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2002

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Full-Text Articles in Education

After Turning Points: Evidence Of The Adoption Of Middle School Reforms In The United States 1987-2000., Nancy Barnes Mansberger Dec 2002

After Turning Points: Evidence Of The Adoption Of Middle School Reforms In The United States 1987-2000., Nancy Barnes Mansberger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the adoption by U.S. middle schools of key practices recommended by the 1989 Turning Points report. Three questions were examined: (1) To what extent have the organizational practices identified by research to impact the development of "small learning communities" been adopted by U.S. middle schools? (2) To what extent do the instructional practices of U.S. middle school teachers reflect developmentally responsive or traditional/bureaucratic methods?, and (3) Do the instructional practices of U.S. middle school teachers differ between those who teach in schools with developmentally responsive organizational practices ...


A Test Of Factor Analysis As A Validation Procedure For Physician Certification Examinations, Jeffrey D. Greene Dec 2002

A Test Of Factor Analysis As A Validation Procedure For Physician Certification Examinations, Jeffrey D. Greene

Dissertations

Two physician certification examinations from different medical specialties were investigated. The purpose of the study was twofold: 1) to determine the similarities between the factor structure of the examinations and their respective tables of specifications; and 2) to demonstrate the relative efficacy of factor analysis in differentiating the structure between two related but dissimilar domains of information. Specialty A is a homogeneous discipline focused on a relatively narrow concentration of organs, body systems and anatomy. This examination contained 309 items. There were 845 cases available for analysis. Specialty B is a heterogeneous area of specialty concerned with numerous areas of ...


Specifying The Psychomotor Domain Of The Construct Of Nursing Competence, Joni L. Jones Dec 2002

Specifying The Psychomotor Domain Of The Construct Of Nursing Competence, Joni L. Jones

Dissertations

The measurement of an individual's predicted performance in his/her field is a requirement of many professions. The NCLEX-RN® is the measurement tool used to determine whether or not new graduates of registered nursing programs are competent to enter the profession. Although there are three domains of learning in nursing (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) the only domain tested for licensure is the cognitive. Many factors contribute to the lack of testing in the psychomotor area. One of the major impediments is that the entry-level psychomotor domain for registered nursing has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study ...


Examining The Similarities And Differences In Benefits Of School-To-Work As A Workforce Development Strategy: A Study Of Key Stakeholder Involvement Using A Multiple Case Study Approach, Alton Leon Alford Dec 2002

Examining The Similarities And Differences In Benefits Of School-To-Work As A Workforce Development Strategy: A Study Of Key Stakeholder Involvement Using A Multiple Case Study Approach, Alton Leon Alford

Dissertations

Violence is a significant occupational hazard in the American workplace. Nearly a thousand employees are murdered on the job each year and workplacehomicide has become the leading cause of death for women and the second for men. From 1993 to 1999, there were an average of 1.7 million nonfatal violent victimizations each year, accounting for 18% of all violent crime. Although government employees accounted for 18% of the U.S. workforce, they made up 37% of workplace violence victims.

A review of literature found no unified definition of workplace violence. Recent scientific research regarding this problem is rare, despite ...


A Study Of The Leadership Preparedness Of U.S. Public University Chief Business Officers, Daniel J. Hurley Dec 2002

A Study Of The Leadership Preparedness Of U.S. Public University Chief Business Officers, Daniel J. Hurley

Dissertations

Despite the enormous role that Chief Business Officers (CBOs) play in administering the business and financial affairs of American public universities, little research has been conducted on their leadership preparedness. The primary objectives of this study were to assess the self-perceived preparedness of U.S. public university CBOs at the time they assumed their first position in the role, and to determine if specific factors could be associated with their overall preparedness.

With support from the National Association of College and University Business Officers, a survey was developed and mailed to the entire population of CBOs at four-year public universities ...


Have Charter Schools Materialized Their Promise A Contrast Between Rhetoric And Reality, Mary Kay Kempker-Vandriel Dec 2002

Have Charter Schools Materialized Their Promise A Contrast Between Rhetoric And Reality, Mary Kay Kempker-Vandriel

Dissertations

Charter schools are a growing force in American education. Parents are demanding a choice in their child's public education. Are charter schools better than traditional public schools? Have charter schools kept their promise?

In the study regular public schools and charter schools were compared along five dimensions: (a) opportunity for learning and access to quality education, (b) innovative teaching methods and participative management, (c) teacher job satisfaction, (d) parent involvement, and (e) school accountability. Existing data from the 1999/2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) were analyzed with primarily chi-square tests and one t-test. These analyses provided results in ...


Factors Affecting Superintendent Longevity In Michigan, Sally Hipp Dec 2002

Factors Affecting Superintendent Longevity In Michigan, Sally Hipp

Dissertations

Theory and research surrounding the issue o f longevity of superintendents seemed contradictory in the literature. On the one hand, the average length of time a superintendent serves in his/her position has not changed noticeably over the last few decades. Yet many researchers were reporting a crises in this field because the applicant pool seemed to be shrinking and longevity of superintendents in large urban districts was reported to be lower than the average longevity rate of 5-6 years. In addition the perception of many of the superintendents in the field was that the turnover rate of superintendents was ...


A Study Of Expert Problem-Solving In Qualitative Organic Analysis Using A Computer Simulation, Keith A. Schramm Aug 2002

A Study Of Expert Problem-Solving In Qualitative Organic Analysis Using A Computer Simulation, Keith A. Schramm

Dissertations

A qualitative case study of eight doctoral level organic chemists from academia (6) and industry (2) solved eleven qualitative organic analysis problems using the Identification of Organic Compounds* software computer simulation. Think-aloud protocols were analyzed for content knowledge and strategic knowledge to account for expert performance. Each of the eleven qualitative organic analysis problems included a variety of functional groups and structures and was solved in a computer-simulated environment to allow for extensive problem-solving by the experts and to evaluate the simulation’s ability to model the problem-solving environment The data provided consisted of the typical instrumentation available to university ...


The Relationship Between Financial Aid And Freshman Persistance At A Midwestern Liberal Arts College, Jack Phillip Powell Aug 2002

The Relationship Between Financial Aid And Freshman Persistance At A Midwestern Liberal Arts College, Jack Phillip Powell

Dissertations

College student persistence has been one o f the most important topics discussed in higher education over the last 25 years. The consequences of student attrition from our colleges and universities are immense for the individual student and institutions alike. One of the purposes of student financial aid is to promote student persistence. The need for empirical research to assess whether financial aid is accomplishing this vital purpose is critical Research is particularly important given the significant shifts in policy brought on by the 1992 Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. This study addressed two research questions. The first deals ...


Integration Of Multiple Perspectives On Leadership: A Comparative Study Of Experienced And Novice Leaders, Rigoberto J. Rincones-Gomez Aug 2002

Integration Of Multiple Perspectives On Leadership: A Comparative Study Of Experienced And Novice Leaders, Rigoberto J. Rincones-Gomez

Dissertations

The purpose o f this study was to investigate a multiple-perspectives approach to educational leadership. Twelve superintendents from the state of Michigan participated in this study. A sampling strategy was used to differentiate six novices from six experienced superintendents. Interviews, thinking-aloud, and journals were used in order to capture information regarding superintendents’ approaches to leadership. The conceptual framework used in this study was defined by (a) a system of perspectives on leadership, and (b) the assumptions that lie beneath those perspectives, including the assumptions about the leader, follower, organization, and task. These two components turned into the two-level coding system ...


The Structure Of The Leadership Construct: A Test Of Factorial Invariance Using Structural Equation Modeling, Liliana Rodriguez-Campos Aug 2002

The Structure Of The Leadership Construct: A Test Of Factorial Invariance Using Structural Equation Modeling, Liliana Rodriguez-Campos

Dissertations

Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used in this dissertation to investigate the factorial invariance (i.e., equivalence) of the leadership construct as perceived by different groups of people in education. Specifically, the author focuses on three groups (364 teachers, 419 principals, and 369 superintendents) from a statewide survey, where the central concern is whether components of the measurement model of leadership are invariant across those particular groups. In seeking evidence of multigroup invariance, the author was interested in finding the answer to the following research questions: (1) to what extent do some leadership factorial structures fit a group better than ...


How Does It Mean? Literary Theory As Metacognitive Reading Strategy In The High School English Classroom, Lisa J. Schade Aug 2002

How Does It Mean? Literary Theory As Metacognitive Reading Strategy In The High School English Classroom, Lisa J. Schade

Dissertations

In the last two decades, serious scholarly attention has been paid both to theories of teaching reading and to theories of literary interpretation. These potentially related fields have been treated as separate, focused either on teaching reading in the elementary grades or on teaching interpretation to advanced college literature students. Until very recently the relevance of either reading theory or literary theory to middle school or high school pedagogy has remained unexamined. My research, as a reflective practitioner, addresses this important gap. I focus on the teaching of literary theory in the high school English classroom as a strategy to ...


Differences Among Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs In Preparing Students For The National Certification Examination, Donna M. Ritenour Jun 2002

Differences Among Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs In Preparing Students For The National Certification Examination, Donna M. Ritenour

Dissertations

A retrospective quantitative study that surveyed all of the CAAHEP accredited athletic training education programs was performed. The purpose of this study was twofold: (I) what are the institutional and programmatic characteristics associated with the colleges/universities that sponsor CAAHEP accredited entry level athletic training education programs, and (2) do these differences significantly alter the preparedness of students for the athletic training profession. Athletic Training Education Programs that were developed prior to 1993 were compared to those programs that were developed after 1993 to determine if institutional or programmatic characteristic differences exist among the Colleges/Universities that sponsor CAAHEP accredited ...


Classroom Questioning Strategies As Indicators Of Inquiry Based Science Instruction, Linda Hale Goossen Jun 2002

Classroom Questioning Strategies As Indicators Of Inquiry Based Science Instruction, Linda Hale Goossen

Dissertations

Inquiry teaching often rests upon the assumption that through the use of questioning and response strategies, teachers can stimulate students to actively construct knowledge. Based on this hypothesis, middle-school science lessons were observed and questioning and response strategies were identified that are related to inquiry-based instruction.

Twenty-four science lessons were observed, videotaped, and ranked by inquiry characteristics other than questioning strategy. The video and audio portions of the recordings were analyzed to determine the student and teacher’s questioning and response strategies in each classroom. These strategies were then compared to teaching style, along a continuum from traditional to inquiry ...


The Adjustment Problems Of African Students At Western Michigan University, Apollos Bitrus Goyol Jun 2002

The Adjustment Problems Of African Students At Western Michigan University, Apollos Bitrus Goyol

Dissertations

There are more international students enrolled in colleges and universities in the U.S. than in any other country as reported by the Institute of International Education. In the 2000/01 school year, the institute estimated that 547,867 international students were studying in the U.S. Most of these students, 302,058 (55%) came from countries in Asia; and 80,584 (14.7%) came from Europe. Latin America had 63,634 (11.6%); followed by the Middle East, with 36,858 (6.7%); Africa, with 34,217 (6.2%); North America, with 25,888 (4.7%), and Oceania, with ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Job Satisfaction In Auxiliary Enterprise Units Within Higher Education, Stephen M. Keizer Jun 2002

A Study Of The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Job Satisfaction In Auxiliary Enterprise Units Within Higher Education, Stephen M. Keizer

Dissertations

The role of goal conflict on job satisfaction within auxiliary enterprise units at Western Michigan University was the focus of this study. The continuing decline in state appropriations has caused state-funded colleges and universities to change their operational model in order to become more fiscally responsible. This change in operational focus has led to a shift in the balance between the goal of educating students and the goal of generating revenue. This shift creates goal conflict among many of the employees whose role it is to bolster the sagging operational budget. Conflict within job goals impacts on job satisfaction and ...


Career Planning Needs Of Students, Carol Nowakowski Jun 2002

Career Planning Needs Of Students, Carol Nowakowski

Dissertations

This study examines the perceived needs of college students in relationship to sex, employment, and academic rank. Specifically, factors that suggest the changing student population in higher education and the impact such changes have on providing career counseling services to meet student needs are presented. In addition, the differences between sex, employment status, and academic rank in relationship to perceived career planning needs is presented based on a review of literature. Results of a survey to students attending Davenport University (formerly known as Davenport College) during the winter 1995 semester are summarized in terms of perceived career planning needs based ...


Social Responsiblity And Types Of Service Learning: A Comparison Of Curricular Service Learning, Co-Curricular Service Learning, And Traditional Community Service, Jay Richardson Cooper Apr 2002

Social Responsiblity And Types Of Service Learning: A Comparison Of Curricular Service Learning, Co-Curricular Service Learning, And Traditional Community Service, Jay Richardson Cooper

Dissertations

This study investigated social responsibility among college students involved in three different types of service learning. Social responsibility, the dependent variable, was analyzed using scores on the Social Responsibility Inventory. Three institutions, representative of Masters I Colleges and Universities, were involved in the study and 198 students completed the questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance was run, which demonstrated that there was a significant difference among the mean scores on the Social Responsibility Inventory in the three types of service learning. Type of service learning, the independent variable, included traditional community service, co-curricular service learning, and curricular service learning. Traditional ...


The Impact Of A Congenitally Blind Child Upon Family Functioning And Interaction, Pamela S. Berryman Apr 2002

The Impact Of A Congenitally Blind Child Upon Family Functioning And Interaction, Pamela S. Berryman

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an impact of congenital blindness upon family functioning and interaction. This research investigated the level of blindness upon family adaptability, cohesion, satisfaction, and social family climate from a family systems perspective. The study analyzed data from a sample of 56 participants who were parents/care-givers of children age 0-12 years with either no vision, partial vision, or full vision. Chi-squares were computed to determine if any of the demographic variables differed among the three groups. Respondents’ gender, relationship to child, age, child’s level of blindness, number of siblings ...


Using Measures Of Intervention Integrity, Intervention Acceptability, And Intervention Effectiveness To Evaluate A Toilet Training Program In A Preschool Classroom For Children With Special Needs, Katherine M. Holverstott-Cockrell Apr 2002

Using Measures Of Intervention Integrity, Intervention Acceptability, And Intervention Effectiveness To Evaluate A Toilet Training Program In A Preschool Classroom For Children With Special Needs, Katherine M. Holverstott-Cockrell

Dissertations

The primary objective of this study is to use measures of intervention integrity, intervention acceptability, and intervention effectiveness identified by Witt and Elliott (1985) to evaluate the toilet training program in a preschool classroom. The second objective is to assess the effects of parent participation with the toileting program. The third objective is to assess the effects of the toilet training intervention. Specifically, this study investigated (a) the relationship between intervention integrity, acceptability, and effectiveness of a toilet training intervention implemented in a preschool setting and at home; (b) the relationship between parental participation with the intervention and the efficacy ...


Means And Ends Of The Andrews University Leadership Program: A Study Of Its Critical Components And Outcomes As They Relate To The Mission Statement, José A. Alaby Jan 2002

Means And Ends Of The Andrews University Leadership Program: A Study Of Its Critical Components And Outcomes As They Relate To The Mission Statement, José A. Alaby

Dissertations

Problem. The history of education shows tensions between its means and ends. Tensions became more apparent in contemporary Christian educational institutions. The Leadership Program (LP) of Andrews University was developed as an alternative and innovative means of delivering graduate education with a defined mission. It is job-embedded-theory and practice are united in the participants' workplaces, where they show their competency in 20 areas. It stresses the importance of the individuality of the participant in the development of a teaching/learning community. Yet, the dialectical relationship of the LP's ends and means has not been systematically studied in light of ...


An Autobiographical Study Of My Beliefs, Attributes, And Practices As An Instructional Support Consultant, Jennifer Wilcox Dove Jan 2002

An Autobiographical Study Of My Beliefs, Attributes, And Practices As An Instructional Support Consultant, Jennifer Wilcox Dove

Dissertations

Problem . People ask what I do as an instructional support consultant. Over time, I have created my own approach to instructional support. This study uncovers the beliefs and attributes that drive my practices as an instructional support consultant, as well as those that comprise my model of instructional support.

Method . Using a narrative autobiographical approach, I analyzed early experiences that provided a foundation for beliefs I have about teaching and learning. With the help of close colleagues, I analyzed my current beliefs,attributes, and practices. I wrote stories using my journals and conversations I had with close colleagues. I also ...


Academic Persistence And Attrition Among Freshman Traditional And Non-Traditional Students At A Public Midwestern Commuter University, Arnold W. Illanz Jan 2002

Academic Persistence And Attrition Among Freshman Traditional And Non-Traditional Students At A Public Midwestern Commuter University, Arnold W. Illanz

Dissertations

Problem. This research examined student background characteristics, student social and institutional integrations, and their relation to attrition rates of freshman students at a public Midwestern commuter university.

Method. A quantitative research methodology based on empirical data collection was used utilizing a 101-question research instrument consisting of two sections: student demographic, and five factorially derived scales developed by Pascarella and Terenzini (1980) which operationalized Tinto's (1975) conceptual model of college student withdrawal. Chi-square, analysis of variance, and Pearson product-moment correlation were used to identify factors related to student academic persistence and attrition.

Results. The study found that, in general, factors ...


The Psychosocial Determinants Of Middle- And High-School Violence: An Investigation Of The Perceptions Of Parents Of Children Suspended For Committing Violent Acts At School, Beverly Cameron Jan 2002

The Psychosocial Determinants Of Middle- And High-School Violence: An Investigation Of The Perceptions Of Parents Of Children Suspended For Committing Violent Acts At School, Beverly Cameron

Dissertations

Problem. This study investigated parents' perceptions of the psychosocial determinants of middle- and high-school violence.

Method. Phase Four of the Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model, developed by Lawrence Green, was utilized to examine the perceptions of parents regarding the psychosocial determinants of middle- and high-school violence. Respondents were 191 parents whose children were suspended for school violence. One-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the influence ofgender, age, education, family structure, and income on school violence.

Results. Parents believed their children would solve problems using nonviolent means but they responded in a violent manner ...


The Relationships Between Attitude, Motivation, Anxiety, And Proficiency In English As A Second Language Of First-Year University Students In Puerto Rico, Carmen Mercedes Cortés Jan 2002

The Relationships Between Attitude, Motivation, Anxiety, And Proficiency In English As A Second Language Of First-Year University Students In Puerto Rico, Carmen Mercedes Cortés

Dissertations

Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes, motivation, and anxiety levels of first-year university students toward the learning and use of English as a second language. The study also examined the nature of the relationships between attitudes, motivation and anxiety, and English proficiency asmeasured by the College Entrance Examination Board.

Method. A Spanish version of The Attitudes/Motivation Test Battery (Gardner, 1985a), "Espejo de Actitudes: Aprendizaje del Inglés como Segundo Idioma en Puerto Rico," was administered to first-year college students at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus. These students came from various ...


A Descriptive Case Study : The Implementation Of A Field-Based Master's Program, Jeanne Renita Grant Jan 2002

A Descriptive Case Study : The Implementation Of A Field-Based Master's Program, Jeanne Renita Grant

Dissertations

Purpose of study. This study focuses on the implementation of the Field-based Master's Program at Midwestern Christian University. The three-step Adoption Change Model (Fullan, 1991) guided me through this innovation: (1) adoption, (2) implementation, and (3) institutionalization of the program. This 2-year study describes the program's adoption and implementation stages. Institutionalization was not included as it takes 3-10 years to occur. Three research questions guided this study.

Research questions. (1) What did the teacher training in the uses of processes look like during the initial summer session of the Field-based Master's Program? (2) What did the transfer ...


Study Of The Efficacy Of A Christian-Based Inpatient Hospital For Treating Eating Disorders, Depression, And Spiritual Distress, Robert Alan Darden Jan 2002

Study Of The Efficacy Of A Christian-Based Inpatient Hospital For Treating Eating Disorders, Depression, And Spiritual Distress, Robert Alan Darden

Dissertations

Problem . Outcome studies continue to indicate that a substantial proportion of individuals with eating disorders have a dangerously limited response to treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a Christian cognitive-behavioral-based inpatient hospital that specializes in eating disorders was an effective program for treating eating disorders. Next, this study sought to determine if this inpatient hospital was effective in treating both depression and spiritual distress. Finally, this study examined the relationship between depression and spiritual distress with treatment outcome.

Method . Five hundred and eighty-two patients were admitted to an inpatient hospital between July 1, 1999, and ...


Student Perception Of The Attributes Of Peer Mediators: Implications For Program Improvement, Michelle Maree Bell Jan 2002

Student Perception Of The Attributes Of Peer Mediators: Implications For Program Improvement, Michelle Maree Bell

Dissertations

Problem. Limited research has been done regarding the magnitude of the attributes of peer mediators and its impact on elementary students. The purpose of this study was to examine fourth- through sixth-grade students' perception of the attributes of peer mediators at four rural elementary schools located in Pinconning, Michigan.

Method. This study examined the fourth- through sixth-grade students' perception of the attributes of peer mediators using a qualitative approach. The data collection procedures included using a purposive sample of 24 peer mediators in focus groups, as well as 74 peacemakers and 79 disputants who participated in a questionnaire. Questions were ...


Exemplary Bilingual Teachers In Puerto Rico: A Multiple-Case Study, Aurea Laracuente Araújo Jan 2002

Exemplary Bilingual Teachers In Puerto Rico: A Multiple-Case Study, Aurea Laracuente Araújo

Dissertations

Problem. Within a context of inadequate pre-service training, insufficient administrative support, and an ambivalent social environment regarding the teaching of ESL in Puerto Rico, a number of conscientious bilingual teachers try to overcome the odds of the system and have an impact on students' ability to speak English. Some even become exemplary teachers. How do they learn to meet so many expectations successfully in spite of real short comings found in their job, and how do they acquire the skills and competencies necessary to be exemplary bilingual teachers in Puerto Rico?

Method. A qualitative multiple-case study design was used for ...


The Effectiveness Of The Writing Workshop Model To Teach An English-As-A-Second-Language College Writing Course In Puerto Rico: A Look At Students' Outcomes, Marie Jacqueline Agésilas Jan 2002

The Effectiveness Of The Writing Workshop Model To Teach An English-As-A-Second-Language College Writing Course In Puerto Rico: A Look At Students' Outcomes, Marie Jacqueline Agésilas

Dissertations

Problem. Questions have been raised regarding the number of limited-English-proficient students who enter undergraduate schools every year. This study was designed to look at the effectiveness of the Writing Workshop model in improving English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) college students' writing skills in a small liberal arts university in Puerto Rico.

Method. Students registered in two Intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language writing classes were asked to take a pretest-posttest related to writing skills and a pretest-posttest related to composition skills to indicate their level of agreement for each of the 22 statements on a Likert-type (survey) instrument--strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)--related to their ...