and complex food systems, accurate measurement of density is challenging. Empirical correlations dependent on composition and temperature exist to calculate true density. Thus if composition and apparent density are known, porosity can be calculated, porosity = [1 - (apparent density/ true density)]. Various non-destructive diagnostic tools have been employed to study food microstructure. Among these, computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR) utilizing x-ray imaging showed greater capability for evaluation of food density. The ...


Ozonation Systems As A Non-Chemical Alternative For Stored Grain Protection, Carlos A. Campabadal Oct 2013

Ozonation Systems As A Non-Chemical Alternative For Stored Grain Protection, Carlos A. Campabadal

Open Access Dissertations

The use of ozone as a non-chemical alternative in stored grain protection was studied by conducting scale-up demonstrations using a fixed bed ozonation system and developing a semi-continuous counterflow and a continuous flow ozonation treatment system. The objectives of this research were to determine the efficacy of ozonation to control insect pests without affecting end-use quality; to prove the concept of the semi-continuous counterflow ozonation system to ozonate grain at a faster rate and quantify its effect on mold growth reduction; to evaluate the efficacy of a modified screw conveyor for pest control by treating grain in a continuous-flow ozonation ...


Reasoning Across Language And Vision In Machines And Humans, Andrei Barbu Oct 2013

Reasoning Across Language And Vision In Machines And Humans, Andrei Barbu

Open Access Dissertations

Humans not only outperform AI and computer-vision systems, but use an unknown computational mechanism to perform tasks for which no suitable approaches exist. I present work investigating both novel tasks and how humans approach them in the context of computer vision and linguistics. I demonstrate a system which, like children, acquires high-level linguistic knowledge about the world. Robots learn to play physically-instantiated board games and use that knowledge to engage in physical play. To further integrate language and vision I develop an approach which produces rich sentential descriptions of events depicted in videos. I then show how to simultaneously detect ...


Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon Oct 2013

Hybrid Opto-Electrokinetic Technique For Micro/Nanomanipulation: Towards Application Of A Novel Non-Invasive Manipulation Technique In Microbiological Assay, Jae-Sung Kwon

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation explores various physical mechanisms of the Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning (REP) technique suggested for rapid and precise on-chip manipulation of colloids and fluids, and bio-compatibility of the technique for biological applications. REP is a hybrid opto-electrokinetic technique that is driven by the simultaneous application of an AC electric field and a heating source. It can not only effectively transport and manipulate a fluid but also concentrate and pattern particles suspended in the fluid through the combined effect of an electrohydrodynamic flow, electrostatic colloidal interactions and an electrothermal microfluidic flow. These capabilities make REP a promising tool which can provide ...


Evaluation Of A Split-Root Nutrition System To Optimize Nutrition Of Basil, Ganisher Djurakulovich Abbasov Sep 2013

Evaluation Of A Split-Root Nutrition System To Optimize Nutrition Of Basil, Ganisher Djurakulovich Abbasov

Open Access Dissertations

The plant-nutrient-water optimum interaction always has been a problematic program for plant growth and development. This work investigates this interaction using a split root nutrition system to determine possible changes in traditional hydroponics to enhance plant growth and development. While split root nutrition systems have been used experimentally to answer some specific questions, the technique has never been used in a production system for optimizing plant, nutrient, and water interaction. The introduction of hydroponics almost a hundred fifty years ago has not changed this situation fundamentally. Moreover, the norm of fertilizer application on agricultural crops has the advantage of increased ...