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Moderating Effect Of Homeschooling On Retention And Academic Achievement Of Stem Majors At A Private, Faith-Based, Liberal Arts College, Aresia Watson May 2019

Moderating Effect Of Homeschooling On Retention And Academic Achievement Of Stem Majors At A Private, Faith-Based, Liberal Arts College, Aresia Watson

Dissertations

Previous research has indicated that homeschooling is a growing trend within the U.S. Previous research has also indicated that less than one half of students who begin a STEM major at postsecondary institutions will complete their degree. This study sought to look at the possible moderating effect homeschooling has on the academic achievement and retention of STEM majors at a private, faith-based liberal arts college using a modified version of Tinto’s Model of Student Departure.

Independent sample t-tests were used to compare means and intercorrelations of homeschooled students and traditionally schooled students in unmatched and matched samples for ...


Perceptions Of Teachers Regarding Development Of Positive Student-Teacher Relationships In Exemplar Schools Using Cstps, Sneha Sharma Dec 2018

Perceptions Of Teachers Regarding Development Of Positive Student-Teacher Relationships In Exemplar Schools Using Cstps, Sneha Sharma

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological, qualitative study was to describe and explore how teachers in Partnership for 21st Century Learning (P21) exemplar schools developed positive student-teacher relationships using the 6 domains of the California Standards of the Teaching Profession (CSTPs).

Methodology: This study included 12 teachers from 2 high schools in California that were recognized as exemplary by P21. Each school principal chose 6 teachers by utilizing a list of specific criteria, based on the CSTPs, that was provided by the researcher. The researcher also conducted interviews of all 12 teachers, completed artifact analysis, and conducted observations of teachers ...


Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson Dec 2018

Cultural Branding: An Examination Of Website Marketing Practices At Historically Black College And Universities And Non-Hbcu Black Serving Institutions, James Hudson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between the way that higher education marketing professionals at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and non-HBCU Black Serving Institutions (BSIs) use website marketing techniques for institutional branding. This examination was prompted by Gasman (2007) who suggested that the inability of some HBCUs to garner and/or maintain sufficient enrollment numbers stems from poor image management. Further, Gibbs (2015) suggested that a comparison between HBCU websites and Traditionally White Institution (TWI) websites might be beneficial. Thus, this study sought to answer the following research questions:

RQ1. Is ...


Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts Dec 2018

Preparation Matters: A Quantitative Examination Of Faculty Active Shooter Preparedness, Latisha Pitts

Dissertations

In recent years, the occurrence of active shooter incidents has become more prevalent within the United States. Since the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007, there has been an increase in active shooter incidents at institutions of higher learning (IHLs). Educational settings have been identified by the FBI as the second most common place for active shooter incidents to occur. As a result, there has become an increased need for administrators at IHLs to create and maintain cultures of preparedness that include effective active shooter training. In this research study, Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory was used as a framework ...


Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson Dec 2018

Succession Planning For First-Year, P-12 Principals, Brannon Johnson

Dissertations

In order to improve retention of first-year principals, all schools should have a leadership succession plan for first-year, P-12 principals to help improve principal effectiveness and retention (Fink & Brayman, 2006). Russell and Sabina (2014) defined succession planning as the explicit design and implementation of programs to identify and develop high-quality principal candidates. Further, succession planning is about ensuring that the next set of leaders is trained and poised to take on leadership responsibilities when needed (Beaulieu, n. d.).

It is clear that the challenges of being a principal are great, and that this is especially true during the early stages of a principal’s career. Multiple research studies have been conducted regarding first-year principals’ retention (Rivera-McCuthchen, 2014). As a result, factors such as ineffective mentoring, lack of support by staff members and district office personnel, little to no administrative internships, and ineffective preparation in university principalship programs have been identified. However, little to no research has been done regarding succession planning among first-year, P-12 principals. Additionally, extensive research pertaining to succession planning has been done in the business sector, but not the education sector (Russell & Sabina, 2014).

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the succession planning process when used for first-year, P-12 principals. This study sought information regarding how transparent the succession planning process was, how widespread succession planning was, and whether it was a genuine process or merely a formality. The theoretical framework that guided this study regarded situational leadership theory. Additionally, the following research questions guided the study: (a) How do first-year principals describe their experiences in participating in the succession planning program?, (b) What were the benefits, if any, they experienced in the succession planning program?, and (c) What, if any, negative experiences do they describe as a result of participating in the succession planning program?

The researcher interviewed ten participants in person. Six participants were first-year principals, three were assistant superintendents, and one was a superintendent. In order to answer the research questions, a basic qualitative design was used in this study, and the methods of inquiry for this phenomenological approach were semi-structured interviews, transcriptions, and field notes.

After data collection and analysis, the following themes were found: (a) Succession Planning – What’s That?; (b) Grooming One’s Own; (c) A Leadership Pipeline: A Process; (d) From Instructional Literacy Coaches (Lead Teachers) to Principals; (e) The Presence/Absence of Instructional Literacy Coaches; (f) Three Years of Experience – A Minimum Preference/Requirement for the Principalship; (g) Good Ole’ Boy System; (h) Instructional Leadership; and (i) Situational Leadership.


Developing Social And Emotional Skills In Early Childhood Instruction: A Delphi Study, Tess Breen Dec 2018

Developing Social And Emotional Skills In Early Childhood Instruction: A Delphi Study, Tess Breen

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore social and emotional learning in early childhood instruction with an emphasis on identifying the methods expert early childhood teachers use to support and promote the development of empathy and emotion regulation, to have the teachers rate the impact of these methods, and to identify the specific activities used to implement the six most highly rated methods.

Methodology: This study utilized the Delphi method which is an iterative process used to collect and distill the judgments of experts using a series of questionnaires interspersed with feedback. Fourteen participants recommended strategies to ...


Professional Learning Through Professional Learning Communities, Mentorship, And Shared Leadership, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Professional Learning Through Professional Learning Communities, Mentorship, And Shared Leadership, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This Policy Advocacy paper focuses on expanding the District ABC Staff Development policy to include Drago-Severson’s (2009) pillars of adult learning. Research indicates the inclusion of a mentorship program, professional learning communities, and teacher leadership opportunities, will increase teacher collaboration, engagement, and professional capacities. There are significant educational, economic, political, social, legal and moral implications associated with the proposed staff development policy. Additionally, the staff development policy requires careful planning, implementation, and assessment, as will be addressed in this Policy Advocacy paper.


Improving Professional Learning Community Structures For Enhanced Professional Practice, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Improving Professional Learning Community Structures For Enhanced Professional Practice, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This Change Plan gauges the historical reality of the District ABC professional learning communities (PLC) to gain a better understanding of their past effectiveness and secure recommendations for the future. This Change Plan included a qualitative study conducted with the members of the Instructional Leadership Team (ILT). The ten members of the ILT provided feedback to the PLC Survey. The PLC survey was then coded for general themes and common language. The PLC Survey found that in past practice PLCs were absent within District ABC and collaboration among teachers was inconsistent and ineffective. Based upon the findings of the ...


Alignment Of School Improvement Plans With District Professional Learning Plan: A Policy Advocacy Document, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

Alignment Of School Improvement Plans With District Professional Learning Plan: A Policy Advocacy Document, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This paper advocates for a local policy connecting a standards-based district professional learning plan to individual school improvement plans for the purpose of improving targeted instructional behaviors and student learning outcomes. Currently, my district’s school improvement plans follow a general template focused on student subgroup deficits and standardized test scores with little emphasis on professional learning aligned to educator and student outcomes. A local policy that aligns school improvement plans with a district professional learning plan would be consistent with recommendations from the Illinois P-20 Council (2017) and help the local school board understand how a district professional learning ...


A Program Evaluation Of District Professional Learning Practices Using The Standards Assessment Inventory, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

A Program Evaluation Of District Professional Learning Practices Using The Standards Assessment Inventory, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This paper details an evaluation of a school district's professional learning program for the purpose of understanding major patterns and important nuances that give shape to staff development. The perceptions of teaching staff were compared to Learning Forward’s Standards for Professional Learning (2011) using the Standards Assessment Inventory-2. The research design followed a single-case study approach with a combination of survey and focus group methodologies. The goal was to determine to what extent the teaching staff perceive the impact of district professional development on their professional learning community. Teachers were also asked how we might strengthen our current ...


Employee Engagement Through The Instructional Leadership Team, Stephen Juracka Dec 2018

Employee Engagement Through The Instructional Leadership Team, Stephen Juracka

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) is an organizational structure designed to improve employee engagement, which for this project is defined as employee collaboration, autonomy, ownership and shared purpose, in the curriculum development process (Farris-Berg, 2013). This program evaluation, grounded in organizational theory, self-determination theory, and social exchange theory; it is aimed at validating the importance of creating an organizational structure designed to shape a cultural environment that supports employee ownership and autonomy while creating a social exchange economy that supports employee motivation. The Instructional Leadership Team created and initiated the ILT Engagement Survey to K-5 grade level teachers in ...


A Change Plan For District Professional Learning And Teacher Collaboration In The Area Of Elementary English Language Arts Instruction, Scott Carlson Dec 2018

A Change Plan For District Professional Learning And Teacher Collaboration In The Area Of Elementary English Language Arts Instruction, Scott Carlson

Dissertations

This change plan used Wagner et al.’s (2006) framework to assess the arenas of culture, context, conditions, and competencies of a small suburban school district to create a plan for professional learning and teacher collaboration in the area of English Language Arts instruction. However, a backmapping approach could be used to plan professional learning in any subject area. Building on the judgments and recommendations from my program evaluation, I hope to move the school district toward a more comprehensive model of transformational learning. A secondary goal of this change plan is to build the capacity of the district’s ...


Examining The Perceptions Of Principals To Improve Professional Development Opportunities And Support From Central Office: A Program Evaluation, Noah Riley Dec 2018

Examining The Perceptions Of Principals To Improve Professional Development Opportunities And Support From Central Office: A Program Evaluation, Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The work of Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, and Anderson, (2010), Manna (2015), Leithwood and Azah (2016) validates that principals can have a powerful influence on instruction and learning in schools. Supporting principals’ growth with professional development, therefore, is critical to building principals’ competencies as instructional leaders. Although school districts are unique in internal and external conditions (e.g., educational, political, and financial); which may influence their approach to supporting principals, a useful place for all school districts to start is with an appraisal of principals’ perceptions of current support and professional development from central office; regardless of district internal and ...


Creating Conditions For A Collaborative Relationship Between Principals And Their Supervisors: A Change Initiative, Noah Riley Dec 2018

Creating Conditions For A Collaborative Relationship Between Principals And Their Supervisors: A Change Initiative, Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Studies by Kelley and Peterson (2002), Drago-Severson, Blum-DeStefano & Asghar (2013) and other researchers, have shown that in order for principals and other building leaders to be able to demonstrate the required expectations of “new” principal standards, they must engage in ongoing supervision, evaluation, coaching, and continuous career-long professional development. These studies also suggest that school districts, in their support and development of principals’ growth in competency capacity building, are more effective when the principal supervisor works in collaboration with principals they supervise/evaluate in a trusting, mutually respectful relationship of shared accountability for improving instruction and learning. This change ...


23 Illinois Administrative Code 50: Redefining The Formal School Site Observation In Principal Evaluation (A Policy Advocacy Document), Noah Riley Dec 2018

23 Illinois Administrative Code 50: Redefining The Formal School Site Observation In Principal Evaluation (A Policy Advocacy Document), Noah Riley

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This document explores how the establishment of a Principal Evaluation Steering Committee (PESC) to implement and monitor U.S. District X’s Illinois Principal Evaluation Plan (IPEP) may ensure the effectiveness of its principals as capacity builders who facilitate meaningful and productive systems change. The PESC intervention helps ensure principals and their staff is engaging in purposeful reflective practice and collegial inquiry activities and exercises designed to increase their cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal capacities (Drago-Severson, Blum-DeStefano, & Asghar, 2013). This document outlines the positive and effective impacts in the contexts of educational, economic, social, political and, moral and ethical disciplinary areas; and advocates that the establishment of a PESC becomes policy in the district. By igniting, through policy, the potential principals can bring ...


Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports In Transitional Kindergarten Through Second Grade Classrooms: Year Three And Beyond, Anne Driscoll-Mink Nov 2018

Positive Behavior Interventions And Supports In Transitional Kindergarten Through Second Grade Classrooms: Year Three And Beyond, Anne Driscoll-Mink

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on students in transitional kindergarten (TK) through second grade before implementation and after implementation of PBIS at platinum level elementary schools.

Methodology: A mixed-methods study will be used to examine the effects of PBIS on students in TK through second grade before implementation and after implementation of PBIS at platinum level elementary schools in southern California. The quantitative method was used to gather archival data on pre PBIS implementation and post PBIS implementation to determine if there was a difference in ...


An Analysis Of African-American Faculty Experiences During The Tenure Process, Katrina M. Hubbard Nov 2018

An Analysis Of African-American Faculty Experiences During The Tenure Process, Katrina M. Hubbard

Dissertations

Abstract

How faculty allocate their time among research, teaching, and service, and the perceived quality of that work determines whether faculty obtain tenure or are released from the university (Bellas & Toutkoushian, 1999; Link, Swann, & Bozeman, 2008; Price & Cotten, 2006). Prior research indicated that African-American faculty comprised 4.5% of the faculty at high-activity research institutions and 3.5% of faculty at very-high-activity research institutions (The Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac 2016-2017, 2016).

The purpose of this study was to 1) document African-American faculty experiences during their tenure probationary period at PWI research institutions; 2) compare faculty experiences during the pursuit of tenure by race; 3) identify behavior that can detract from and contribute to success in promotion and tenure at PWI research institutions (information can be utilized for the benefit of all faculty as well as administration); 4) evaluate whether African-American faculty perceive any differences in their experiences when compared to the experiences of Caucasian faculty; and 5) to identify ...


The Impact Of Male Gender Dissonance On Women’S Potential Eligibility For Advancement To The Position Of High School Principal, Kristen Lee Harris Nov 2018

The Impact Of Male Gender Dissonance On Women’S Potential Eligibility For Advancement To The Position Of High School Principal, Kristen Lee Harris

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative, replication study was to discover what behaviors female administrators exhibit that may prompt male administrators with whom they work in California public education to demonstrate behaviors associated with gender dissonance and also to determine what impact these dissonant behaviors may have on women’s potential eligibility for advancement to the position of high school principal.

Methodology: This qualitative phenomenological study examined the experience of six male and six female high school principals in Riverside County, California. Purposive criterion sampling method was applied to identify participants based on delimiting criteria. The researcher collected and coded ...


What About Us? For Girls Between Worlds: How Black Girls Navigate White High Schools, Cryslynn C. Billingsley Oct 2018

What About Us? For Girls Between Worlds: How Black Girls Navigate White High Schools, Cryslynn C. Billingsley

Dissertations

This qualitative study is about the experiences and challenges Black girls have while attending predominantly White high schools and what they are doing to navigate that particular space. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand more about how Black girls navigate White space as minority members of a system that was not originally intended for them. Through semi-structured interviews, Black girls were asked directly to share their lived experiences. This study hopes to illuminate and amplify the voices of Black girls and help others see them by giving them a platform to discuss and tell their stories ...


The Cs Teacher Evaluation Model: Exploring Teacher And School Leader Perceptions And A Model For Improving Teacher And Student Growth, Mustafa Icel Oct 2018

The Cs Teacher Evaluation Model: Exploring Teacher And School Leader Perceptions And A Model For Improving Teacher And Student Growth, Mustafa Icel

Dissertations

This study investigated the teacher evaluation model used by Concept-managed charter schools. The STEM-focused, college preparatory Concept Schools is a management company that manages 31 charter schools in seven different states in the U.S. The Concept Schools (CS) teacher evaluation model was based on the Danielson Framework and has been used in all CS-managed schools since 2011. This dissertation used data from three years of consecutive teacher evaluations scores to create a predicting model for K-12 school districts. The model analyzed an individual teacher’s performance growth and predicts future performance. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods ...


Finding Hope In Chaos: The Development Of A Tool To Identify Key Factors That College Students Use To Effectively Deal With Adversity, Joetta Harlow Kelly Oct 2018

Finding Hope In Chaos: The Development Of A Tool To Identify Key Factors That College Students Use To Effectively Deal With Adversity, Joetta Harlow Kelly

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to identify techniques that could be developed into a resource for counselors and other professionals who assist college students in dealing effectively with adversity. In a series of four surveys, 200 people were asked to participate. These included professional counselors and ministers both on and off campus, as well as directors in Student Affairs, such as those in student support services and student life. To accomplish this, questionnaires were developed to identify and allow for tabulation of the counseling techniques most commonly used for students dealing with adversity by those working with college students ...


Determining First-Year College Students' Capacity For Active Engagement In Their Own Learning, Melanie Jan Mcdaniel Duvall Oct 2018

Determining First-Year College Students' Capacity For Active Engagement In Their Own Learning, Melanie Jan Mcdaniel Duvall

Dissertations

First-year students are at a higher risk of dropping out of college; therefore, student retention and success are at risk. The purpose of this study is to find statistically significant differences among five demographic variables: (1) first college semester hours earned; (2) first college semester GPA; (3) ACT composite score; (4) high school GPA; and (5) first-generation college students and the 10 Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) subscales: Anxiety, Attitude, Concentration, Information Processing, Motivation, Selecting Main Ideas, Self-Testing, Test Strategies, Time Management, and Using Academic Resources, to better determine how to help students be more successful. The LASSI instrument ...


From The Desert To The City: The Innovative Leadership Of Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President And Prime Minister Of The United Arab Emirates (Uae) And Ruler Of The Emirate Of Dubai, Saeed Almansoori Oct 2018

From The Desert To The City: The Innovative Leadership Of Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President And Prime Minister Of The United Arab Emirates (Uae) And Ruler Of The Emirate Of Dubai, Saeed Almansoori

Dissertations

The main purpose of this research is to explore and analyze the leadership of Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Ruler of the Emirate of Dubai, and how his leadership has transformed the culture of a society. The research focuses on Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid’s leadership styles and how he transformed a desert in the Middle East into one of the world’s premier cities. The study analyzes the persuasion he used with the citizens to encourage and help them adapt to this rapid change. He dealt ...


Voluntary Professional Development In Thailand: Teachers’ Motivation, Professional Life Phase, And Contingencies Of Self-Worth, Pongwat Fongkanta Oct 2018

Voluntary Professional Development In Thailand: Teachers’ Motivation, Professional Life Phase, And Contingencies Of Self-Worth, Pongwat Fongkanta

Dissertations

To address the increasing focus on teacher proficiency, professional development opportunities for teachers are routinely provided in Thailand. The focus of this work is on professional development at the individual level and addresses teachers’ motivation for self-improvement and their own worth. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to first validate the relative importance of teachers’ motivation for participating in voluntary professional development and contingencies of self-worth. Secondly, the study sought to determine the relationship of the indicators that contribute to teacher participation with contingencies of self-worth. Lastly, this study examined in what way professional life phase may be related ...


Teacher Emotional Intelligence And Best Practices For Classroom Management, Juanita E. Kelley Sep 2018

Teacher Emotional Intelligence And Best Practices For Classroom Management, Juanita E. Kelley

Dissertations

Purpose. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand how middle school teachers describe their use of the four elements of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management) to reduce student behavioral referrals. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to discover the barriers and benefits to teacher use of the elements of emotional intelligence (EI).

Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative approach to understand how middle school teachers describe their use of the four elements of EI to reduce student behavioral referrals. In addition, a qualitative approach was utilized to discover the barriers and ...


Challenges And Opportunities Of Chinese Immigrant Students With Intellectual Disabilities In Transition Services, Xin Qing Sep 2018

Challenges And Opportunities Of Chinese Immigrant Students With Intellectual Disabilities In Transition Services, Xin Qing

Dissertations

The purpose of this ethnographic study is to understand the experiences of newly immigrated Chinese students with intellectual disabilities who are in transition programs. In depth interviews were conducted with four students and their families. Quality of life, sense of self, nature of relationships, beliefs about disability, and challenges and opportunities are examined. The study surfaces complex social, cultural, and economic factors that impact students’ experiences. Data indicates that participants’ sense of self are informed largely by negative experiences with others based on perceptions of disability combined with negative experiences of being a new immigrant. They expressed feeling lonely and ...


Narrowing The Opportunity Gap: Developing Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy For Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students, Niles Engerman Sep 2018

Narrowing The Opportunity Gap: Developing Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy For Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Students, Niles Engerman

Dissertations

As per Breeze and Laborda (2016), a culturally responsive curriculum addresses the integration of students into a new culture, as bilingual education traditionally receives minimal interest from the authorities. Akkari and Loomis (1998) explain that bilingual education is socially and historically situated, while van Lier (2004) posits that diverse linguistic groups will have an ominous future if the educational system ignores their linguistic needs. This demands a paradigmatic shift to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students (CLDs). Advocating for culturally responsive curriculum, this defense will examine the history of bilingual education in the United States, linguistic ecology ...


Priority Registration For Well Prepared High School Seniors: A Mixed Method Study At A California Community College, Joel Ruble Aug 2018

Priority Registration For Well Prepared High School Seniors: A Mixed Method Study At A California Community College, Joel Ruble

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory mixed methods study is to explain the association between priority registration and student success as measured by success in transfer level mathematics and English at Sierra College. In addition, it to explain student perceptions of priority registration and their success and whether students perceive a relationship between their success and priority registration.

Methodology: Success will be measured according to the rates at which Sierra College students that are low income and first generation are successful in transfer level math and English. Research questions one and two consider the quantitative data collected ...


A Case Study Of Strategic Governance In The Implementation Of Guided Pathways At Scale At California Community Colleges, Hayley Ashby Aug 2018

A Case Study Of Strategic Governance In The Implementation Of Guided Pathways At Scale At California Community Colleges, Hayley Ashby

Dissertations

Purpose: Community colleges across the United States are implementing systemic change models such as guided pathways to increase student success. The purpose of this multiple case study was to describe the role of strategic governance in the implementation of guided pathways at scale at California community colleges.

Methodology: This phenomenological qualitative study used a multiple-case embedded case study methodology to collect data aligned with the four imperatives of strategic governance theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with campus leaders involved in guided pathways implementation at three California community colleges. Archival records and documentation were used to triangulate the data.

Findings: Colleges ...


Self-Efficacy Of Early Childhood Teachers In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Ariella Rachel Donnelley Smith Aug 2018

Self-Efficacy Of Early Childhood Teachers In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Ariella Rachel Donnelley Smith

Dissertations

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-efficacy of early childhood teachers toward STEM subjects as measured on the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes toward STEM Survey (T-STEM) and to explore factors that influence this confidence.

Methodology. A quantitative approach with two open-ended items was selected for this study, seeking to elicit both quantitative and qualitative data from participants. This approach allowed for multiple viewpoints to be expressed, with the qualitative data collected simultaneously with the quantitative data, and the former designed to illuminate reasons influencing the latter in a complimentary approach. The population for the study included ...