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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu May 2019

Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This paper presents a systematic method to analyse the stability of systems with single delay in which the coefficient polynomials of the characteristic equation depend on the delay. Such systems often arise in, for example, life science and engineering systems. A method to analyze such systems was presented by Beretta and Kuang in a 2002 paper, but with some very restrictive assumptions. This work extends their results to the general case with the exception of some degenerate cases. It is found that a much richer behavior is possible when the restrictive assumptions are removed. The interval of interest for the ...


Sure Abstract - Spring 2019: Biomimetic Metamaterial Scales Enhancing Thermal Coatings’ Mechanical Properties For Turbine Blades, Ryan Horton Feb 2019

Sure Abstract - Spring 2019: Biomimetic Metamaterial Scales Enhancing Thermal Coatings’ Mechanical Properties For Turbine Blades, Ryan Horton

Ryan Horton

No abstract provided.


Engineering A Bacterial Flagella Forest For Sensing And Actuation – A Progress Report, Xihe Liu, Shulin Ye, Isaac Oti, Lauren Metzinger Feb 2019

Engineering A Bacterial Flagella Forest For Sensing And Actuation – A Progress Report, Xihe Liu, Shulin Ye, Isaac Oti, Lauren Metzinger

SMU Journal of Undergraduate Research

Flagella can be used to make magnetically-controlled microfluidic and nanoscale devices for biomedical applications in both vitro and vivo environments. They are capable of operating with high precision on the cellular and subcellular level. So far, scientists and engineers have successfully used monolithic inorganic materials or photoactive polymers [1] to mimic the helical bacterial flagella whose rotary-propulsion mechanism effectively overcomes the dominant viscous forces that prevail in a low Reynolds-number environment. Here, we focus on bacterial flagella and their rotary motion. The bacterial flagellum is an ideal biomaterial for constructing self-propelling nanoswimmers because it can reversibly change its geometry in ...


Slip Of Shuffle Screw Dislocations Through Tilt Grain Boundaries In Silicon, Hao Chen, Valery Levitas, Liming Xiong Feb 2019

Slip Of Shuffle Screw Dislocations Through Tilt Grain Boundaries In Silicon, Hao Chen, Valery Levitas, Liming Xiong

Aerospace Engineering Publications

In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interaction between tilt grain boundaries (GBs) and a shuffle screw dislocation in silicon are performed. Results show that dislocations transmit into the neighboring grain for all GBs in silicon. For Σ3, Σ9 and Σ19 GBs, when a dislocation interacts with a heptagon site, it transmits the GB directly. In contrast, when interacting with a pentagon site, it first cross slips to a plane on the heptagon site and then transmits the GB. The energy barrier is also quantified using the climbing image nudged elastic band (CINEB) method. Results show that Σ3 ...


Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown Jan 2019

Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

In this study, we methylated hydroxyl groups (phenolic hydroxyl: Phe-OH and aliphatic hydroxyl: Aliph-OH) in soda lignin (SL) prior to solvent liquefaction to improve storage stability of the resulting oil. We investigated two methylating reagents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), for selective Phe-OH and total hydroxyl group (Phe-OH and Aliph-OH) blocking. Samples of SL, DMS-SL, and DMC-SL were depolymerized into oils under supercritical ethanol (350 °C). Both methylated lignins produced higher amounts of oils and smaller amounts of char compared to untreated SL due to suppressed charring reactions. Oil produced from SL had relatively higher functional group contents ...


Environmental Performance Analysis Of Solid Freedom Fabrication Processes, Yanchun Luo, Zhiming Ji, Ming-Chuan Leu, R. J. Caudill Jan 2019

Environmental Performance Analysis Of Solid Freedom Fabrication Processes, Yanchun Luo, Zhiming Ji, Ming-Chuan Leu, R. J. Caudill

Ming C. Leu

This paper presents a method for analyzing the environmental performance of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) processes. In this method, each process is divided into life phases. Environmental effects of every process phase are then analyzed and evaluated based on the environmental and resource management data. These effects are combined to obtain the environmental performance of the process. The analysis of the environmental performance of SFF processes considers the characteristics of SFF technology, includes material, energy consumption, processes wastes, and disposal. Case studies for three typical SFF processes: stereolithography (SL); selective laser sintering (SLS); and fused deposition modeling (FDM) are presented ...


Computer Program And Method For Detecting And Predicting Valve Failure In A Reciprocating Compressor, Ming-Chuan Leu, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Raghuram Puthall Ramesh Jan 2019

Computer Program And Method For Detecting And Predicting Valve Failure In A Reciprocating Compressor, Ming-Chuan Leu, Jagannathan Sarangapani, Raghuram Puthall Ramesh

Ming C. Leu

Embodiments of the present invention provide a method implemented by a computer program for detecting and identifying valve failure in a reciprocating compressor and further for predicting valve failure in the compressor. Embodiments of the present invention detect and predict the valve failure using wavelet analysis, logistic regression, and neural networks. A pressure signal from the valve of the reciprocating compressor presents a non-stationary waveform from which features can be extracted using wavelet packet decomposition. The extracted features, along with temperature data for the valve, are used to train a logistic regression model to classify defective and normal operation of ...


Characteristics And Optimal Design Of Variable Airgap Linear Force Motors, Ming-Chuan Leu, E. V. Scorza, D. L. Bartel Jan 2019

Characteristics And Optimal Design Of Variable Airgap Linear Force Motors, Ming-Chuan Leu, E. V. Scorza, D. L. Bartel

Ming C. Leu

An analytical model for predicting the characteristics of variable airgap linear force motors is developed. the model takes into account magnetic losses including the leakage and fringing effects and the reluctance existing at the contacts between permanent magnets and pole pieces. the model is validated by comparing its predicted characteristics with the results obtained from experiments and a finite element program. with the use of the modelled characteristics, computer programs based on the method of constrained steepest descent with state equations are developed for automating and optimising the design of linear force motors. Numerical studies are made for both minimisation ...


Cell Mapping Based Fuzzy Control Of Car Parking, Tea-Quin Kim, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

Cell Mapping Based Fuzzy Control Of Car Parking, Tea-Quin Kim, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

This paper describes the development of a near-optimal fuzzy controller for maneuvering a car in a parking lot. To generate the rules of the fuzzy controller, a cell mapping method is utilized to systematically generate near-optimal trajectories for all possible initial states in the parking lot. Based on the input-output relations of these trajectories, which represent the states and controls of the corresponding cells, a set of fuzzy rules are generated automatically. In order to result in a small number of fuzzy rules from the large amount of numerical information generated by cell mapping, grouping of trajectories is proposed and ...


An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Samir Raorane, Man Zheng, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

An Internet Based Intelligent Argumentation System For Collaborative Engineering Design, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Samir Raorane, Man Zheng, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

Modern product design is a very complicated process which involves groups of designers, manufacturers, suppliers, and customer representatives. Conflicts are unavoidable in collaboration among multiple stakeholders, who have different objectives, requirements, and priorities. Unfortunately, current web-based collaborative engineering design systems do not support collaborative conflict resolution. In this paper, we will develop an intelligent computational argumentation model to enable management of a large scale argumentation network, and resolution of conflicts based on argumentation from many participants. A web-based intelligent argumentation tool is developed as a part of a web-based collaborative engineering design system based on the above model to resolve ...


Amplitude Modulated Droplet Formation In High Precision Solder Droplet Printing, Qingbin Liu, M. Orme, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

Amplitude Modulated Droplet Formation In High Precision Solder Droplet Printing, Qingbin Liu, M. Orme, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

There are many methods used at present to apply solder to wafers, ceramics, laminate and flex circuit boards, and other substrates. Among these, high-precision solder droplet printing technology, which is noncontact, data driven, flexible and environmentally friendly, is a key enabling technology. This technology selectively deposits solder droplets only where required, and therefore needs no mask or secondary resist removal, uses materials more efficiently and creates less waste than other methods. Currently, continuous droplet formation from capillary streams is mainly achieved by application of the well-known Rayleigh instability in which a sinusoidal disturbance is applied to the stream, resulting in ...


Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, Xiyue Zhao, Robert G. Landers, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

Adaptive Control Of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes, Xiyue Zhao, Robert G. Landers, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication. Due to effects such as the air bubble release, agglomerate breakdown, change in paste properties during extrusion as a result of liquid phase migration, etc., the extrusion force is difficult to control. In this paper, an adaptive controller is proposed to regulate the extrusion force. Recursive Least Squares is used to estimate extrusion force model parameters during fabrication and a low-order control scheme capable of tracking general reference trajectories is designed ...


Modeling Of Cloud-Based Digital Twins For Smart Manufacturing With Mt Connect, Liwen Hu, Ngoc-Tu Nguyen, Wenjin Tao, Ming-Chuan Leu, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Rakib Shahriar, S M Nahian Al Sunny Jan 2019

Modeling Of Cloud-Based Digital Twins For Smart Manufacturing With Mt Connect, Liwen Hu, Ngoc-Tu Nguyen, Wenjin Tao, Ming-Chuan Leu, Xiaoqing Frank Liu, Rakib Shahriar, S M Nahian Al Sunny

Ming C. Leu

The common modeling of digital twins uses an information model to describe the physical machines. The integration of digital twins into productive cyber-physical cloud manufacturing (CPCM) systems imposes strong demands such as reducing overhead and saving resources. In this paper, we develop and investigate a new method for building cloud-based digital twins (CBDT), which can be adapted to the CPCM platform. Our method helps reduce computing resources in the information processing center for efficient interactions between human users and physical machines. We introduce a knowledge resource center (KRC) built on a cloud server for information intensive applications. An information model ...


A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, Kemal Yuksek, Weihan Zhang, Boryslaw Iwo Ridzalski, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

A New Contour Reconstruction Approach From Dexel Data In Virtual Sculpting, Kemal Yuksek, Weihan Zhang, Boryslaw Iwo Ridzalski, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

This paper presents a novel method of contour reconstruction from dexel data solving the shape anomalies for the complex geometry in virtual sculpting. Grouping and traversing processes are developed to find connectivity between dexels along every two adjacent rays. After traveling through all the rays on one slice, sub-boundaries are connected into full boundaries which are desired contours. The complexity of the new method has been investigated and determined as O(n). We also demonstrate the ability of the described method for viewing a sculpted model from different directions.


A Differential Equation Approach To Swept Volumes, Ming-Chuan Leu, Denis Blackmore Jan 2019

A Differential Equation Approach To Swept Volumes, Ming-Chuan Leu, Denis Blackmore

Ming C. Leu

An approach to the analysis of swept volumes is introduced. It is shown that every smooth Euclidean motion or sweep, can be identified with a first-order, linear, ordinary differential equation. This sweep differential equation provides useful insights into the topological and geometrical nature of the swept volume of an object. A certain class, autonomous sweeps, is identified by the form of the associated differential equation, and several properties of the swept volumes of the members of this class are analyzed. The results are applied to generate swept volumes for a number of objects. Implementation of the sweep differential equation approach ...


A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

The authors address the modeling problem associated with brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) with nonuniform air gaps that operate in a range where magnetic saturation may exist. The mathematical model includes the effects of reluctance variations as well as magnetic saturation to guarantee proper modeling of the system. An experimental procedure is developed and implemented in a laboratory environment to identify the electromagnetic characteristics of a BLDCM in the presence of magnetic saturation. It is demonstrated that the modeling problem associated with the class of BLDCMs can be formulated in terms of mathematically modeling a set of multidimensional surfaces corresponding to ...


A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

A Complete Model Characterization Of Brushless Dc Motors, N. Hemati, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

The modeling problem associated with brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) with nonuniform air gaps which operate in a range where magnetic saturation may exist is addressed. The mathematical model, includes the effects of reluctance variations and magnetic saturation to guarantee proper modeling of the system. An experimental procedure is developed and implemented in a laboratory environment to identify the electromagnetic characteristics of a BLDCM in the presence of magnetic saturation. It is demonstrated that the modeling problem associated with this class of BLDCM can be formulated in terms of mathematically modeling a set of multidimensional surfaces corresponding to the electromagnetic torque ...


3d Bioprinting Of Stem Cells And Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Engineering, Caroline Murphy, Krishna Kolan, Wenbin Li, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu Jan 2019

3d Bioprinting Of Stem Cells And Polymer/Bioactive Glass Composite Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Engineering, Caroline Murphy, Krishna Kolan, Wenbin Li, Julie A. Semon, D. E. Day, Ming-Chuan Leu

Ming C. Leu

A major limitation of using synthetic scaffolds in tissue engineering applications is insufficient angiogenesis in scaffold interior. Bioactive borate glasses have been shown to promote angiogenesis. There is a need to investigate the biofabrication of polymer composites by incorporating borate glass to increase the angiogenic capacity of the fabri-cated scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the bioprinting of human adipose stem cells (ASCs) with a polycaprolac-tone (PCL)/bioactive borate glass composite. Borate glass at the concentration of 10 to 50 weight %, was added to a mixture of PCL and organic solvent to make an extrudable paste. ASCs suspended in Matrigel ...


System Modeling And Control Of Smart Structures, Frank J. Kern, Leslie Robert Koval, K. Chandrashekhara, Vittal S. Rao Jan 2019

System Modeling And Control Of Smart Structures, Frank J. Kern, Leslie Robert Koval, K. Chandrashekhara, Vittal S. Rao

K. Chandrashekhara

This paper presents multidisciplinary research and curriculum efforts at the University of Missouri-Rolla in the smart structures area. The primary objective of our project is to integrate research results with curriculum development for the benefit of students in electrical, and mechanical and aerospace engineering and engineering mechanics. The approach to the accomplishment of curriculum objectives is the development of a two-course sequence in the smart structures area with an integrated laboratory. The research portion of the project addresses structural identification and robust control methods for smart structures. A brief summary of the research results and a description of curriculum development ...


Modeling Of Thermal And Mechanical Behavior Of Zrb₂-Sic Ceramic After High Temperature Oxidation, Jun Wei, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani, K. Chandrashekhara, Greg Hilmas, William Fahrenholtz Jan 2019

Modeling Of Thermal And Mechanical Behavior Of Zrb₂-Sic Ceramic After High Temperature Oxidation, Jun Wei, Lokeswarappa R. Dharani, K. Chandrashekhara, Greg Hilmas, William Fahrenholtz

K. Chandrashekhara

No abstract provided.


Interdisciplinary Graduate Experience: Lessons Learned, Steve Eugene Watkins, V. M. Eller, Josh Corra, M. J. Molander, Bethany Konz, Richard H. Hall, K. Chandrashekhara, Abdeldjelil Belarbi Jan 2019

Interdisciplinary Graduate Experience: Lessons Learned, Steve Eugene Watkins, V. M. Eller, Josh Corra, M. J. Molander, Bethany Konz, Richard H. Hall, K. Chandrashekhara, Abdeldjelil Belarbi

K. Chandrashekhara

Engineers interact in the workplace with technical peers in other disciplines at all stages of design, development, and application. Awareness of the constraints and needs of the other disciplines can be key in many situations. Such interdisciplinary activity and the associated communication are facilitated if the all participants have a solid knowledge of discipline-specific terminology and an understanding of connecting concepts. Consequently, experience relating to interdisciplinary teamwork is a necessary component of engineering education. The Smart Engineering Group at the University of Missouri-Rolla was established to conduct interdisciplinary research and to create interdisciplinary educational resources. The topical interest area is ...


Detection And Classification Of Impact-Induced Damage In Composite Plates Using Neural Networks, Rohit Dua, Steve Eugene Watkins, Donald C. Wunsch, K. Chandrashekhara, Farhad Akhavan Jan 2019

Detection And Classification Of Impact-Induced Damage In Composite Plates Using Neural Networks, Rohit Dua, Steve Eugene Watkins, Donald C. Wunsch, K. Chandrashekhara, Farhad Akhavan

K. Chandrashekhara

Artificial neutral networks (ANN) can be used as an online health monitoring systems (involving damage assessment, fatigue monitoring and delamination detection) for composite structures owing to their inherent fast computing speeds, parallel processing and ability to learn and adapt to the experimental data. The amount of impact-induced strain on a composite structure can be found using strain sensors attached to composite structures. Prior work has shown that strain-based ANN can characterize impact energy on composite plates and that strain signatures can be associated with damage types and severity. This paper reports the extension of this approach for damage classification using ...


Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, K. Chandrashekhara, Prakash Kumar, Steve Eugene Watkins, Antonio Nanni Jan 2019

Design And Technologies For A Smart Composite Bridge, K. Chandrashekhara, Prakash Kumar, Steve Eugene Watkins, Antonio Nanni

K. Chandrashekhara

An all-composite, smart bridge design for shortspan applications is described. The bridge dimensions are 9.14-m (30-ft.) long and 2.74-m (9-ft.) wide. A modular construction based on assemblies of pultruded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) composite tubes is used to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H20 highway load ratings. The hollow tubes are 76 mm (3 in.) square and are made of carbon/vinyl-ester and glass/vinyl-ester. An extensive experimental study was carried out to obtain and compare properties (stiffness, strength, and failure modes) for a quarter portion of the full-sized bridge. The bridge response was measured ...


Composite Structures Using Asphalt Based Roofing Scrap Materials: Eiera -- Final Report, V. J. Flanigan, K. Chandrashekhara, Susan L. Murray Jan 2019

Composite Structures Using Asphalt Based Roofing Scrap Materials: Eiera -- Final Report, V. J. Flanigan, K. Chandrashekhara, Susan L. Murray

K. Chandrashekhara

The uses of recycled materials in composites provide the potential for large cost savings and a solution to the ever-growing disposal problem. Shingles contain petroleum based binders and fillers, which used as a valuable resource in composite production. Composites offer inherent advantages over traditional materials in regard to corrosion resistance, design flexibility and extended service life. Use of scrap-roofing shingles as a core material in glass fiber reinforced composite materials offer potential low cost composite products such as sound barrier system, railroad ties and other building materials including blocks. In the present work, processes have been developed for shredding scrap ...


Thermoelastic Problems Of Multilayered Cylinders, Victor Birman Jan 2019

Thermoelastic Problems Of Multilayered Cylinders, Victor Birman

Victor Birman

Thermoelastic problems of long multilayered cylinders manufactured from isotropic materials are considered. The steady-state thermal field corresponding to a constant difference between temperature outside and inside the assembly is used in the analysis. Both the case of a hollow cylinder and that of a solid multilayered assembly are discussed. A closed-form exact solution is shown for an arbitrary number of layers if the properties of constituent materials remain unaffected by temperature. Various strategies leading to an analytical solution are proposed for the case where material properties depend on temperature. The stresses in a dual-coated optical fiber subject to a uniform ...


The Concentration Of Stress At The Rotator Cuff Tendon-To-Bone Attachment Site Is Conserved Across Species, F. Saadat, A. C. Deymier, Victor Birman, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin Jan 2019

The Concentration Of Stress At The Rotator Cuff Tendon-To-Bone Attachment Site Is Conserved Across Species, F. Saadat, A. C. Deymier, Victor Birman, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin

Victor Birman

No abstract provided.


Stochastic Interdigitation As A Toughening Mechanism At The Interface Between Tendon And Bone, Y. Hu, Victor Birman, A. Demyier-Black, A. G. Schwartz, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin Jan 2019

Stochastic Interdigitation As A Toughening Mechanism At The Interface Between Tendon And Bone, Y. Hu, Victor Birman, A. Demyier-Black, A. G. Schwartz, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin

Victor Birman

No abstract provided.


Stress Amplification During Development Of The Tendon-To-Bone Attachment, Y. Liu, A. G. Schwartz, Victor Birman, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin Jan 2019

Stress Amplification During Development Of The Tendon-To-Bone Attachment, Y. Liu, A. G. Schwartz, Victor Birman, S. Thomopoulos, G. M. Genin

Victor Birman

No abstract provided.


Shear Lag Sutures: Improved Suture Repair Through The Use Of Adhesives, S. W. Linderman, I. Kormpakis, R. H. Gelberman, Victor Birman, U. G. K. Wegst, G. M. Genin, S. Thomopoulos Jan 2019

Shear Lag Sutures: Improved Suture Repair Through The Use Of Adhesives, S. W. Linderman, I. Kormpakis, R. H. Gelberman, Victor Birman, U. G. K. Wegst, G. M. Genin, S. Thomopoulos

Victor Birman

No abstract provided.


Stability Analysis Of Nonlinear Machining Force Controllers, Robert G. Landers, Yen-Wen Lu Jan 2019

Stability Analysis Of Nonlinear Machining Force Controllers, Robert G. Landers, Yen-Wen Lu

Robert G. Landers

Model parameters vary significantly during a normal operation, thus, adaptive techniques have predominately been used. However, model-based techniques that carefully account for changes in the force process have again been examined due to the reduced complexity afforded by such techniques. In this paper, the effect of model parameter variations on the closed-loop stability for two model-based force controllers is examined. It was found that the stability boundary in the process parameter space can be exactly determined for force control systems designed for static force processes. For force control systems designed for first-order force processes, it was found that the stability ...