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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester May 2021

Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Electronics operating at cryogenic temperatures play a critical role in future science experiments and space exploration programs. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) uses a cold electronics system for data taking. Specifically, it utilizes custom-designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The main challenge is that these circuits will be immersed in liquid Argon and that they need to function for 20+ years without any access. Ensuring quality is critical, and issues may arise due to thermal stress, packaging, and manufacturing-related defects: if undetected, these could lead to long-term reliability and performance problems. This paper reports an investigation into non-destructive evaluation ...


Microwave-Assisted Modulation Of Light Emission Intensity In Alkali-Pyrotechnic Plumes, Stuart J. Barkley, Joel E. Lynch, Eric J. Miklaszewski, Jonathan M. Dilger, William F. Crespo, James B. Michael, Shankar Subramaniam, Travis R. Sippel Mar 2021

Microwave-Assisted Modulation Of Light Emission Intensity In Alkali-Pyrotechnic Plumes, Stuart J. Barkley, Joel E. Lynch, Eric J. Miklaszewski, Jonathan M. Dilger, William F. Crespo, James B. Michael, Shankar Subramaniam, Travis R. Sippel

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Creating next-generation pyrotechnic emitters capable of dynamically controllable light output requires a paradigm shift away from emission control via formulation. This work demonstrates the ability to modulate light emission intensity of a pyrotechnic flame with 2.46 GHz microwave energy within a multimodal cavity. Stoichiometric mixtures of three pyrotechnic systems are investigated: magnesium fuel with oxidizers of NaNO3, KNO3, or CsNO3. Using time-resolved visible and infrared emission spectroscopy and high-speed color videography, microwave illumination of flames is found to produce enhanced atomic photo emission from the alkali species. Emission increases of up to ~120% are demonstrated, which are predominantly in ...


Direct Determination Of Cellulosic Glucan Content In Starch-Containing Samples, Justin B. Sluiter, Katie P. Michel, Bennett Addison, Yining Zeng, William Michener, Alexander L. Paterson, Frédéric A. Perras, Edward J. Wolfrum Jan 2021

Direct Determination Of Cellulosic Glucan Content In Starch-Containing Samples, Justin B. Sluiter, Katie P. Michel, Bennett Addison, Yining Zeng, William Michener, Alexander L. Paterson, Frédéric A. Perras, Edward J. Wolfrum

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

A simple and highly selective analytical procedure is presented for the determination of cellulosic glucan content in samples that contain both cellulose and starch. This method eliminates the unacceptably large compounding errors of current two-measurement methods. If both starch and cellulose are present before analytical hydrolysis, both will be hydrolyzed to glucose causing bias and inaccuracy in the method. To prevent this interference, the removal of starch prior to cellulosic quantification is crucial. The method presented here is a concise in-series procedure with minimal measurements, eliminating large compounding errors. Sample preparation consists of a starch extraction employing enzymatic hydrolysis followed ...


Virtual Reality As A Tool To Study The Influence Of The Eating Environment On Eating Behavior: A Feasibility Study, James H. Oliver, James Hollis Jan 2021

Virtual Reality As A Tool To Study The Influence Of The Eating Environment On Eating Behavior: A Feasibility Study, James H. Oliver, James Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In this manuscript, we describe a new approach to study the effect of the eating environment on food intake and eating behavior using virtual reality technology. Fifteen adults consumed pizza rolls in two virtual reality (VR) environments: a restaurant and a table in an empty room. The participants’ food intake, eating parameters (e.g., masticatory parameters and eating rate), and their sensory evaluation of the test food was measured. The participants’ sense of presence (the feeling of being in the virtual environment) and markers of arousal were also measured. There was no statistical significant difference in food intake or the ...


Capture And Release Of Orthophosphate By Fe-Modified Biochars: Mechanisms And Environmental Applications, Santanu Bakshi, David A. Laird, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown Jan 2021

Capture And Release Of Orthophosphate By Fe-Modified Biochars: Mechanisms And Environmental Applications, Santanu Bakshi, David A. Laird, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Biochars have been suggested to have P capture potential from effluent streams and to recycle the captured P to agricultural soils. However, most biochars have low P sorption capacity. The objective of this study was to engineer biochar for enhanced P sorption affinity. Biochar was produced from corn stover biomass pre-treated with FeSO4 (ISIB) using autothermal (air-blown) pyrolysis at 500 °C. Point of zero charge (pHZPC) shifted from 8.48 to 4.31, indicating that Fe treatment increased the dominance of acid functional groups. Batch equilibration isotherm study showed that ISIB had 11–12 times more P sorption capacity (3763 ...


Multi-Component Fuel Drop-Wall Interactions At High Ambient Pressures, Abhijeet Chausalkar, Chol-Bum M. Kweon, James B. Michael Jan 2021

Multi-Component Fuel Drop-Wall Interactions At High Ambient Pressures, Abhijeet Chausalkar, Chol-Bum M. Kweon, James B. Michael

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In direct injection engines, multicomponent fuels are injected at high pressures—resulting in a finely atomized spray which impacts on the hot wall of the piston crown and cylinder liner. The variable operating load of typical combustors results in widely varying wall temperature and ambient pressures. For quantitative prediction of the combustion spray physics, detailed data is required for the impact of multicomponent fuel drops on these heated surfaces at combustor-relevant pressures. A series of experiments are presented for blends of n-heptane and n-decane, as well as a commercial gasoline blend impacting heated walls at ambient pressures in the range ...


Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (Sara) Paradigm: Proof Of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale And Macroscale Actuation For Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Aqueous Media, Cassie A. Giacobassi, Daniela A. Oliveira, Cicero C. Pola, Dong Xiang, Yifan Tang, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Eric S. Mclamore, Carmen L. Gomes Jan 2021

Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (Sara) Paradigm: Proof Of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale And Macroscale Actuation For Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Aqueous Media, Cassie A. Giacobassi, Daniela A. Oliveira, Cicero C. Pola, Dong Xiang, Yifan Tang, Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, Eric S. Mclamore, Carmen L. Gomes

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Foodborne pathogens are a major concern for public health. We demonstrate for the first time a partially automated sensing system for rapid (~17 min), label-free impedimetric detection of Escherichia coli spp. in food samples (vegetable broth) and hydroponic media (aeroponic lettuce system) based on temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) nanobrushes. This proof of concept (PoC) for the Sense-Analyze-Respond-Actuate (SARA) paradigm uses a biomimetic nanostructure that is analyzed and actuated with a smartphone. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing mechanism is inspired by binary symbiotic systems found in nature, where low concentrations of bacteria are captured from complex matrices by brush actuation ...


All-Graphene-Based Open Fluidics For Pumpless, Small-Scale Fluid Transport Via Laser-Controlled Wettability Patterning, Lucas S. Hall, Dohgyu Hwang, Bolin Chen, Bryan Van Belle, Zachary T. Johnson, John A. Hondred, Carmen L. Gomes, Michael D. Bartlett, Jonathan C. Claussen Jan 2021

All-Graphene-Based Open Fluidics For Pumpless, Small-Scale Fluid Transport Via Laser-Controlled Wettability Patterning, Lucas S. Hall, Dohgyu Hwang, Bolin Chen, Bryan Van Belle, Zachary T. Johnson, John A. Hondred, Carmen L. Gomes, Michael D. Bartlett, Jonathan C. Claussen

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Open microfluidics have emerged as a low-cost, pumpless alternative strategy to conventional microfluidics for delivery of fluid for a wide variety of applications including rapid biochemical analysis and medical diagnosis. However, creating open microfluidics by tuning the wettability of surfaces typically requires sophisticated cleanroom processes that are unamenable to scalable manufacturing. Herein, we present a simple approach to develop open microfluidic platforms by manipulating the surface wettability of spin-coated graphene ink films on flexible polyethylene terephthalate via laser-controlled patterning. Wedge-shaped hydrophilic tracks surrounded by superhydrophobic walls are created within the graphene films by scribing micron-sized grooves into the graphene with ...


The Prediction Of Calorific Value Of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced From Refuse-Derived Fuel In The Low-Temperature Pyrolysis In Co2, Ewa Syguła, Kacper Świechowski, Paweł Stępień, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jan 2021

The Prediction Of Calorific Value Of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced From Refuse-Derived Fuel In The Low-Temperature Pyrolysis In Co2, Ewa Syguła, Kacper Świechowski, Paweł Stępień, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The decrease in the calorific value of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is an unintended outcome of the progress made toward more sustainable waste management. Plastics and paper separation and recycling leads to the overall decrease in waste’s calorific value, further limiting its applicability for thermal treatment. Pyrolysis has been proposed to densify energy in RDF and generate carbonized solid fuel (CSF). The challenge is that the feedstock composition of RDF is variable and site-specific. Therefore, the optimal pyrolysis conditions have to be established every time, depending on feedstock composition. In this research, we developed a model to predict the higher ...


Heterodoxy In Fast Pyrolysis Of Biomass, Robert C. Brown Dec 2020

Heterodoxy In Fast Pyrolysis Of Biomass, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

As the field of fast pyrolysis has matured, it has been accompanied by a kind of orthodoxy in its practice. Among these orthodoxies are the following: (1) oxygen should be excluded from the pyrolysis process; (2) little sugar is produced during pyrolysis; and (3) the major product of pyrolysis is a low-value emulsion in water. Adherence to these tenets is an impediment to the commercial development of fast pyrolysis. Over the past 15 years, research at Iowa State University’s Bioeconomy Institute has challenged these tenets with what might be called heterodoxy in the science and engineering of fast pyrolysis ...


Development And Validation Of A Nonlinear Dynamic Model For Tuned Liquid Multiple Columns Dampers, Liang Cao, Yongqiang Gong, Filippo Ubertini, Hao Wu, An Chen, Simon Laflamme Nov 2020

Development And Validation Of A Nonlinear Dynamic Model For Tuned Liquid Multiple Columns Dampers, Liang Cao, Yongqiang Gong, Filippo Ubertini, Hao Wu, An Chen, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a passive damping device consisting of a large U-tube with oscillating liquid, has been shown to be effective at mitigating structural responses under natural hazards. Aside from their bandwidth-limited mitigation capabilities, a key limitation of TLCDs is in their large geometries that occupy large space often at prime locations. A solution is to implement multi-columned versions, termed tuned liquid multiple columns dampers (TLMCDs), which have the potential to be tuned to multiple frequencies and occupy less space by leveraging the multiple columns to allow fluid movement. However, mathematical models characterizing their dynamic behavior must ...


An Open Online Product Marketplace To Overcome Supply And Demand Chain Inefficiencies In Times Of Crisis, Karl R. Haapala, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Rony Kubat, Roy Shilkrot, Federico M. Sciammarella Nov 2020

An Open Online Product Marketplace To Overcome Supply And Demand Chain Inefficiencies In Times Of Crisis, Karl R. Haapala, Kyoung-Yun Kim, Gül E. Okudan Kremer, Rony Kubat, Roy Shilkrot, Federico M. Sciammarella

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Digital tools for design and manufacturing have led to a new revolution in how products are conceptualized and made. These advancements have led to the democratization of ideation and creation of personalized products, as well as many other innovations. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed a critical flaw in the digital thread: the manufacturing systems of today remain inflexible to rapid changes brought on by emergency and crisis responses. The inefficiencies of this inflexibility caused by disconnects in supply and demand chains have become especially evident. We present a vision for a digital system—an open online ...


Fast Inverse Design Of Microstructures Via Generative Invariance Networks, Xian Yeow Lee, Joshua R. Waite, Chih-Hsuan Yang, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Ameya Joshi, Aditya Balu, Chinmay Hegde, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar Nov 2020

Fast Inverse Design Of Microstructures Via Generative Invariance Networks, Xian Yeow Lee, Joshua R. Waite, Chih-Hsuan Yang, Balaji Sesha Sarath Pokuri, Ameya Joshi, Aditya Balu, Chinmay Hegde, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The problem of efficient design of material microstructures exhibiting desired properties spans a variety of engineering and science applications. An ability to rapidly generate microstructures that exhibit user-specified property distributions transforms the iterative process of traditional microstructure-sensitive design. We reformulate the microstructure design process as a constrained Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). This approach explicitly encodes invariance constraints within a GAN to generate two-phase morphologies for photovoltaic applications obeying design specifications: specifically, various short circuit current density and fill-factor combinations. Such invariance constraints can be represented by deep learning-based surrogates of full physics models mapping microstructure to photovoltaic properties. To circumvent ...


Multiobjective Optimal Controlled Variable Selection For A Gas Turbine–Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Using A Multiagent Optimization Platform, Temitayo Bankole, Debangsu Bhattacharyya, Paolo Pezzini, Berhane Gebreslassie, Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, Urmila Diwekar, Kenneth M. Bryden Nov 2020

Multiobjective Optimal Controlled Variable Selection For A Gas Turbine–Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Using A Multiagent Optimization Platform, Temitayo Bankole, Debangsu Bhattacharyya, Paolo Pezzini, Berhane Gebreslassie, Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, Urmila Diwekar, Kenneth M. Bryden

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Hybrid gas turbine–fuel cell systems have immense potential for high efficiency in electrical power generation with cleaner emissions compared with fossil-fueled power generation. A systematic controlled variable (CV) selection method is deployed for a hybrid gas turbine–fuel cell system in the HyPer (hybrid performance) facility at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for maximizing its economic and control performance. A three-stage approach is used for the CV selection comprising a priori analysis, multiobjective optimization, and a posteriori analysis. The a priori analysis helps to screen off several candidate CVs, thus reducing the ...


Application Of Hydroprocessing, Fermentation, And Anaerobic Digestion In A Carbon-Negative Pyrolysis Refinery, Arna Ganguly, Irene M. Martin, Robert C. Brown, Mark M. Wright Oct 2020

Application Of Hydroprocessing, Fermentation, And Anaerobic Digestion In A Carbon-Negative Pyrolysis Refinery, Arna Ganguly, Irene M. Martin, Robert C. Brown, Mark M. Wright

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This study investigates the economic and environmental benefits of integrating hydroprocessing, fermentation, and anaerobic digestion into a pyrolysis refinery. Two scenarios were developed for upgrading and/or utilizing the primary products of pyrolysis (bio-oil, gas, and char). The first (hydroprocessing) scenario hydroprocesses whole bio-oil into gasoline and diesel. The second (fractionation) scenario fractionates bio-oil into sugars for fermentation to cellulosic ethanol and residual phenolic oil as the primary product. Both scenarios use the gaseous product of pyrolysis for process heat in the plant and employ biochar to enhance anaerobic digestion of manure for power generation. The fast pyrolysis plant processes ...


Kinetics Of Biotic And Abiotic Co Production During The Initial Phase Of Biowaste Composting, Sylwia Stegenta-Dabrowska, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Jerzy Bieniek, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2020

Kinetics Of Biotic And Abiotic Co Production During The Initial Phase Of Biowaste Composting, Sylwia Stegenta-Dabrowska, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Jerzy Bieniek, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Knowledge of kinetic parameters of CO production during biowaste composting is significantly important for the prediction of its course and estimation of total gas quantity. This allows increasing the control of the process, to minimize its negative impact on the environment and to protect the occupational safety of employees exposed to CO in the biowaste composting plant. For the first time, a full study of the influence of temperature and biowaste sterilization on the kinetics of CO production is presented. The lab-scale experiments used a mixture of green waste, dairy cattle manure, and sawdust in two variants: sterilized and non-sterilized ...


Predicting The Tensile Properties Of Additively Manufactured Ti-6al-4v Via Electron Beam Deposition, Thomas K. Ales, Iman Ghamarian, Brian Hayes, Brian Welk, Andrew Baker, Matthew Kenney, D. Gary Harlow, Hamish Fraser, Wenqi Li, Peter C. Collins Oct 2020

Predicting The Tensile Properties Of Additively Manufactured Ti-6al-4v Via Electron Beam Deposition, Thomas K. Ales, Iman Ghamarian, Brian Hayes, Brian Welk, Andrew Baker, Matthew Kenney, D. Gary Harlow, Hamish Fraser, Wenqi Li, Peter C. Collins

Materials Science and Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Additively manufactured materials are gaining wide attention owing to the manufacturing benefits as it results in near net shape components. It is well known that the manufacturing processes affects the performance of the components via microstructural features and the mechanical properties. There is an urgent need to understand the processing-structure-property-performance relationship for the materials manufactures via such innovative techniques. Strategies are needed to quantify and modify the mechanical properties. This study assists to design and tailor the process parameters based on the final properties required. Current work predicts the yield strength of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V with different post heat treatments ...


Ti-6al-4v Microstructural Orientation At Different Length Scales As A Function Of Scanning Strategies In Electron Beam Melting In Additive Manufacturing, Priyanka Agrawal, Maria J. Quintana, Matthew Kenney, Sabina Kumar, Alec Saville, Amy Clarke, Peter C. Collins Oct 2020

Ti-6al-4v Microstructural Orientation At Different Length Scales As A Function Of Scanning Strategies In Electron Beam Melting In Additive Manufacturing, Priyanka Agrawal, Maria J. Quintana, Matthew Kenney, Sabina Kumar, Alec Saville, Amy Clarke, Peter C. Collins

Materials Science and Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Additive manufacturing has been around for many years, yet the underlying physics of thermal gradients, local pressure environment, and other non-steady state manufacturing conditions are not fully understood. A Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI) is currently ongoing to measure liquid/solid and solid/solid interface stabilities in AM Ti-6Al-4V. Samples were produced with different beamscanning strategies in order to study the role of thermal gradients on the resulting microstructure. The motivation is to determine which beam-scanning strategy leads to desired grain size and texture. Orientation at different length scales (from mm to nm) can be quantified and compared with a combination ...


Planar Interdigitated Aptasensor For Flow-Through Detection Of Listeria Spp. In Hydroponic Lettuce Growth Media, Raminderdeep K. Sidhu, Nicholas D. Cavallaro, Cícero C. Pola, Michelle D. Danyluk, Eric S. Mclamore, Carmen L. Gomes Oct 2020

Planar Interdigitated Aptasensor For Flow-Through Detection Of Listeria Spp. In Hydroponic Lettuce Growth Media, Raminderdeep K. Sidhu, Nicholas D. Cavallaro, Cícero C. Pola, Michelle D. Danyluk, Eric S. Mclamore, Carmen L. Gomes

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Irrigation water is a primary source of fresh produce contamination by bacteria during the preharvest, particularly in hydroponic systems where the control of pests and pathogens is a major challenge. In this work, we demonstrate the development of a Listeria biosensor using platinum interdigitated microelectrodes (Pt-IME). The sensor is incorporated into a particle/sediment trap for the real-time analysis of irrigation water in a hydroponic lettuce system. We demonstrate the application of this system using a smartphone-based potentiostat for rapid on-site analysis of water quality. A detailed characterization of the electrochemical behavior was conducted in the presence/absence of DNA ...


3d Interdigitated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes For Electrochemical Impedimetric Biosensing, Benjamin J. Brownlee, Jonathan C. Claussen, Brian D. Iverson Sep 2020

3d Interdigitated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes For Electrochemical Impedimetric Biosensing, Benjamin J. Brownlee, Jonathan C. Claussen, Brian D. Iverson

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Advances in nanomaterials, combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), have allowed electrochemical biosensors to have high sensitivity while remaining label-free, enabling the potential for portable diagnosis at the point-of-care. We report porous, 3D vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) electrodes with underlying chromium electrical leads for impedance-based biosensing. The electrodes are characterized by electrode height (5, 25, and 80 μm), gap width (15 and 25 μm), and geometry (interdigitated and serpentine) using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The protein streptavidin is functionalized onto VACNT electrodes for detection of biotin, as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. EIS is ...


Proof-Of-Concept Of High-Pressure Torrefaction For Improvement Of Pelletized Biomass Fuel Properties And Process Cost Reduction, Bartosz Matyjewicz, Kacper Świechowski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2020

Proof-Of-Concept Of High-Pressure Torrefaction For Improvement Of Pelletized Biomass Fuel Properties And Process Cost Reduction, Bartosz Matyjewicz, Kacper Świechowski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper provides a comprehensive description of the new approach to biomass torrefaction under high-pressure conditions. A new type of laboratory-scale high-pressure reactor was designed and built. The aim of the study was to compare the high-pressure torrefaction with conventional near atmospheric pressure torrefaction. Specifically, we investigated the torrefaction process influence on the fuel properties of wooden-pellet for two different pressure regimes up to 15 bar. All torrefaction processes were conducted at 300 °C, at 30 min of residence time. The initial analysis of the increased pressure impact on the torrefaction parameters: mass yields, energy densification ratio, energy yield, process ...


Predicting County-Scale Maize Yields With Publicly Available Data, Zehui Jiang, Chao Liu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Dermot J. Hayes, Soumik Sarkar Sep 2020

Predicting County-Scale Maize Yields With Publicly Available Data, Zehui Jiang, Chao Liu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Dermot J. Hayes, Soumik Sarkar

Economics Publications

Maize (corn) is the dominant grain grown in the world. Total maize production in 2018 equaled 1.12 billion tons. Maize is used primarily as an animal feed in the production of eggs, dairy, pork and chicken. The US produces 32% of the world’s maize followed by China at 22% and Brazil at 9% (https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/app/index.html#/app/home). Accurate national-scale corn yield prediction critically impacts mercantile markets through providing essential information about expected production prior to harvest. Publicly available high-quality corn yield prediction can help address emergent information asymmetry problems and in ...


Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2020

Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bioethanol industry continues improving sustainability, specifically focused on plant energy and GHG emission management. Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol fermentation and is used for animal feed. DDGS is a relatively low-value bulk product that decays, causes odor, and is challenging to manage. The aim of this research was to find an alternative, value-added-type concept for DDGS utilization. Specifically, we aimed to explore the techno-economic feasibility of torrefaction, i.e., a thermochemical treatment of DDGS requiring low energy input, less sophisticated equipment, and resulting in fuel-quality biochar. Therefore, we developed a research model that ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian Aug 2020

Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Plant stress phenotyping is essential to select stress-resistant varieties and develop better stress-management strategies. Standardization of visual assessments and deployment of imaging techniques have improved the accuracy and reliability of stress assessment in comparison with unaided visual measurement. The growing capabilities of machine learning (ML) methods in conjunction with image-based phenotyping can extract new insights from curated, annotated, and high-dimensional datasets across varied crops and stresses. We propose an overarching strategy for utilizing ML techniques that methodically enables the application of plant stress phenotyping at multiple scales across different types of stresses, program goals, and environments.


Influence Of Brain-Scalp Distance On Focality Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Joseph Boldrey, Priyam Rastogi, Sarah A. Bentil, David C. Jiles Aug 2020

Influence Of Brain-Scalp Distance On Focality Of The Quadruple Butterfly Coil For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Oluwaponmile F. Afuwape, Joseph Boldrey, Priyam Rastogi, Sarah A. Bentil, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a neuromodulation technique that non-invasively depolarizes neurons in the brain. During TMS, a pulse (or multiple pulses) of a time-varying magnetic field (H) is delivered to the brain using specialized coils. The Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) is a novel coil design that shows increased focality of the induced electric field over that of the standard figure-of-eight (FoE) coil. Using 50 different head models created from MRI scans of healthy individuals, our research investigated the role that brain-scalp distance (BSD) plays in the brain’s response to the magnetic fields generated by the QBC and FoE ...


Thinner Biological Tissues Induce Leaflet Flutter In Aortic Heart Valve Replacements, Emily L. Johnson, Michael C. H. Wu, Fei Xu, Nelson M. Wiese, Manoj R. Rajanna, Austin J. Herrema, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Thomas J. R. Hughes, Michael S. Sacks, Ming-Chen Hsu Aug 2020

Thinner Biological Tissues Induce Leaflet Flutter In Aortic Heart Valve Replacements, Emily L. Johnson, Michael C. H. Wu, Fei Xu, Nelson M. Wiese, Manoj R. Rajanna, Austin J. Herrema, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Thomas J. R. Hughes, Michael S. Sacks, Ming-Chen Hsu

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Valvular heart disease has recently become an increasing public health concern due to the high prevalence of valve degeneration in aging populations. For patients with severely impacted aortic valves that require replacement, catheter-based bioprosthetic valve deployment offers a minimally invasive treatment option that eliminates many of the risks associated with surgical valve replacement. Although recent percutaneous device advancements have incorporated thinner, more flexible biological tissues to streamline safer deployment through catheters, the impact of such tissues in the complex, mechanically demanding, and highly dynamic valvular system remains poorly understood. The present work utilized a validated computational fluid–structure interaction approach ...


Leaf Angle Extractor: A High‐Throughput Image Processing Framework For Leaf Angle Measurements In Maize And Sorghum, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Miles Adkins, Alex Enersen, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, Anthony J. Studer, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick S. Schnable, James C. Schnable Aug 2020

Leaf Angle Extractor: A High‐Throughput Image Processing Framework For Leaf Angle Measurements In Maize And Sorghum, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Miles Adkins, Alex Enersen, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, Anthony J. Studer, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick S. Schnable, James C. Schnable

Mechanical Engineering Publications

PREMISE: Maize yields have significantly increased over the past half-century owing to advances in breeding and agronomic practices. Plants have been grown in increasingly higher densities due to changes in plant architecture resulting in plants with more upright leaves, which allows more efficient light interception for photosynthesis. Natural variation for leaf angle has been identified in maize and sorghum using multiple mapping populations. However, conventional phenotyping techniques for leaf angle are low throughput and labor intensive, and therefore hinder a mechanistic understanding of how the leaf angle of individual leaves changes over time in response to the environment.

METHODS: High-throughput ...


Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh Jul 2020

Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Premise Trichomes are hair‐like appendages extending from the plant epidermis. They serve many important biotic roles, including interference with herbivore movement. Characterizing the number, density, and distribution of trichomes can provide valuable insights on plant response to insect infestation and define the extent of plant defense capability. Automated trichome counting would speed up this research but poses several challenges, primarily because of the variability in coloration and the high occlusion of the trichomes.

Methods and Results We developed a simplified method for image processing for automated and semi‐automated trichome counting. We illustrate this process using 30 leaves from ...


Additive Manufacturing Of Isotropic Ndfeb Pps Bonded Permanent Magnets, M. Parans Paranthaman, Volkan Yildirim, Tej Nath Lamichhane, Benjamin A. Begley, Brian K. Post, Ahmed A. Hassen, Brian C. Sales, Kinjal Gandha, Ikenna C. Nlebedim Jul 2020

Additive Manufacturing Of Isotropic Ndfeb Pps Bonded Permanent Magnets, M. Parans Paranthaman, Volkan Yildirim, Tej Nath Lamichhane, Benjamin A. Begley, Brian K. Post, Ahmed A. Hassen, Brian C. Sales, Kinjal Gandha, Ikenna C. Nlebedim

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Extrusion based additive manufacturing of polymer composite magnets can increase the solid loading volume fraction with greater mechanical force through the printing nozzle as compared to traditional injection molding process. About 63 vol% of isotropic NdFeB magnet powders were compounded with 37 vol% of polyphenylene sulfide and bonded permanent magnets were fabricated while using Big Area Additive Manufacturing without any degradation in magnetic properties. The polyphenylene sulfide bonded magnets have a tensile stress of 20 MPa, almost double than that of nylon bonded permanent magnets. Additively manufactured and surface-protective-resin coated bonded magnets meet the industrial stability criterion of up to ...


Laser-Induced Graphene Electrochemical Immunosensors For Rapid And Label-Free Monitoring Of Salmonella Enterica In Chicken Broth, Raquel R. A. Soares, Robert G. Hjort, Cícero C. Pola, Kshama Parate, Efraim L. Reis, Nilda F. F. Soares, Eric S. Mclamore, Jonathan C. Claussen, Carmen L. Gomes Jul 2020

Laser-Induced Graphene Electrochemical Immunosensors For Rapid And Label-Free Monitoring Of Salmonella Enterica In Chicken Broth, Raquel R. A. Soares, Robert G. Hjort, Cícero C. Pola, Kshama Parate, Efraim L. Reis, Nilda F. F. Soares, Eric S. Mclamore, Jonathan C. Claussen, Carmen L. Gomes

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Food-borne illnesses are a growing concern for the food industry and consumers, with millions of cases reported every year. Consequently, there is a critical need to develop rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive techniques for pathogen detection in order to mitigate this problem. However, current pathogen detection strategies mainly include time-consuming laboratory methods and highly trained personnel. Electrochemical in-field biosensors offer a rapid, low-cost alternative to laboratory techniques, but the electrodes used in these biosensors require expensive nanomaterials to increase their sensitivity, such as noble metals (e.g., platinum, gold) or carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, or graphene). Herein, we report ...