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Engineering Education

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Full-Text Articles in Science and Mathematics Education

Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Andrew J. Sage, Cinzia Cervato, Ulrike Genschel, Craig Ogilvie Jun 2018

Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Andrew J. Sage, Cinzia Cervato, Ulrike Genschel, Craig Ogilvie

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Students are most likely to leave science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors during their first year of college. We developed an analytic approach using random forests to identify at-risk students. This method is deployable midway through the first semester and accounts for academic preparation, early engagement in university life, and performance on midterm exams. By accounting for cognitive and noncognitive factors, our method achieves stronger predictive performance than would be possible using cognitive or noncognitive factors alone. We show that it is more difficult to predict whether students will leave STEM than whether they will leave the institution. More ...


Flex—Iowa State University’S Mobile Technology Classroom, Peter Evans, Eric Schares Jun 2017

Flex—Iowa State University’S Mobile Technology Classroom, Peter Evans, Eric Schares

Reference and Instruction Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Iowa State University’s FLEx (Forward Learning Experience) program is a mobile technology classroom housed in a 16-foot trailer, designed to introduce K-12 students, educators, and families to advanced technology and design thinking concepts. Since the fall of 2014, the FLEx has engaged over 35,000 participants through 171 events across the state of Iowa.


Work In Progress: Flex—Iowa State University’S Mobile Technology Classroom, Peter M. Evans, Eric J. Schares Jan 2017

Work In Progress: Flex—Iowa State University’S Mobile Technology Classroom, Peter M. Evans, Eric J. Schares

Reference and Instruction Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

This proposal describes the FLEx (Forward Learning Experience) program, a mobile learning environment in a 16-foot trailer designed to deliver advanced technology outreach to students around the state of Iowa. A joint effort of Iowa State University’s College of Design, College of Engineering, and Extension and Outreach, the FLEx has engaged 35,000 K-12 students, educators, and families in 171 events since the fall of 2014.

The trailer provides hands-on experiences with virtual reality, immersive visualization, prototyping, augmented reality through an Oculus Rift, interactive circuit building, a Makerbot for 3D printing, and a CNC (computer numerical control) router for ...


Philosophical And Educational Perspectives On Engineering And Technological Literacy, Ii, Russell Korte, Mani Mina, Iraj Omidvar, Stephen T. Frezza, David A. Nordquest, Alan Cheville Jan 2015

Philosophical And Educational Perspectives On Engineering And Technological Literacy, Ii, Russell Korte, Mani Mina, Iraj Omidvar, Stephen T. Frezza, David A. Nordquest, Alan Cheville

Electrical and Computer Engineering Books

Unknown to each other two groups of engineers and engineering educators began to consider aspects of philosophy and engineering. One held a workshop of engineers and philosophers- “Engineering meets Philosophy” at Delft University and the other held a special session at the annual Frontiers in Education Conference on engineering education and philosophy. Since then the former has held a biannual workshop that have resulted in two impressive publications. The other continued its discussions through FIE and ASEE conferences. There are now regular sessions on philosophy and engineering education at the annual FIE conferences.


Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher Oct 2014

Enhancing Team-Based Senior Capstone Projects: Opportunities And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Generally, capstone courses focus on the integration and application of technical knowledge and skills acquired in previous coursework along with a consideration of multiple realistic constraints. However, capstone courses also require students to focus on a variety of professional skills, including teamwork, unstructured task completion, and project management. Because students are often new at these skills, they may find it difficult to resolve issues as they arise, particularly when working with an actual industrial client.

Capstone courses also pose challenges to faculty. Finding a consistent stream of projects that are at the appropriate level for senior level students can be ...


Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher Oct 2014

Quantifying Cognitive Processes In Virtual Learning Simulations, Michael P. Thornton, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Virtual learning simulations have received increasing attention due various proposed educational, instructional, and institutional advantages; with literature focusing largely on perceptions of this technology and empirical comparisons to other instructional methods. Compared to traditional learning environments, virtual learning environments may present methodological advantages in studying learning processes through applying behavioral tracing techniques.

This paper will discuss behavioral indicators of cognitive learning processes used in virtual decision scenarios designed for third year engineering and engineering technology students. Behavioral measures to quantitatively analyze the learning process will be presented. Implications for assessing student learning, instructional strategy selection, and improving higher education quality ...


Successful Strategies For Engaging Community Colleges And Universities In Transfer Partnership, Marcia R. Laugerman, Diane T. Rover, Steven K. Mickelson, Mack C. Shelley, Kari Hensen Oct 2014

Successful Strategies For Engaging Community Colleges And Universities In Transfer Partnership, Marcia R. Laugerman, Diane T. Rover, Steven K. Mickelson, Mack C. Shelley, Kari Hensen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In order to increase the number of students (U.S. citizens or permanent residents) receiving associate or baccalaureate degrees in established or emerging fields within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), the National Science Foundation (NSF) established the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Talent Expansion Program (STEP).

The Student Enrollment and Engagement through Connections (SEEC) project is a collaboration between Iowa State University (ISU) and Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC) funded by a STEP grant to increase the number of students graduating with a bachelor's degree in engineering at ISU and the number of students in pre-engineering study ...


Development, Assessment And Evaluation Of Remote Thermo-Fluids Laboratory Experiments: Results From A Pilot Study, Sriram Sundararajan, James J. Dautremont Jun 2014

Development, Assessment And Evaluation Of Remote Thermo-Fluids Laboratory Experiments: Results From A Pilot Study, Sriram Sundararajan, James J. Dautremont

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

An integral part of a mechanical engineering and other engineering programs are laboratory experiences. While the benefits of hands-on laboratories are in providing environments for students to apply theoretical knowledge, the changing landscape of engineering education today is spurring consideration of alternate means of offering laboratory-based education. One approach is that of developing remote or online laboratory experiences, which is particularly attractive for our mechanical engineering program at Iowa State University in the following ways: 1) They can help address capacity issues caused by increasing enrollments; 2) They can facilitate online learning opportunities for off-campus students, including the increasing number ...


A Case For A Reform In Teaching Introductory, Fundamental Engineering Mechanics Courses, Peggy C. Boylan-Ashraf, Steven A. Freeman, Mack C. Shelley Jun 2014

A Case For A Reform In Teaching Introductory, Fundamental Engineering Mechanics Courses, Peggy C. Boylan-Ashraf, Steven A. Freeman, Mack C. Shelley

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Introductory, fundamental engineering mechanics (IFEM) courses, such as statics of engineering, mechanics of materials, dynamics, and mechanics of fluids, have far too long been focused on intense mathematical and theoretical concepts. Bold new methodologies that connect science to life using active learning pedagogies need to be emphasized more in engineering classrooms. This study investigated the role of a new paradigm in teaching IFEM courses and attempts to contribute to the current national conversation in engineering curriculum development of the need to change engineering education—from passive learning to active learning. Demographic characteristics in this study included a total of 4 ...


Philosophical Perspectives On Engineering And Technology Literacy, I, Gregory Bassett, John Blake, Adam Carberry, Jerry Gravander, William Grimson, John Krupczak Jr., Mani Mina, Donna Riley Jan 2014

Philosophical Perspectives On Engineering And Technology Literacy, I, Gregory Bassett, John Blake, Adam Carberry, Jerry Gravander, William Grimson, John Krupczak Jr., Mani Mina, Donna Riley

Electrical and Computer Engineering Books

The belief that engineering and technology are beneficial to all and can improve human lives has inspired the tireless endeavors of many creative individuals throughout history. Engineers and technologists have generally believed that their actions and designs need to be scientifically justified and logically dependable. In addition, due to the pragmatic nature of the field there is also an emphasis on systematic approaches and defining standard practices in engineering. Such a positivist approach is seen in all aspects of engineering and technological ventures. Consequently, such an approach exists in most engineering educators’ perspectives and belief structures regarding the contents of ...


Formation And Development Of Effective Student Teams To Facilitate Team-Based Learning, Gretchen A. Mosher Oct 2013

Formation And Development Of Effective Student Teams To Facilitate Team-Based Learning, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The ability to work in an effective team has been identified by employers as a key skill for students entering the work force. Furthermore, a desire for active learning by both students and faculty has also increased the use of team-based learning. However, team-based learning also has its drawbacks – notably, managing conflict among team members, reconciling differing levels of effort by students, and the construction of a fair and effective method of assessment for teambased work. Highly developed and cohesive teams allow the focus of the classroom to be on engaged and transformative learning, yet previous research has focused mostly ...


Problem Framing Behavior In Statics And Thermodynamics, John K. Jackman, Stephen B. Gilbert, Gloria Starns, Matthew Hagge Jun 2013

Problem Framing Behavior In Statics And Thermodynamics, John K. Jackman, Stephen B. Gilbert, Gloria Starns, Matthew Hagge

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

When engineering students struggle with problems, it usually occurs in the problem framing stage when they are trying to identify the relevant principles and concepts and how they are related to each other (e.g., a free body diagram, vapor dome graph, state diagram). We are interested in identifying when students are experiencing difficulty in this problem framing stage so that we can provide meaningful formative assessment in terms of hints that helps them develop better problem solving skills. To identify when students are experiencing difficulty in problem framing, we collected data on student behavior as they solved problems with ...


Broadening Participation: A Report On A Series Of Workshops Aimed At Building Community And Increasing The Number Of Women And Minorities In Engineering Design, Katherine Fu, Tahira N. Reid, Janis P. Terpenny, Deborah Thurston, Judy M. Vance, Susan Finger, Gloria J. Wiens, Kazem Kazerounian, Janet Katherine Allen, Kathy Jacobson Jun 2013

Broadening Participation: A Report On A Series Of Workshops Aimed At Building Community And Increasing The Number Of Women And Minorities In Engineering Design, Katherine Fu, Tahira N. Reid, Janis P. Terpenny, Deborah Thurston, Judy M. Vance, Susan Finger, Gloria J. Wiens, Kazem Kazerounian, Janet Katherine Allen, Kathy Jacobson

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

Despite some progress in increasing the numbers of women and minorities in engineering over the past 30 years, their full participation in the discipline has yet to be achieved, particularly in engineering academia. One cause is the "leaky pipeline"; even after women and minorities choose to major in engineering, they drop out at rates higher than their counterparts along all career stages (undergraduate school, graduate school, tenure-track, etc.). Their small numbers creates isolation that has the unfortunate risks of struggle, less professional success, less sense of personal belonging, and less retention. Our hypothesis is that building a community that provides ...


The Engineering Admissions Partnership Program: A Navigation Strategy For Community College Students Seeking A Pathway Into Engineering, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley, Steven K. Mickelson, Diane T. Rover Jan 2013

The Engineering Admissions Partnership Program: A Navigation Strategy For Community College Students Seeking A Pathway Into Engineering, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley, Steven K. Mickelson, Diane T. Rover

Political Science Publications

This paper presents the evaluation of a program designed to improve transfer outcomes for community college students pursuing an engineering degree. The program, the Engineering Admissions Partnership Program (E-APP), was designed to improve the navigational success of community college transfer students through connections to the university. These connections include coordinated academic advising, peer-mentoring, campus visits, and online social and professional networks. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of the E-APP and its interventions, which will be measured by increased participation rates and increased university retention rates for E-APP participants. Outcome data for the students are analyzed ...


A Structural Equation Model Correlating Success In Engineering With Academic Variables For Community College Transfer Students, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley Jan 2013

A Structural Equation Model Correlating Success In Engineering With Academic Variables For Community College Transfer Students, Marcia R. Laugerman, Mack C. Shelley

Statistics Conference Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

Student Enrollment and Engagement through Connections is a collaboration between a large Midwestern university and in-state community colleges (CCs) to increase success of transfers into engineering. This study explores predictors of completing a BS in engineering for CC transfers through a structural equation model. The model was estimated using academic variables from both institutions. The dataset includes 472 in-state CC transfer students admitted to the College of Engineering between 2002 and 2005. The model fits the data well (χ2=74.254, df=30, p<0.0001; RMSE=0.056, Comparative Fit Index=0.984, chi-square/df ratio=2.475). First spring University GPA and credit hours, CC transfer credits toward core engineering courses, first fall credit hours after transfer, first fall University GPA, and University core course GPA are significantly related to graduation in engineering. This research may help increase the success of CC transfers to engineering, emphasizing the importance of core engineering courses.


Why They Leave: Understanding Student Attrition From Engineering Majors, Brandi N. Geisinger, D. Raj Raman Jan 2013

Why They Leave: Understanding Student Attrition From Engineering Majors, Brandi N. Geisinger, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A large number of students leave engineering majors prior to graduation despite efforts to increase retention rates. To improve retention rates in engineering programs, the reasons why students leave engineering must be determined. In this paper, we review the literature on attrition from engineering programs to identify the breadth of factors that contribute to students’ decisions to leave. Fifty studies on student attrition from engineering programs were included in the primary part of this literature review. In the second half of the work, an additional twenty-five studies that focused on methods of increasing student retention, were examined. Six broad factors ...


Building Interdisciplinary Study Abroad Programs: Best Practices For Successful Collaborations, Chad M. Gasta Nov 2012

Building Interdisciplinary Study Abroad Programs: Best Practices For Successful Collaborations, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Continuous Improvement Of Program Outcomes Through Assessing Student Demonstration Of Workplace Competencies, Mark A. Laingen Nov 2012

Continuous Improvement Of Program Outcomes Through Assessing Student Demonstration Of Workplace Competencies, Mark A. Laingen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Student-centered, learning-based educational systems place demands on institutions to provide evidence that students have achieved competency in defined program outcomes. Experiential learning environments provide a platform for students to demonstrate competency of program learning outcomes. Key actions that provide quantitative measures to assess competency of learning outcomes ensure the ability to assess changes in learning outcome competencies. Data collected from these assessments translate into achievement of the program outcomes. The ability to convert workplace competencies into curriculum strengths and deficiencies is valuable for continuous improvement of the program curricula. In this presentation, I will present my study how ISU has ...


Finding What Women Want: Developing Strategies To Increase Recruitment And Retention In Along With Attracting External And Internal Sources Of Funding, Shweta Chopra, Gary R. Bertoline, Chad M. Laux Jun 2012

Finding What Women Want: Developing Strategies To Increase Recruitment And Retention In Along With Attracting External And Internal Sources Of Funding, Shweta Chopra, Gary R. Bertoline, Chad M. Laux

Shweta Chopra

Numerous reports have discussed the dearth of women in Science, Technology, Engineering; Mathematics (STEM) fields. Almost two-thirds of young children of age group 9-15 state that they enjoy science, but girls’ attitudes and interests change by middle school. During high school, girls and boys take the same number of science courses. In addition, girls perform as well as boys in those courses. Despite comparable performance levels, girls rarely continue studying science at college level. Lack of female progress in STEM education has been observed in STEM fields despite multiple measures taken by universities, colleges, schools, industries, and other organizations dedicated ...


Developing Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercises For A Mechanical Engineering Curriculum, Sriram Sundararajan, Leann E. Faidley, Terrence R. Meyer Jun 2012

Developing Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercises For A Mechanical Engineering Curriculum, Sriram Sundararajan, Leann E. Faidley, Terrence R. Meyer

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

This paper describes the development of two inquiry-based experiments in a mechanical engineering curriculum at a land grant research-intensive university, aimed at providing students with the opportunity to design and perform experiments. One experiment in engineering measurements (system behavior) and one experiment in fluid dynamics were developed. In each case, students working on teams were posed with a scenario and question to answer. For example, in the system dynamics experiment, students were asked to verify that a thermal system and electrical system were mechanically equivalent systems. In the fluid dynamics experiment, students were asked to investigate drag coefficients for flow ...


Wime: A Departmental Effort To Improve Recruitment, Retention And Engagement Of Women Students In Mechanical Engineering, Sriram Sundararajan, Theodore J. Heindel, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Shankar Subramaniam Jun 2012

Wime: A Departmental Effort To Improve Recruitment, Retention And Engagement Of Women Students In Mechanical Engineering, Sriram Sundararajan, Theodore J. Heindel, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Shankar Subramaniam

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

The Mechanical Engineering department at Iowa State University started the ‘Women in Mechanical Engineering’ (WiME) program 3 years ago. WiME is a student run, faculty moderated, and department funded program with a three pronged approach to enhance women participation in mechanical engineering – retention, outreach, and recruitment. WiME organizes various social and professional development activities that are intended to

  • Provide a forum for women to socially interact with faculty and their peers;
  • Provide students with women role models in engineering and academic professionals thereby helping to develop and sustain a network of professional colleagues and;
  • Leverage the interests of the WiME ...


A Strategy For Sustainable Outcomes Assessment Across A Mechanical Engineering Curriculum That Maximizes Faculty Engagement, Sriram Sundararajan Jun 2012

A Strategy For Sustainable Outcomes Assessment Across A Mechanical Engineering Curriculum That Maximizes Faculty Engagement, Sriram Sundararajan

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

As part of continuous improvement of the program and ABET accreditation requirements, direct assessment methods of student outcomes are necessary and quite illustrative in terms of describing student learning. Direct assessment methods range from evaluating student performance on locally prepared examinations or standardized tests to assessing student portfolios or performing performance appraisals. Choice of the methods depends on a range of factors including number of students in the program, impact on faculty workload and appropriateness of sample size. One of the challenges in implementing a successful direct assessment process is engaging the faculty and achieving a high level of participation ...


A Success Enhancement Program After The First Test In Freshman Engineering, Richard M. Bennett, William Schleter, D. Raj Raman Jun 2012

A Success Enhancement Program After The First Test In Freshman Engineering, Richard M. Bennett, William Schleter, D. Raj Raman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

All first-year engineering students at the University of Tennessee take a common sequence of two-4 hour Physics for Engineers classes. The classes cover typical introduction to engineering topics, as well as basic physics concepts. The classes are divided into modules, with each module lasting approximately three weeks. There is a 50-minute test at the end of each module, which is worth 11% of the student’s grade.


Enhancing Student Learning Experience In Lean Manufacturing With Industry Engagement, Chad M. Laux, Shweta Chopra Feb 2012

Enhancing Student Learning Experience In Lean Manufacturing With Industry Engagement, Chad M. Laux, Shweta Chopra

Shweta Chopra

Engagement with industry professionals is important to meeting Engineering Technology curriculum goals. Bringing industry representatives (guest speakers) to engage in the classroom, involving students with professional chapters involved in Lean, student field trips and incorporation of a virtual plant tour is based upon a classroom model that incorporates industry advisory board feedback. The model for teaching an introduction to lean manufacturing course introduces students to lean thinking ideas in addition to introducing students to industry professionals as well. This provides students with an opportunity to bridge the gap between classroom education and real world experience. In this paper we are ...


Teaching Large Courses Using Online Technologies: Lessons Learned And Future Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher, Steven A. Freeman Nov 2011

Teaching Large Courses Using Online Technologies: Lessons Learned And Future Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher, Steven A. Freeman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Courses delivered entirely online allow universities to enroll a large number of students, but these large classes pose several challenges to educators. Two major challenges of large online learning environments are the development of appropriate learning activities and the encouragement of significant learning interactions between students. This presentation will discuss strategies used to encourage participatory learning and student interaction in a technology course with an enrollment of 170-200 students. Recommendations for managing other details of large courses in an online format will also be offered.


The Honour House Project: Reservist Re-Entry Program, Sarah A. Rajala, Kevin J. Wainwright, Barbara E. Endicott-Popovsky Jun 2011

The Honour House Project: Reservist Re-Entry Program, Sarah A. Rajala, Kevin J. Wainwright, Barbara E. Endicott-Popovsky

Sarah A. Rajala

Both the United States and Canada invest a great deal of resources in the training of their military personal. Many of the skills and experiences accumulated by soldiers are those that are highly valued by civilian employers. Further, these skills are often embodied in academic programs, suggesting soldiers would have a comparative advantage in such programs; however, despite the efforts of government agencies, many soldiers are unable to convert their skills and training into meaningful careers. While there are several reasons why individuals leaving military duty have trouble re-integrating into work and education, one of the major obstacles is the ...


Students’ Perspective On Safety Education Using Second Life As A Tool For Effective Learning, Dominick E. Fazarro, Nir Keren Oct 2010

Students’ Perspective On Safety Education Using Second Life As A Tool For Effective Learning, Dominick E. Fazarro, Nir Keren

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Educators are searching for cutting-edge ideas to deliver effective instructional methods to students and employers on different aspects of training. The population of students in colleges and universities are different in terms of dependency on technology. Most students are visual learners and are dependent on the use of technology in their everyday lives to satisfy social needs. Educators are seeking methods to increase student learning and comprehension of classroom theory by integrating the students’ need of technology. Teaching industrial safety can often leave the instructor with a level of uncertainty as to whether the students have grasped concepts taught in ...


Discussing Controversial Topics In The Technology Classroom: Benefits, Strategies, And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher, Chad M. Laux Oct 2010

Discussing Controversial Topics In The Technology Classroom: Benefits, Strategies, And Challenges, Gretchen A. Mosher, Chad M. Laux

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Using controversial topics for teaching and learning has several benefits identified in the literature. Skills such as applying knowledge to real world applications, critical judgment and evaluation, social and ethical considerations, and oral and written communication are important learning outcomes of this practice. Utilizing several models of teaching and learning, this presentation will present the benefits of discussing controversial topics in the classroom, as well as strategies and challenges of handling these types of discussions with technology students.


Isu Advance—Transformation Across The University Hierarchy To Enhance Recruitment, Retention And Advancement Of Women Faculty In Engineering, Kristen P. Constant Jun 2010

Isu Advance—Transformation Across The University Hierarchy To Enhance Recruitment, Retention And Advancement Of Women Faculty In Engineering, Kristen P. Constant

Materials Science and Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

ISU is in the 4th year of a 5-year NSF funded ADVANCE grant. In accordance with the intent of NSF’s “Institutional Transformation” grants, the focus of this work is not on the individual professional development of women, but instead, on changing the academic environment in which they work. The goal of the ISU ADVANCE research program is to investigate the effectiveness of a multilevel collaborative effort to effect institutional transformation that results in the full participation of women faculty in STEM fields in the university. Our approach focuses on transforming departmental cultures (views, attitudes, norms and shared beliefs), practices ...


Languages And Cultures For Professions: Pathways To Global Engineering, Chad M. Gasta Oct 2009

Languages And Cultures For Professions: Pathways To Global Engineering, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

No abstract provided.