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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Drivers Of On-Farm Performance Of Irrigation Water Management Practices: Empirical Evidence From Eastern Arkansas, Jacob Askey Dec 2019

Drivers Of On-Farm Performance Of Irrigation Water Management Practices: Empirical Evidence From Eastern Arkansas, Jacob Askey

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Unsustainable agricultural practices are putting a strain on freshwater supplies in many parts of the world. More efficient irrigation techniques are going to be critical to feed a growing population. Data from the 2016 Arkansas Irrigation Survey was used to assess the adoption of three Irrigation Water Management (IWM) practices: multiple inlet rice irrigation, tailwater recovery, and storage reservoirs. Results indicate that these practices do not always lead to reported pumping time reductions, a proxy for water use savings. Large variations in pumping time reduction are observed across producers for all three practices. A Tobit model was used to examine ...


Investigations Of Thermal Treatment Of Softwood Kraft Lignin Under Fractional And Ablative Pyrolytic Conditions, Dideolu J. Daniel Oct 2019

Investigations Of Thermal Treatment Of Softwood Kraft Lignin Under Fractional And Ablative Pyrolytic Conditions, Dideolu J. Daniel

LSU Master's Theses

Lignin is second to cellulose in abundance among polymers in nature. Research studies on the development of new products and material combinations in which lignin degradation/conversion products are involved are still in their infancy, because fundamental knowledge about its structure, reactivity, and material and polymer behavior, is still lacking.

The objective of this research study was to investigate the complex thermal deconstruction and mechanistic behavior of a type of technical lignin, known as Kraft lignin, under depolymerization and to develop operating conditions for parameters influencing resulting product yields and operation of pyrolysis reactors.

Softwood Kraft lignin (s-KL) and methanol-fractionated ...


A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss May 2019

A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This project sought to characterize industrial hemp as a potential competitive agricultural commodity for the state of Virginia. Specifically, industrial hempseed was evaluated as a feedstock for the commercial broiler (meat-chickens) industry in Virginia.

Data were gathered to identify both the advantages and disadvantages of industrial hempseed as a nutritional resource for broilers. Key nutritional compositions were identified, quantified, and compared to several common feed ingredients, such as soybean, wheat, corn, and sorghum. Hempseed (whole seed) was found to have a considerably high amino acid content, protein, fiber, and metabolizable energy – making it an attractive alternative to conventional feedstuffs.

However ...


Effectiveness Of Titanium And Iron Nanoparticles In Treating M. Aeruginosa For Harmful Algal Bloom Remediation, Natalie Von Tress May 2019

Effectiveness Of Titanium And Iron Nanoparticles In Treating M. Aeruginosa For Harmful Algal Bloom Remediation, Natalie Von Tress

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a growing issue worldwide, posing harm to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water quality. This issue could be potentially mitigated using nanoparticle (NP) treatment, simultaneously removing cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins in HABs. This research seeks to discern the effectiveness of using titanium dioxide and iron (III) oxide NP treatment at removing cyanobacteria via flocculation and sedimentation. Each NP at 25 mg/L and 50 mg/L were used to treat suspended culture of Microcystis aeruginosa, the representative cyanobacteria, up to 72 hours. Cell concentration and morphology in the supernatant were measured via a Coulter counter ...


Lighting And Economic Considerations For A Hydroponic S-Based Greenhouse At Tri Cycle Farms, Laura Gray May 2019

Lighting And Economic Considerations For A Hydroponic S-Based Greenhouse At Tri Cycle Farms, Laura Gray

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is an agricultural technology that involves growing plants without soil, instead using other growth media with added nutrients, typically inside a controlled facility such as a greenhouse. Hydroponics-based agriculture has a number of benefits, namely that it is more water efficient, requires less intensive labor, yields higher quality crops consistently in shorter time, and is easier to control. It also has the potential to be economically advantageous, due to its ability to grow certain crops in the off-season. In Fayetteville, Arkansas, a non-profit urban farm known as Tri Cycle Farms has been seeking a way to design, build, and ...


Design Of Remote Datalogger Connection And Live Data Tweeting System, Zachary Wofford May 2019

Design Of Remote Datalogger Connection And Live Data Tweeting System, Zachary Wofford

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Low-Impact Development (LID) is an attempt to sustainably respond to the potential hazards posed by urban expansion. Green roofs are an example of LID design meant to reduce the amount of runoff from storm events that are becoming more intense and less predictable while also providing insulation to buildings. LID has not yet been widely adopted as it is often a more expensive alternative to conventional infrastructure (Bowman et. al., 2009). However, its benefits are apparent. The University of Arkansas Honors College awarded a grant to research the large green roof atop Hillside Auditorium. One part of this grant is ...


Simulating Delayed Flood And Alternate Wetting And Drying Rice Production In Arkansas Using Apex, Jaden Tatum May 2019

Simulating Delayed Flood And Alternate Wetting And Drying Rice Production In Arkansas Using Apex, Jaden Tatum

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rice is a staple food for billions of people, and rice production will need to grow with global populations. One potential solution to decrease the environmental impacts associated with rice production is alternate wetting and drying (AWD) management which, as opposed to sustained flooding, allows a reduction of water use and methane emissions. Studies into AWD have shown that yield levels may be conserved when using this practice, which would be necessary for widespread implementation. Modeling AWD management changes successfully would help to determine where and to what extent this practice may be effective in the US. The management and ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould May 2019

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Quantifying Litter Decomposition Rates On A Semi-Intensive Green Roof, Eli Lasalle May 2019

Quantifying Litter Decomposition Rates On A Semi-Intensive Green Roof, Eli Lasalle

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The overall goal of this study was to provide a measure of the decomposition rate constant on a semi- intensive green roof located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The specific approach chosen was the use of the Tea Bag Index (TBI), a standardized plant litter decomposition test. There was some heterogeneity observed on site and the locations of samples tested were chosen based on this. Additional laboratory tests were conducted in order to determine whether there would be a large impact of temperature on decomposition or if it would be outweighed by other factors. The temperatures compared were 5°C, 20°C ...


Rating Curve Development For The Upper James Fork, Lower James Fork And Hinkle Jones Creek In The Upper Poteau River Watershed In Arkansas, Meagan O'Hare May 2019

Rating Curve Development For The Upper James Fork, Lower James Fork And Hinkle Jones Creek In The Upper Poteau River Watershed In Arkansas, Meagan O'Hare

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Stream discharge is necessary to estimate loads and calibrate and validate watershed models. Access to long-term water quality data and discharge measurements allows for modeling of water quality changes across a watershed over time. However, discharge monitoring stations are often expensive to install and maintain, particularly in small rivers. A more cost-effective method for monitoring streamflow has been implemented in the Upper Poteau River Watershed (UPRW) in Arkansas. This method consists of an SonTek acoustic doppler instrument for measuring storm stream flow, with is combined with manual baseflow discharge measurements. The combined stormflow and baseflow measurements are combined with a ...


Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner May 2019

Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Hillside Auditorium Green Roof is a low impact development feature on the University of Arkansas campus. It retains storm water and allows plants living on the roof to take up and transpire the water. Green roofs work to mimic natural ecosystems in urban environments. A key property is ecosystem respiration, which plays a large role in the global carbon cycle and is an important biologic activity indicator. The ecosystem respiration of Hillside Auditorium Green Roof was compared to a typical grassland ecosystem at the University of Arkansas farm to determine how closely the green roof is able to mimic ...


Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi May 2019

Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paper coating layers are subject to various stresses and deformations in many converting processes such as calendering, printing, slitting, and folding of the paper. In some cases, products may crack during folding to generate a defect called cracking at the fold (CAF). The parameters that influence these defects are not well understood. The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand the CAF behavior as related to material properties of the coating layer.

A method was developed to produce free-standing pigmented coating layers thick enough to be tested in bending as well as tension. The mechanical properties of these ...


Evaluation Of Air Movement In Equestrian Facilities And On Equine Athletes, Staci Elaine Mcgill Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Air Movement In Equestrian Facilities And On Equine Athletes, Staci Elaine Mcgill

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Ventilation and air movement are important aspects of animal agriculture and is frequently neglected in equine facilities. This paper discusses three different studies that examine different components of ventilation and air movement. One is a fan orientation study which examines how fans impact the stall environment, the second is a cooling study questioning whether forced air speed across a horse increases the rate of cool out after intense exercise, and the last is a survey examining ventilation, air quality, and health concerns in indoor arenas.

The stall fan study took place over two summers with the goal of determining how ...


Evaluating The Influence Of The Forestry Reclamation Approach On The Hydrology Of Appalachian Coal Mined Lands, Morgan F. Gerlitz Jan 2019

Evaluating The Influence Of The Forestry Reclamation Approach On The Hydrology Of Appalachian Coal Mined Lands, Morgan F. Gerlitz

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

The Appalachian Region is a rich and diverse forest ecosystem impacted by present and past mining activities. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 was enacted to resolve many of the environmental problems caused by surfacing mining, such as landslides, erosion, flooding, and poor water quality. As with many solutions, this one came with its own set of environmental problems due to compaction and the introduction of aggressive non-native grasses and shrubs altering hydrologic processes and ecosystem function. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) is a method for re-establishing forested ecosystems on mined lands. This project evaluated the ...


Design And Testing Of A Wind Energy Harnessing System For Forced Convective Drying Of Grain In Low Wind Speed, Warm And Humid Climates, Francis Akumabi Agbali Jan 2019

Design And Testing Of A Wind Energy Harnessing System For Forced Convective Drying Of Grain In Low Wind Speed, Warm And Humid Climates, Francis Akumabi Agbali

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Forced convective drying using a wind turbine mechanically connected to a ventilation fan was hypothesized for low cost and rapid grain drying in developing countries. The idea was tested using an expandable wind turbine blade system with variable pitch, at low wind speeds in a wind tunnel. The design was based on empirical and theoretical models embedded in a graphical user interface (GUI) created to estimate airflow-power requirements for drying ear corn. Output airflow (0.0016 - 0.0052 m3kg-1s-1) increased within the study wind speed range (2.0 - 5.5 m/s). System efficiency peak ...


Removing Vehicle Speed From Apparent Wind Velocity, Austin M. Weiss Jan 2019

Removing Vehicle Speed From Apparent Wind Velocity, Austin M. Weiss

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Variable-rate technologies for sprayer applications stand to increase efficacy by ensuring the right amount of chemical is applied at the right location. However, external environmental factors such as droplet drift caused by variable ambient condition, are not yet integrated into modern sprayer systems. Real-time wind velocity measurements can be used to control droplet spectra for reducing spray drift by actuating a variable-orifice nozzle. This work aimed to develop data processing methods needed to filter noise and remove vehicle speed from wind velocity measurements collected with an ultrasonic anemometer aboard a moving platform. Using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), vehicle ...


Simulation Of Soil-To-Tool Interaction Using Discrete Element Method (Dem) And Multibody Dynamics (Mbd) Coupling, Sadaf Ghorbani Jan 2019

Simulation Of Soil-To-Tool Interaction Using Discrete Element Method (Dem) And Multibody Dynamics (Mbd) Coupling, Sadaf Ghorbani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Multi-physics simulation of soil-to-tool interaction using a coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Multibody dynamics (MBD) techniques can support the design of off-road equipment. Quantitative prediction of the soil reaction forces on the equipment is essential to provide a reliable simulation-based design. DEM is a computational method for simulating the dynamic behavior of granular materials. In the coupling interface, DEM gives a high fidelity prediction of the forces for soil-to-soil and soil-to-tool interaction, which can be used in the MBD simulation workflow. Two laboratory tests were used to capture the bulk material behavior: the angle of repose test for calibration ...


Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza Jan 2019

Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The dielectric properties of material play a relevant role when developing moisture content sensors of agricultural products. However, little is known about the permittivity of switchgrass and corn stover in a wider frequency band. Thus, this research goal was to determine their dielectric constant and loss factor at different moisture contents and frequency range of 5 Hz to 13 MHz. Also, an electrical sensor system was developed to predict the amount of water in agricultural products with the material static and in movement.

The dielectric properties of switchgrass and corn stover were calculated by measuring their admittance using an impedance ...


Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott Jan 2019

Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a method for improving spray boom height stability was developed and tested. Self-propelled sprayers played a critical role in agriculture by applying chemicals to crops to control the presence of weeds and pests. The spraying process needed to be controlled in a manner such that the spray boom maintained the necessary target height for uniform coverage. Deviation from target height allowed outside factors such as wind to become more prevalent during chemical application which generated opportunities for spray drift to occur and potentially harm neighboring crops and environment.

On a suspended spray boom system, terrain influences on ...


Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan Jan 2019

Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The premise of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC) is that a joint fermentative-catalytic process can be exercised to manufacture commodity chemicals from bio-based carbon (e.g., five and six carbon sugar) at prices that are competitive with existing petro-derived chemicals, and with development costs that are far low. Strong technoeconomic analysis (TEA) capabilities exist commercially in tools such as SuperPro Designer® and Aspen Plus®, both of which provide estimations of capital and operating costs. These tools also require a level of detail that is typically unavailable at early stages of process evaluation. To address early – stage ...


Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour Jan 2019

Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The agriculture sector is the largest source of employment for Ghanaians and it is dominated by smallholder farmers. The challenges in the agriculture sector are many which include food insecurity. Maize offers a significant source of calories, and accounts for 50% of the total cereal production in Ghana, with the reported postharvest loss (PHL) between 5% and 70%. Improving food security through a reduction of PHL is imperative for meeting current development objectives. Sitophilus zeamais can inflict serious damage to maize in storage leading to about 20% to 50% or more losses within 3 to 6 months. The lack of ...


A Study Of Soybean Processing Value Maximization Using Selective Handling Strategies Based On The Analysis Of Soybeans Received At Iowa Elevators, Bennett Elizabeth Barr Jan 2019

A Study Of Soybean Processing Value Maximization Using Selective Handling Strategies Based On The Analysis Of Soybeans Received At Iowa Elevators, Bennett Elizabeth Barr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During the Fall 2018 soybean harvest, soybean samples were collected from 32 country elevator locations belonging to one Iowa-based cooperative which has its own elevator locations and processing plant. This was done to update historical data about geographic variations in protein and oil content of Iowa soybeans, and to assist the cooperative in making more informed decisions about their soybeans to maximize value potential. These samples were analyzed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to determine protein and oil contents. The data were accumulated and sorted to look for geographic variations in protein and oil content of soybeans throughout Iowa. The data ...


Modeling Grain Storage Outflow Contamination Levels, Based Upon Input Time Series, Anne E. Dohmen Jan 2019

Modeling Grain Storage Outflow Contamination Levels, Based Upon Input Time Series, Anne E. Dohmen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The main objective of this thesis was to use a modeling approach to simulate the concentration of grain contamination in an existing corn processing system. The majority of the plant input is GMO corn, which is processed into multiple end products. In addition to GMO corn, each year, the plant processes six 11-day runs of non-GMO corn. During these non-GMO runs, the overall GMO contamination of the products produced is required to be less than 0.9% per the 3rd party labeling organization Non-GMO Project standards. Each run takes in approximately 1,400 lots (1000 bu/lot), with a sub-sample ...


Modeling Runoff From Small Agricultural Watersheds In Eastern South Dakota, Bryce Siverling Jan 2019

Modeling Runoff From Small Agricultural Watersheds In Eastern South Dakota, Bryce Siverling

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The capability to be able to consistently and accurately model any problem has potential time and money savings. The present study aimed to determine if the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Curve Number (CN) model or the more detailed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model can consistently and accurately model runoff events from small agricultural fields in Eastern South Dakota. The overall goal was to better understand models used to predict runoff and determine if they can produce accurate estimates of runoff from the watersheds being studied. Runoff measurements were collected from an agricultural field located south of Coleman ...


Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Of Lignocellulosic Biomass And Assessments For Biobutanol Production, Nazira Binti Mahmud Jan 2019

Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (Lmaa) Pretreatment Of Lignocellulosic Biomass And Assessments For Biobutanol Production, Nazira Binti Mahmud

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low-value biomass materials such as processing co-products and agricultural wastes possess abundant potential in value-added products production. The effort for utilization of these materials, especially as the substrate for fermentation process was limited by the low availability of fermentable sugar. This is due to the presence of lignin and hemicellulose in biomass structure, which entails appropriate pretreatment procedure to be conducted to expose the cellulose for the enzymatic reaction. Alkali-based pretreatments offer the attractive benefit of low inhibitor compound production. In this study, low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment was conducted on selected biomass. Anhydrous ammonia, which is a gaseous ...


Behavior, Welfare, Production And Bioenergetics Of Laying Hens In Alternative Housing Systems, Jofran Luiz De Oliveira Jan 2019

Behavior, Welfare, Production And Bioenergetics Of Laying Hens In Alternative Housing Systems, Jofran Luiz De Oliveira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Transitioning of egg production systems from conventional cage to alternative housing (e.g., enriched colony, aviary cage-free) is increasingly occurring in various parts of the world, especially in Europe and the United States, to meet animal welfare requirements or legislations. This dissertation had the central goal of providing scientific knowledge or discoveries related to behavior, welfare, production, and bioenergetics of laying hens in alternative housing systems. It covers five experiments that were conducted in controlled environment and commercial settings with the following specific objectives: 1) Develop and validate a UHF RFID system able to evaluate nesting and feeding behaviors of ...


Analyzing And Advancing Maize And Sugarcane Biorefinery Systems, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira Jan 2019

Analyzing And Advancing Maize And Sugarcane Biorefinery Systems, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fossil fuels are considered one of the most significant contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and renewable energy derived from biomass has potential to displace fossil fuels and to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions. One example of the conversion of biomass into renewable energy is the production of biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Nowadays, producing a green product with lower cost is challenging because of production cost and environmental impacts of the manufacturing process that involve expensive technologies and significant amounts of emission. While much research in this area has been published over the last few decades, gaps ...


Performance Evaluation, Economic Analysis And Improvement Recommendations For A Batch Drying Chamber System At The Isu Agricultural Engineering And Agronomy Research Farm, Trevor Stevenson Jan 2019

Performance Evaluation, Economic Analysis And Improvement Recommendations For A Batch Drying Chamber System At The Isu Agricultural Engineering And Agronomy Research Farm, Trevor Stevenson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Iowa State University Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy Research Farm operates a system of 24 drying chambers to dry soil and plant materials. The system is in need of updating due to the current system becoming outdated. The current boiler utilizes hot water heat exchangers controlled with pneumatic valves that control the temperature in each drying chamber. It was evaluated to operate at a maximum 29,880 Btu/h heat capacity and 83.2% heating efficiency. Alternatives for the boiler-based system are electro-mechanical control of the heat exchangers and replacing the boiler-based system with electric heat exchangers with thermostat control ...


Physical Characterization, Calibration, And Validation Methodology For Modeling Of Grains Using Discrete Element Method (Dem), Mohammad Mousaviraad Jan 2019

Physical Characterization, Calibration, And Validation Methodology For Modeling Of Grains Using Discrete Element Method (Dem), Mohammad Mousaviraad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Discrete element method (DEM) as a numerical technique for modeling granular materials has been developed for predicting the dynamic behavior of bulk particulate systems. Simulation of bulk grain handling in crop harvesting machine using the DEM technique have been challenging owing to the variability of corn conditions (e.g., grain moisture content) and limitation of robust DEM calibration procedures. Although DEM has provided an invaluable qualitative understanding of the particle flow inside or in contact with equipment, quantitatively accurate DEM simulation of particle flow and particle-machine interaction for engineering design and analysis has been generally limited. The objective of this ...


Preparation Of Cellulose Nanofibers From Bamboo Using Microwave Liquefaction, Jiulong Xie Dec 2018

Preparation Of Cellulose Nanofibers From Bamboo Using Microwave Liquefaction, Jiulong Xie

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Cellulose nanofibers isolated from renewable lignocellulosic biomass are considered highly promising fillers in preparing sustainable composite materials. Although previous technologies on the production of cellulose nanofibers were encouraging, drawbacks such as chemical reagent, high energy consumption, time-consumption, and equipment degradation have limited these techniques for practical applications. In this work, bamboo particles were subjected to microwave liquefaction process and the liquefied bamboo residues were characterized to have a better understanding of the liquefaction behaviors of bamboo. Then, the microwave liquefaction process was optimized for the production of cellulose raw materials and the isolation of cellulose nanofibers. The lignin fraction fractionated ...