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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya Dec 2016

Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya

Open Access Dissertations

The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of Bouligand structures and its biomimetic materials. One of the outstanding species with the Bouligand structures is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus, (or stomatopod) due to its capability of generating high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region, which is mainly characterized by the Bouligand structure. This ...


Geometric Accuracy Evaluation Of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Surveys With Supporting Algorithms, Chisaphat Supunyachotsakul Dec 2016

Geometric Accuracy Evaluation Of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Surveys With Supporting Algorithms, Chisaphat Supunyachotsakul

Open Access Dissertations

Mobile Mapping System (MMS) technology is widely used for many applications, hence quantifying its accuracy is a very important and essential task and is a primary focus of this research. In general, to perfrom geometric accuracy evaluation of MMS data, validation points/features are needed. A method is needed to capture a point feature off the roadway in a position where a target on the ground surface would not be visible to the scanner. In this study, eight sphere targets with 14" diameter were placed on the shoulder of the roadway over validation points on the ground. The sphere targets ...


Fea Methodology For System-Level Redundancy Evaluation: Application To Non-Composite Steel Bridges, Francisco Javier Bonachera Martin Dec 2016

Fea Methodology For System-Level Redundancy Evaluation: Application To Non-Composite Steel Bridges, Francisco Javier Bonachera Martin

Open Access Dissertations

Currently, all steel bridges with members designated as Fracture Critical Members (FCMs) are required to undergo hands-on inspections every 24 months. A FCM is a primary steel tension member (or portion of) which failure results in collapse or loss of serviceability of a bridge. However, presently, there are no codified procedures used to evaluate system-level redundancy in steel bridges. In this dissertation, finite element analysis (FEA) procedures, techniques and inputs were researched in order to develop bridge models that account for the mechanisms that lead to redundant capacity after the failure of a primary steel member. These mechanisms include partial ...


Bridge Maintenance To Enhance Corrosion Resistance And Performance Of Steel Girder Bridges, Luis M. Moran Yanez Dec 2016

Bridge Maintenance To Enhance Corrosion Resistance And Performance Of Steel Girder Bridges, Luis M. Moran Yanez

Open Access Dissertations

The integrity and efficiency of any national highway system relies on the condition of the various components. Bridges are fundamental elements of a highway system, representing an important investment and a strategic link that facilitates the transport of persons and goods. The cost to rehabilitate or replace a highway bridge represents an important expenditure to the owner, who needs to evaluate the correct time to assume that cost. Among the several factors that affect the condition of steel highway bridges, corrosion is identified as the main problem. In the USA corrosion is the primary cause of structurally deficient steel bridges ...


Computer Vision-Based Structural Assessment Exploiting Large Volumes Of Images, Chul Min Yeum Dec 2016

Computer Vision-Based Structural Assessment Exploiting Large Volumes Of Images, Chul Min Yeum

Open Access Dissertations

Visual assessment is a process to understand the state of a structure based on evaluations originating from visual information. Recent advances in computer vision to explore new sensors, sensing platforms and high-performance computing have shed light on the potential for vision-based visual assessment in civil engineering structures. The use of low-cost, high-resolution visual sensors in conjunction with mobile and aerial platforms can overcome spatial and temporal limitations typically associated with other forms of sensing in civil structures. Also, GPU-accelerated and parallel computing offer unprecedented speed and performance, accelerating processing the collected visual data. However, despite the enormous endeavor in past ...


The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu Dec 2016

The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu

Open Access Dissertations

The assessment of the influence of deicing chemicals on alkali reactivity of aggregates is still an area of active research, particularly with respect to the combined effects of long-term exposure to deicers, freezing and thawing cycles, and wetting and drying cycles. In order to develop a more comprehensive view of these topics, the present study was conducted in three phases. The focus of the first phase was on studying the effects of the chloride-based deicers on the alkali silica reaction (ASR) using accelerated test methods (i.e. the test was performed at high temperature (80 °C) as per modified ASTM ...


Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat Dec 2016

Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat

Open Access Dissertations

In view of population growth; climate change; and economic evolution, water resources in numerous parts of the world have reached their natural capacities. Consequently, the ability of many countries to grow; meet the basic needs of inhabitants; and protect the environment will be endangered like never before unless water resources are smartly handled and managed. ^ In the past few decades, many developed and developing countries have suffered from water scarcity, and more are certain to follow. The water security dilemma is much more challenging in developing countries. Water utilities have had to follow regulatory plans to manage demand on water ...


Modeling, Control, And Impact Analysis Of The Next Generation Transportation System, Feng Zhu Aug 2016

Modeling, Control, And Impact Analysis Of The Next Generation Transportation System, Feng Zhu

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation aims to develop a systematic tool designated for connected and autonomous vehicles, integrating the simulation of traffic dynamics, traffic control strategies, and impact analysis at the network level.

The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the traffic flow modeling of connected vehicles. This task is the foundation step for transportation planning, optimized network design, efficient traffic control strategies, etc, of the next generation transportation system. Chapter 2 proposes a cell-based simulation approach to model the proactive driving behavior of connected vehicles. Firstly, a state variable of connected vehicle is introduced to track the trajectory of connected ...


Response Of High-Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures To Simulated Earthquakes, Lucas Laughery Aug 2016

Response Of High-Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures To Simulated Earthquakes, Lucas Laughery

Open Access Dissertations

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures expected to resist earthquake demands, substituting smaller amounts of high-strength steel for conventional steel reinforcement can help reduce reinforcement congestion and placement costs while keeping strength unchanged.

Provided cross-sectional dimensions remain unchanged, reducing the amount of longitudinal steel in a member will result in a member with similar initial stiffness but lower post-cracking stiffness. Nominal strength can be kept nearly the same if this reduction in the amount of steel is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the strength of the steel. The topic of this investigation is whether two frames with the same initial ...


Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu Aug 2016

Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Numerical simulation of large-scale problems in structural dynamics, such as structures subject to extreme loads, can provide useful insights into structural behavior while minimizing the need for expensive experimental testing for the same. These types of problems are highly non-linear and usually involve material damage, large deformations and sometimes even collapse of structures. Conventionally, frame structures have been modeled using beam-frame finite elements in almost all structural analysis software currently being used by researchers and the industry. However, there are certain limitations associated with this modeling approach. This research focuses on two issues, in particular, of modeling frame structures undergoing ...


Improving The Laboratory Design Of Asphalt Mixtures To Enhance Asphalt Pavement Durability, Ali Hekmatfar Aug 2016

Improving The Laboratory Design Of Asphalt Mixtures To Enhance Asphalt Pavement Durability, Ali Hekmatfar

Open Access Dissertations

Most departments of transportation, including Indiana’s, currently use the Superpave mixture design method to design asphalt mixtures. This method specifies that the optimum asphalt content for a given gradation be selected at 4 percent air voids. During construction, these mixtures are typically compacted to 7-8 percent air voids. If mixtures were designed to be more compactable in the field they could be compacted to the same density as the laboratory mixture design, which would increase pavement durability by decreasing the in-place air voids. The objective of this research was to enhance the asphalt mixture design method in order to ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho Apr 2016

Development And Evaluation Of A Watershed-Scale Hybrid Hydrologic Model, Younghyun Cho

Open Access Dissertations

A watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model (Distributed-Clark), which is a lumped conceptual and distributed feature model, was developed to predict spatially distributed short- and long-term rainfall runoff generation and routing using relatively simple methodologies and state-of-the-art spatial data in a GIS environment. In Distributed-Clark, spatially distributed excess rainfall estimated with the SCS curve number method and a GIS-based set of separated unit hydrographs (spatially distributed unit hydrograph) are utilized to calculate a direct runoff flow hydrograph, and time-varied SCS CN values and conditional unit hydrograph approach for different runoff depth-based flow convolution are also used to compute long-term rainfall-runoff flow hydrographs ...


Seismic In-Plane Response Of Reinforced Concrete Frames With Masonry Infill Walls, Rabab Abdel Karim Al Louzi Apr 2015

Seismic In-Plane Response Of Reinforced Concrete Frames With Masonry Infill Walls, Rabab Abdel Karim Al Louzi

Open Access Dissertations

Field data gathered after destructive earthquakes indicate that infill walls interact with reinforced concrete (RC) frames in buildings during an earthquake and could cause failure mechanism different than what the frames are originally designed for. A new method to identify the failure modes of RC frames with infill walls is developed. The method requires only the simple geometric and material properties of the elements involved in the frame- wall assembly. The approach checks various possible failure mechanisms, including those that may evolve depending on how the infill wall may fail during strong shaking, for example, the dynamically evolved captive column ...


Near-Inertial Internal Poincare Waves In Lake Michigan: Seasonal Variability And Effects On Lateral Dispersion And Turbulent Mixing, Jun M Choi Apr 2015

Near-Inertial Internal Poincare Waves In Lake Michigan: Seasonal Variability And Effects On Lateral Dispersion And Turbulent Mixing, Jun M Choi

Open Access Dissertations

A dominant physical process in stratified Lake Michigan is near-inertial internal Poincaré waves. The near-inertial internal Poincaré waves is described as locally quasi-uniform currents in the lateral direction, with vertically-sheared structures rotating clockwise at a near-inertial period. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate their seasonal variation and the potential roles on lateral dispersion and vertical mixing. ^ At this mid-lake location, the Poincaré wave is seen to describe more than 80% of the observed surface current variability for much of the year, with characteristic near-inertial frequency and clockwise-rotating velocities. The wave persists during the stratified period, and is supported ...


Automated Segmentation, Detection And Fitting Of Piping Elements From Terrestrial Lidar Data, Yun-Ting Su Apr 2015

Automated Segmentation, Detection And Fitting Of Piping Elements From Terrestrial Lidar Data, Yun-Ting Su

Open Access Dissertations

Since the invention of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) in the early 1960s, it has been adopted for use in numerous applications, from topographical mapping with airborne LIDAR platforms to surveying of urban sites with terrestrial LIDAR systems. Static terrestrial LIDAR has become an especially effective tool for surveying, in some cases replacing traditional techniques such as electronic total stations and GPS methods. Current state-of-the-art LIDAR scanners have very fine spatial resolution, generating precise 3D point cloud data with millimeter accuracy. Therefore, LIDAR data can provide 3D details of a scene with an unprecedented level of details. However, automated exploitation ...


Spatial Analysis Of Passenger Vehicle Use And Ownership And Its Impact On The Sustainability Of Highway Infrastructure Funding, Matthew Volovski Apr 2015

Spatial Analysis Of Passenger Vehicle Use And Ownership And Its Impact On The Sustainability Of Highway Infrastructure Funding, Matthew Volovski

Open Access Dissertations

Across the United States, the sustainability of highway funding is at risk due to increasing need and uncertainty in the factors that drive revenue. Past studies on highway funding sustainability have identified that the root cause of changing highway revenue are the shifts in social demographics and economic characteristics. Unfortunately, from the revenue perspective (the focus of this dissertation), the ability of previous research to account for these factors has been rather limited in two ways; first, the inability to accurately assess current regional vehicle use (a typical prerequisite for statistical modeling of highway revenues) due to difficulties associated with ...


Behavior And Design Of Steel-Plate Composite (Sc) Walls For Blast Loads, Jakob C Bruhl Apr 2015

Behavior And Design Of Steel-Plate Composite (Sc) Walls For Blast Loads, Jakob C Bruhl

Open Access Dissertations

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical ...


Modeling Person-To-Person Contaminant Transport In Enclosed Environments, Chun Chen Apr 2015

Modeling Person-To-Person Contaminant Transport In Enclosed Environments, Chun Chen

Open Access Dissertations

It is essential to predict person-to-person contaminant transport in enclosed environments to improve air distribution design and reduce the infection risk from airborne infectious diseases. This study aims to improve and accelerate the simulation of person-to-person contaminant transport in enclosed environments. ^ This investigation first conducted experimental measurements of person-to-person contaminant transport in an office mockup and the first-class cabin of a functional MD-82 aircraft. The experimental data of steady-state airflow, temperature, and gas contaminant concentration fields obtained in the office were used to validate the steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. In the aircraft cabin, the transient particle concentrations were ...


An Integrated System Of Vapor-Compression Chiller And Absorption Heat Pump: Experiment, Modeling, And Energy And Economic Evaluation, Yi-Shu Kung Apr 2015

An Integrated System Of Vapor-Compression Chiller And Absorption Heat Pump: Experiment, Modeling, And Energy And Economic Evaluation, Yi-Shu Kung

Open Access Dissertations

Buildings currently consume 41% of the primary energy in the United States. Among the 41% primary energy, approximate 50% are used for building heating, cooling, and water heating. Improving the efficiencies of the devices for building heating and cooling has potentials to reducing the energy consumptions. This research aims to find one solution for building energy efficiency through investigating an Integrated System of an Integrated Compression-Absorption Subcooling System (ICASS) Based upon the principle of subcooling effect, the ICASS can improve the efficiency of the cooling device but also achieve additional useful heating sources potentially used for space heating and domestic ...


Algorithms For Bundling And Pricing Trucking Services: Deterministic And Stochastic Approaches, Rodrigo Mesa-Arango Apr 2015

Algorithms For Bundling And Pricing Trucking Services: Deterministic And Stochastic Approaches, Rodrigo Mesa-Arango

Open Access Dissertations

Bundling and pricing trucking services is an important strategic decision for carriers. This is helpful when they consider the incorporation of new businesses to their networks, look for economic and optimal operations, and develop revenue management strategies. Reverse combinatorial auctions for trucking services are real-world examples that illustrate the necessity of such strategies. In these auctions, a shipper asks carriers for quotes to serve combinations of lanes and the carriers have to bundle demand and price it properly. This dissertation explores several dimensions of the problem employing state-of-the-art analytical tools. These dimensions include: Truckload (TL) and less-than-truckload (LTL) operations, behavioral ...


Distributed Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: Modeling, Development And Experimental Validation, Ali Irmak Ozdagli Apr 2015

Distributed Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: Modeling, Development And Experimental Validation, Ali Irmak Ozdagli

Open Access Dissertations

Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) has become a recognized methodology for isolating and evaluating performance of critical structural components under potentially catastrophic events such as earthquakes. Although RTHS is efficient in its utilization of equipment and space compared to traditional testing methods such as shake table testing, laboratory resources may not always be available in one location to conduct appropriate large-scale experiments. Consequently, distributed systems, capable of connecting multiple RTHS setups located at numerous geographically distributed facilities through information exchange, become essential. This dissertation focuses on the development, evaluation and validation of a new distributed RTHS (dRTHS) platform enabling integration of ...


Overweight Vehicle Permitting Alternatives, Stephanie R Everett Jan 2015

Overweight Vehicle Permitting Alternatives, Stephanie R Everett

Open Access Dissertations

Overweight vehicles exceed the federal and/or state statutory limits for either the gross vehicle weight (GVW) or the weight of individual axles or axle groups. National and state limits on vehicle weights were established to preserve the highway infrastructure. Past research has shown that overweight operations, while causing significant damage to roads and bridges, can enhance the trucking industry productivity, and thus yield economic benefits both regionally and nationally. In the United States, individual states administer oversize and overweight vehicle permit programs to regulate and collect revenues from overweight operations. Differences in the truck size and weight limits and ...


Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subject To Impact By Non-Deformable Projectiles, Amer Abdel Karim Alkloub Jan 2015

Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subject To Impact By Non-Deformable Projectiles, Amer Abdel Karim Alkloub

Open Access Dissertations

In impact resistance of reinforced concrete (RC) panels against projectiles the contribution of the orthogonal mesh reinforcement has been ignored. In this study the contribution of mesh reinforcement to impact resistance and itseffect on the nature of local damage caused by impact of non-deformable projectiles are investigated. The investigation included a combination of 53 experiments and series of finite-element based numerical simulations. Three levels of local damage modes were investegated based on the severity of the degree of damage in the impacted panels. Mesh reinforcement ratio within the range of reinforcement ratio considered, namely 0.19% to 0.48%, was ...


Effects Of Web Reinforcement Discontinuities On The Seismic Response Of Structural Walls, Ying Wang Oct 2014

Effects Of Web Reinforcement Discontinuities On The Seismic Response Of Structural Walls, Ying Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Field evidence was interpreted to suggest that discontinuities in the longitudinal web reinforcement caused severe damage in structural walls during strong ground motion. To test this hypothesis, six small-scale reinforced concrete structural walls were tested under lateral displacement reversals. Test variables included the presence of web longitudinal reinforcement discontinuities and number of loading cycles. The test results indicated that unit tensile strains in longitudinal reinforcing bars in boundary elements were approximately 50% higher in structural walls with web longitudinal reinforcement cutoffs relative to walls without reinforcement cutoffs. Higher unit tensile strains caused an increase in permanent strain accumulation, increasing the ...


Experimental Database, Analysis And Design Of Noncompact And Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tube (Cft) Members, Zhichao Lai Oct 2014

Experimental Database, Analysis And Design Of Noncompact And Slender Concrete-Filled Steel Tube (Cft) Members, Zhichao Lai

Open Access Dissertations

Concrete-filled steel tube beam-columns are categorized as compact, noncompact or slender depending on the governing tube slenderness ratio. AISC 360-10 specifies the provisions for designing noncompact and slender rectangular and circular CFT members under axial compression, flexure, and combined axial and flexural loading. This research presents the development and evaluation of these design provisions. Available experimental databases of CFT members are reviewed, and a new experimental database of tests conducted on noncompact and slender CFT members is compiled. Detailed 3D finite element method (FEM) models are developed for noncompact and slender CFT members, and benchmarked using experimental results. The AISC ...


Nano-Modification For High Performance Cement Composites With Cellulose Nanocrystals And Carbon Nanotubes, Yizheng Cao Oct 2014

Nano-Modification For High Performance Cement Composites With Cellulose Nanocrystals And Carbon Nanotubes, Yizheng Cao

Open Access Dissertations

One of the new engineering frontiers is the exploration of infrastructure materials with novel combinations of properties that break traditional paradigms. The goal of this study is to utilize two different nano-fibers, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modify the nanoscale structures of cement composites and thereby improve the performance at the macro-level. This study also evaluates the mechanism behind the modification, since fiber bridging, the most common reinforcing mechanism for fiber-reinforced composites, cannot be simply applied because CNCs are too short to bridge cracks in cement composites. ^ The mechanical tests show an increase in the flexural strength ...


A Nonlinear Interface Formulation For Frictional Contact, Layla K Amaireh Oct 2014

A Nonlinear Interface Formulation For Frictional Contact, Layla K Amaireh

Open Access Dissertations

Finite element simulations of contact problems often involve modeling the interaction of multiple bodies across a non-confirming interface. Non-Confirming Meshes (NCM) are typically associated with large sliding or adaptive refinement on one side of the interface to capture localized nonlinear behavior due to large deformations, damage and inelasticity. The use of NCMs, however, presents a number of numerical issues; the main challenge with such discretizations is to ensure compatibility of the kinematic and traction fields along the non-conforming interface. ^ The Enriched Discontinuous Galerkin Approach (EDGA) (Haikal and Hjelmstad,2010)addresses this challenge by implementing a local enrichment along with an ...


Integrating Pro-Environmental Behavior With Transportation Network Modeling: User And System Level Strategies, Implementation, And Evaluation, Husain M. Abdul Aziz Oct 2014

Integrating Pro-Environmental Behavior With Transportation Network Modeling: User And System Level Strategies, Implementation, And Evaluation, Husain M. Abdul Aziz

Open Access Dissertations

Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61\% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation ...


Impact Of Anthropogenic Activities On Hydro-Climatological Variables, Kuk Hyun Ahn Oct 2014

Impact Of Anthropogenic Activities On Hydro-Climatological Variables, Kuk Hyun Ahn

Open Access Dissertations

The natural environment has been significantly affected by anthropogenic activities. Between 1700s and 2000s, agricultural land area had quintupled and the extent of natural vegetation was globally reduced by half. Furthermore many scientists argue that the recent rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic activities may also play a crucial role in the change of the hydro-climatologic variables. In this study, impact of anthropogenic activities on two representative hydro-climatologic variables, temperature and streamflow, is investigated. The variations in temperature occur over larger spatial and time scale, and hence the United States is adopted ...


A Stochastic Multi-Criteria Assessment Of Security Of Transportation Assets, Michelle Sophie Dojutrek Oct 2014

A Stochastic Multi-Criteria Assessment Of Security Of Transportation Assets, Michelle Sophie Dojutrek

Open Access Dissertations

Transportation project evaluation and prioritization use traditional performance measures including travel time, safety, user costs, economic efficiency, and environmental quality. The project impacts in terms of enhancing the infrastructure resilience or mitigating the consequences of infrastructure damage in the event of disaster occurrence are rarely considered in project evaluation. This dissertation presents a methodology to address this issue so that in evaluating and prioritizing investments, infrastructure with low security can receive the attention they deserve. Secondly, the methodology can be used for evaluating and prioritizing candidate investments dedicated specifically to security enhancement. In defining security as a function of threat ...