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Doctoral Dissertations

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Perspectives Of Augmentative-Alternative Communication Users Regarding Their Experiences And Perceived Barriers To Engagement In Higher Education, Heather Anderson Feb 2019

Perspectives Of Augmentative-Alternative Communication Users Regarding Their Experiences And Perceived Barriers To Engagement In Higher Education, Heather Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

This research investigated the higher education experience of students who communicate via augmentative-alternative communication (AAC) due to having severe speech impairments. Research questions addressed how the students interact with others in the higher education setting, and the presence and nature of any barriers to full participation in academic and nonacademic activities. Using a qualitative case study design, data obtained from personal interviews and questionnaires were analyzed and interpreted based on the theoretical perspectives of critical disability theory and Astin’s model of student involvement. Key themes included issues with communication; challenges associated with disability; and policy and practice, specifically the ...


Support Provided By Administrators For Mathematics Teachers: A Case Study Of One North Louisiana High School, Jessica M. Hunter Feb 2019

Support Provided By Administrators For Mathematics Teachers: A Case Study Of One North Louisiana High School, Jessica M. Hunter

Doctoral Dissertations

National and International assessment results as well as general student unpreparedness for college and beyond in terms of mathematical abilities indicate a need for increased student achievement in mathematics (Hart, 2005; National Center for Education Statistics, 2017; Peterson, Woessmann, Hanushek, & Lastra-Anadon, 2011). The purpose of the study was to explore effective leadership traits of secondary school administrators that foster and support teachers of mathematics. Research specifically made connections to instructional and transformational leadership practices, actions, and traits. This exploration was investigated through a case study using interviews completed by high school educators, administrators, and district leaders.

A sample of five ...


Young Adult Early Childhood Home Visitors’ Perceptions Of Fan (Facilitating Attuned Interactions) And Its Potential Protection To Burnout, Lee Mackinnon Jan 2019

Young Adult Early Childhood Home Visitors’ Perceptions Of Fan (Facilitating Attuned Interactions) And Its Potential Protection To Burnout, Lee Mackinnon

Doctoral Dissertations

ABSTRACT

YOUNG ADULT EARLY CHILDHOOD HOME VISITORS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FAN (FACILITATING ATTUNED INTERACTIONS) AND ITS POTENTIAL PROTECTION TO BURNOUT

FEBRUARY 2019

LEE MACKINNON, B.A., WILLIAMS COLLEGE

Ed.M., HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Professor Claire E. Hamilton

This qualitative study investigated the experience of young adult early childhood home visitors in the training and implementation of a family engagement tool, Facilitating Attuned Interactions (FAN) (Gilkerson, 2015). Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, the case study explored how 5 home visitors, who were under 30 years of age, viewed their training and use of FAN in three ...


Examining Stakeholder Engagement Among State Special Education Agencies In The Results Driven Accountability Process, Anne Louise Thompson Granfield Jan 2019

Examining Stakeholder Engagement Among State Special Education Agencies In The Results Driven Accountability Process, Anne Louise Thompson Granfield

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative study is designed to investigate how state special education agencies (SEAs) implement the policy tool of engaging stakeholders to respond to the federal expectations of improving results for students with disabilities through their State Systemic Improvement Plans (SSIPs). The traditional top-down, authoritarian roles of SEAs have not adequately met the stakeholder policy expectations at the local level. With federal policy pressuring SEAs to deliver on local education outcomes, stakeholder engagement has become an operation reporting expectation in SSIPs. Both federal policy and the engagement and collaboration literature informed this study. This deductive qualitative research study employed thematic analysis ...


"No One Is Gonna Tell Us We Can't Do This": The Development Of Agency In Student-Initiated Community Engagement, Shuli A. Archer Jan 2019

"No One Is Gonna Tell Us We Can't Do This": The Development Of Agency In Student-Initiated Community Engagement, Shuli A. Archer

Doctoral Dissertations

By its simplest definition, service-learning and community engagement (SLCE) connect work in the community and reflection on that work with credit-bearing academic courses. SLCE has been critiqued for, among other things, an incomplete consideration of power dynamics, and scholars and practitioners have recently expressed a desire to reinforce service-learning as primarily promoting agency, or the capacity to make change in society. Student-initiated community engagement programs offer a unique perspective and context to study agency. These programs, much like student-initiated retention projects, provide spaces where students take the lead in curriculum development, community partner relationship development, and program administration.

Using Emirbayer ...


Use Of A Checklist To Facilitate The Recognition Of A Transfusion Associated Adverse Event, Susan Scott Jan 2019

Use Of A Checklist To Facilitate The Recognition Of A Transfusion Associated Adverse Event, Susan Scott

Doctoral Dissertations

Transfusions are the most common procedure that hospitalized patients undergo. One of the risks associated with a transfusion is a transfusion related adverse event (TAAE). Transfusion associated adverse events can occur in any patient receiving a transfusion. Some patients are at risk of certain TAAEs (e.g., heart failure patients at risk of transfusion associated circulatory overload) while other events (e.g., allergic reactions) cannot always be anticipated. The severity of a TAAE can range from mildly uncomfortable to life threatening. Nurses need to be able to identify the signs and symptoms of a possible TAAE and intervene immediately by ...


Negotiating Critical Biliteracies: Language And Literacy Learning In A Bilingual Elementary Classroom, Jing-Ji Marsha Liaw Jan 2019

Negotiating Critical Biliteracies: Language And Literacy Learning In A Bilingual Elementary Classroom, Jing-Ji Marsha Liaw

Doctoral Dissertations

For over two decades, US bilingual education has been underdeveloped and underexplored due to the No Child Left Behind policy. Thus, additive bilingual-education programs, which develop students’ primary language while simultaneously adding a second language (L2), are becoming more popular in K-12 schools. Traditionally, L2 theories and education tend to focus on narrow aspects of language learning, e.g., vocabulary, grammar, and skills in listening and communication. Students have rare opportunities to contextualize language or participate more deeply in an L2.

This work considers a contextualized approach to bilingual education, an integrative model of critical biliteracies (Cope & Kalantzis, 2015; Luke & Freebody, 1997;), which considers ...


The Perceptions Of Saudi Arabia Higher Educational Leaders On Servant Leadership: The Use Of Authority And Power, Areej Abdullah Shafai Dec 2018

The Perceptions Of Saudi Arabia Higher Educational Leaders On Servant Leadership: The Use Of Authority And Power, Areej Abdullah Shafai

Doctoral Dissertations

With the rapid changes occurring in Saudi Arabia toward achieving Saudi’s 2030 vision, more opportunities and developments will emerge in education and leadership, as one of the main orientations of the vision. The Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia seeks to raise the quality of higher education and its features to provide outputs that contribute to serving the community and economic development. Responding to the requirements of the labor market, the Ministry of Higher Education is seeking to make higher education in Saudi Arabia competitive with higher education systems in other developed countries. Thus, improving leadership in higher ...


Developing Intercultural Competence Through Online English Language Teaching, Didem Ekici Dec 2018

Developing Intercultural Competence Through Online English Language Teaching, Didem Ekici

Doctoral Dissertations

With an increasing number of refugees and immigrants in European and American classrooms, teachers need to be prepared to meet their varied and complex needs. In particular, to help these diverse students succeed, teachers need to be interculturally competent, which is a combination of many skills including attitude, linguistic and cultural awareness, empathy, and flexibility. However, developing these skills not only takes theoretical knowledge but also hands-on training and practice. While many programs in school of education provide experiential practicum projects and online collaborations with diverse students, they have not expanded to the population in war zones. Moreover, a review ...


The Impact Of Ancestral Language Maintenance On Cultural Identity Among White Immigrant Descendants: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study, Micaella Elizabeth Colla Dec 2018

The Impact Of Ancestral Language Maintenance On Cultural Identity Among White Immigrant Descendants: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study, Micaella Elizabeth Colla

Doctoral Dissertations

There is insufficient research on the cultural identity formation of White immigrant descendants who have experienced ancestral language loss. This phenomenological qualitative study conducted in San Francisco, California explored the experiences and perceptions of seven White immigrant descendants in response to these questions: (1) What is the role of L1 (mother tongue) maintenance on identity maintenance among White immigrant descendants? (2) How do immigrant descendants view their cultural identities in the absence of their ancestral languages? And (3) How might educators encourage second language and culture acquisition, while protecting students’ first languages and cultures? Research data included narratives from in-depth ...


The 'Land Of Opportunity' Or The Land That Makes Us The Opportunity: An Examination Of Latinx For-Profit Choice Within The Central San Joaquin Valley, Joe A. Vasquez Dec 2018

The 'Land Of Opportunity' Or The Land That Makes Us The Opportunity: An Examination Of Latinx For-Profit Choice Within The Central San Joaquin Valley, Joe A. Vasquez

Doctoral Dissertations

The San Joaquin Valley in Central California is known as an abundant agricultural epicenter with an extensive history of farming, migration, and political movements. Though this geography holds a rich representation of agricultural economy, it is also the site of major inequalities and underrepresentation, especially with regard to post-secondary education within its overrepresented Latinx population. Further amplifying the inequalities around post-secondary education and Latinx’s is the increasing occurrence of post-secondary enrollment into for-profit institutions by this population. Inequities associated with for-profit enrollment, such as high student loan debt and lack of career attainment, further stratify this geography classified as ...


Mission Enactment And Strategic Enrollment Management At Jesuit Universities, Drew Roberts Dec 2018

Mission Enactment And Strategic Enrollment Management At Jesuit Universities, Drew Roberts

Doctoral Dissertations

The larger neoliberal environment that is driving all of higher education has left Jesuit universities and their leadership to face two problems. First, the ability for Jesuit universities to uphold their social justice inspired mission and offer an affordable and accessible liberal education is being threatened because they are pricing out those they seek to serve. Second, there is a growing disconnect between the espoused mission of Jesuit universities and the decisions that their leaders and administrators make to run the enterprise.

This explanatory case study seeks to understand the ways senior-level strategic enrollment officers at Jesuit universities experience and ...


Building Bridges Across Difference Through International Summer Immersion Programs: A Narrative Inquiry In Racial Identity And Social Justice Orientation, Breanne Wing Tcheng Dec 2018

Building Bridges Across Difference Through International Summer Immersion Programs: A Narrative Inquiry In Racial Identity And Social Justice Orientation, Breanne Wing Tcheng

Doctoral Dissertations

International experiential learning programs provide opportunities for young people to develop the necessary skills to succeed in and adapt to the complexity, diversity, and ever-changing landscape of the globalized workforce. There are however, several barriers that prevent students of color from accessing opportunities to be fully engaged in a global discourse – placing them at a severe disadvantage when compared to their White counterparts. While current efforts focus on increasing access for students of color, there is often little done to understand how these students experience and are impacted by these programs. The purpose of this qualitative study sought to understand ...


Understanding Why Students Take Industry-Based Credentialing Examinations: Instrument Development And Pilot Study, Jennifer H. Lawrence Nov 2018

Understanding Why Students Take Industry-Based Credentialing Examinations: Instrument Development And Pilot Study, Jennifer H. Lawrence

Doctoral Dissertations

Educational credentialing is complicated for students with the addition of industry-based credentialing (IBC) in traditional academic and career and technical fields (Bahr, 2015; Lumina Foundation, 2015; Xu & Ran, 2015). Human Capital Theory and Cognitive Engagement Theory framed this study which looked at IBC training from the student point of view (Grisham, 2013; Saldana, 2016; Walters, 2004). The body of literature on credential training is sparse and largely focused on institutional policy rather than student perception and participation (Bahr, 2015; Xu & Ran, 2015). There is evidence that salaries are positively correlated with IBCs and studies show that employers pay more for additional credentials (Bahr, 2015; Jacobson & LaLonde, 2013; Matheny, Chan, & Wang, 2015; Xu & Ran, 2015). Increasing IBC exam participation is an important issue for colleges because IBC completion is now being considered as part of the completion rate for institutions (Kansas BoR, 2014; Louisiana BoR, 2017; NCSL, 2015; Washington State Board of Community & Technical Colleges; 2017). An increase in credential completions leads to institutional funding through performance funding models (Kansas BoR, 2014; Louisiana BoR, 2017; NCSL, 2015; Washington State Board of Community & Technical Colleges; 2017).

A survey instrument ...


Differences In Leadership Behaviors Of Principals And Success In The School Turnaround Processes, Annette Lee Nov 2018

Differences In Leadership Behaviors Of Principals And Success In The School Turnaround Processes, Annette Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine leadership behaviors of principals associated with public elementary schools that were either in the school turnaround process or had already transitioned out of school academic turnaround from 2011 through 2016. Transformational leadership guided the study to determine whether leadership behaviors differed among leaders of schools associated with academic failure. School accountability data were initially gathered through the Louisiana Department of Education website. Academically unsuccessful schools (AUS) were identified. Schools that were deemed failing at least one time during the 2012-2016 timeframe were grouped as follows: (a) Group A consisted of two schools ...


The Impact Of Technology Access, Attitudes, And Use On Student Typing And Writing Performance, Carly Ann Chwat Aug 2018

The Impact Of Technology Access, Attitudes, And Use On Student Typing And Writing Performance, Carly Ann Chwat

Doctoral Dissertations

To gain more information about student writing and typing skills, typed and handwritten responses to narrative story prompts were compared. Across two passages, total words written and story readability were examined. In addition, the potential impact of previous experience with, and attitudes toward, technology that may affect student performance on computer-based assessments, were evaluated. This examination was completed by pilot testing a survey created for this study. Information about student use of, and attitudes toward, technology was gathered through this survey, which examined usage of technology and student endorsement of certain statements about their skills with technology.

Analysis of total ...


The Effect Of Familiarity On Learning With Video Clips Containing Seductive Details, Jonah Lee Ruddy Aug 2018

The Effect Of Familiarity On Learning With Video Clips Containing Seductive Details, Jonah Lee Ruddy

Doctoral Dissertations

Seductive information included in educational lessons can arouse students’ emotional and situational interest. However, research on seductive details across instructional modalities shows both helpful and harmful effects on learning. The seductive details effect describes the negative influence of interesting, but irrelevant, information on achieving learning goals. Results from studies of videos with relevant and seductive details in multimedia lessons are inconclusive. Prior knowledge of target information has been shown to moderate the seductive details effect. In this study, the moderating effect of prior exposure to, or familiarity with, seductive, rather than target, information was explored using a multifactorial design. The ...


Vocabulary-Learning Strategies Of Students Learning Chinese As A Foreign Language In An Intensive-Training Setting, Yan Wang May 2018

Vocabulary-Learning Strategies Of Students Learning Chinese As A Foreign Language In An Intensive-Training Setting, Yan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Compared with the research on vocabulary-learning strategies in the field of teaching English as a second or a foreign language, the research on the strategy use of Chinese-as-a-foreign-language (CFL) students, especially CFL students in an intensive-training setting, is scarce. The relationship between CFL students’ vocabulary-learning-strategy use and their learning outcomes remains underresearched. Therefore, this mixed-methods study was conducted to investigate the strategy use of CFL students in learning Chinese vocabulary words in an intensive language program and its relationship to students’ learning outcomes.

A total of 137 beginning to advanced students enrolled in the program participated in the study. The ...


Unlocking Creative Potential: Catholic Elementary School Principal Perceptions Of Creativity, Kellie Scherer May 2018

Unlocking Creative Potential: Catholic Elementary School Principal Perceptions Of Creativity, Kellie Scherer

Doctoral Dissertations

Church documents and scholars affirm that traditional pedagogies are ineffective in preparing students for the demands of the 21st century (CCE, 2014, p. 13, Darling-Hammond, 2010; Hartley, 2003; Kampylis, 2010; Skiba, Tan, Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2010). A review of the literature revealed that a gap in research on the Catholic elementary school principal’s understanding of and commitment to creativity exists. Even teachers who value creativity cannot fully support its development in the classroom without proper training. Continuing education coordinated by principals is one of the few opportunities for teachers to identify and confront their creativity misconceptions. The purpose of this ...


An Investigation Of The Developmental Growth Of Preschool Children With Disabilities Being Served In Inclusive Settings In Comparison With Noninclusive Settings In California, Elizabeth Nicole Schroeder May 2018

An Investigation Of The Developmental Growth Of Preschool Children With Disabilities Being Served In Inclusive Settings In Comparison With Noninclusive Settings In California, Elizabeth Nicole Schroeder

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to perform a secondary data analysis to investigate the relationship between preschool setting and the developmental growth of all children receiving state-funded preschool special-education services in California in inclusive settings compared with all children receiving state-funded preschool special-education services in California in noninclusive settings.

To accomplish this purpose, a secondary data analysis of a longitudinal data set was conducted using the Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP, 2015) to measure progress across eight domains of child development over a 2-year time span and four assessment time points. This study used individual growth modeling to analyze ...


Teaching Academic Concepts In A Play-Based Preschool Environment: A Case Study Of Guided Play Across Three Classrooms, Lisa M. Hansen May 2018

Teaching Academic Concepts In A Play-Based Preschool Environment: A Case Study Of Guided Play Across Three Classrooms, Lisa M. Hansen

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative study examined interactions between preschool children and teachers during guided-play activities. These interactions were studied through observations and interviews in a case-study format. Classrooms were observed for 1 hour per week over the course of 4 weeks. Teachers were interviewed following each observation. All three preschool classrooms were located in northern California and belonged to the same chain of schools. A total of six teachers and 75 students participated in the study.

Three main research questions drove the course of the study. The first research question examined the types of interactions between experienced preschool teachers and students during ...


Improving Medication Calculation Competence In Nursing Students Through Schema-Based Dimensional Analysis Instruction, Laureen Turner May 2018

Improving Medication Calculation Competence In Nursing Students Through Schema-Based Dimensional Analysis Instruction, Laureen Turner

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was aimed at improving the medication calculation competence of nursing students through a schema-based workshop in which dimensional analysis was used as the calculation method. The overreaching goal of this work was to improve the teaching of medication calculation in nursing education and prevent future medication errors.

This two-group descriptive posttest study included a historical comparison between fall 2016 and spring 2017 students. Spring students had the option to attend a newly designed workshop while fall students did not. Primary comparisons were of (a) percentage of students achieving 100% on the first attempt, (b) number of errors, and ...


Mentoring And Academic Advising Experiences Of Female Ph.D. Students With Children: A Qualitative Study, Alyssa Ferree May 2018

Mentoring And Academic Advising Experiences Of Female Ph.D. Students With Children: A Qualitative Study, Alyssa Ferree

Doctoral Dissertations

Ph.D. student mothers often face challenges when balancing their academic obligations and family responsibilities. For students with children, there is a correlation between increased family obligations and decreased productivity (Brus, 2006; Maher, Ford, & Thompson, 2004; Lynch, 2008), but academic, social, and financial support can positively impact satisfaction and progress in the Ph.D. program. Faculty advisors play a crucial role in the Ph.D. experience and can positively or negatively impact a student’s experience and productivity. The purpose of this study was to explore the academic advising and mentoring experiences of female Ph.D. students with children. This qualitative study ...


Perceptions Of African American College Students In San Francisco Bay Area Community Colleges On Their Developmental Training To Participate In Civic Engagement During High School, Melvin Davis May 2018

Perceptions Of African American College Students In San Francisco Bay Area Community Colleges On Their Developmental Training To Participate In Civic Engagement During High School, Melvin Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

The democratic practice of representative government in the United States is supposed to represent and protect its citizens. Since the United States abolished legalized slavery with the 13th Amendment in 1865, individual states have made many attempts to impede the civil rights and voting rights of African American citizens. Several pieces of legislation were designed to protect citizens, such as the Civil Rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition to overt legislated actions to thwart voting rights, the 26th Amendment of 1971 afforded citizens at least 18-years old the right to vote. Studies, however ...


A Pathway To Scholarship: A Qualitative Study Of The Single African American Mother's Role In The Academic Development Of Their Sons For Kindergarten, Onda Johnson May 2018

A Pathway To Scholarship: A Qualitative Study Of The Single African American Mother's Role In The Academic Development Of Their Sons For Kindergarten, Onda Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

The voices of single African American mothers are critical to research on kindergarten readiness. This study examined maternal influence on the kindergarten readiness of African American male children of single African American mothers. Research on the topic of maternal academic support for sons indicated a deficit view of mother’s expectations for her son’s performance and cognitive ability in the year prior to entering kindergarten. Studies on the educational outcomes of African American male students suggested this subgroup significantly underperformed on standardized tests in mathematics and reading compared to their peers. The education community references the achievement gap as ...


Peace Education In Kenya: Tracing Discourse And Action From The National To The Local Level, Kathleen Louise Zanoni Apr 2018

Peace Education In Kenya: Tracing Discourse And Action From The National To The Local Level, Kathleen Louise Zanoni

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent Presidential elections in Kenya (2017) resulted in a contested re-run election and demonstrated the presence of systemic corruption, a culture of impunity, and a continued rift among civil society. Deep wounds were awakened during this recent election triggering past grievances from the post-election violence in 2007-08. It is critical and timely to explore various cross-sectoral peacebuilding approaches at the national and local levels to increase the capacity of individuals to act as agents of peace. However, peacebuilders often overlook the possibilities that exist within formal education to foster spaces of resistance against direct, structural, and cultural forms of violence ...


The Influence Of Multimedia Podcast-Aided Video-Analysis To Transfer Evidence-Based Practices And Alter Novice Special Education Teachers’ Schema Development, Jason Davis Apr 2018

The Influence Of Multimedia Podcast-Aided Video-Analysis To Transfer Evidence-Based Practices And Alter Novice Special Education Teachers’ Schema Development, Jason Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

The Federal mandates established under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) requires special education teachers to use evidence-based practices to support diverse student needs. With this legislation came an increase in research to identify practices that are effective with this population. While this work has identified a number of evidence-based practices, there is little evidence showing these practices are transferred to the classroom. Researchers and educators have long sought to understand how to reduce the gap between research findings and teacher practice. For special education, the federal mandate further emphasizes this need and puts closing the gap between research ...


Perceptions Of Primary School Principals In Singapore About Their Role As Justice Agents, Kit Wah Antonia Teng Apr 2018

Perceptions Of Primary School Principals In Singapore About Their Role As Justice Agents, Kit Wah Antonia Teng

Doctoral Dissertations

Justice in school is central to both the Catholic church and the government of Singapore. Both institutions have expectations of principals as justice agents to serve the needs of every student by means of equality and equity in educational provision to all students. There is limited research on how principals of Catholic and government primary schools in Singapore perceive their role as justice agents and how they fulfill this expectation.

This qualitative research examined the experiences of primary school principals in Singapore in their enactment of educational leadership for justice. Of the 10 principals interviewed, 4 were principals of Catholic ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Students' Perceptions Of The Jesuit Charism And Students' Moral Judgement, Scott Swenson Apr 2018

Exploring The Relationship Between Students' Perceptions Of The Jesuit Charism And Students' Moral Judgement, Scott Swenson

Doctoral Dissertations

Jesuit education has long focused on developing leaders of conscience, competence, and compassion. There is a gap in the literature examining if aspects of the Jesuit charism influence moral development. The Ignatian Identity Survey (IGNIS), and the Defining Issues Test – 2 (DIT-2), were administered to seniors at an all-male Jesuit high school. The IGNIS was used to explore students’ perceptions of five aspects of the Jesuit charism: 1) Openness to growth and educational excellence (OGEE), 2) Religious education and formation (REF), 3) Collaboration (COL), 4) Faith and justice (F&J), and 5) Active Reflection (AR). The DIT-2 was used to ...


A Geospatial Analysis Of A Transit Program On California Community College Students, Alicia Kathryn De Toro Apr 2018

A Geospatial Analysis Of A Transit Program On California Community College Students, Alicia Kathryn De Toro

Doctoral Dissertations

Subsidized transit policy is a strategy used to lessen environmental impacts and increase institutional accessibility in higher education. Program funding to support this subsidized transit policy can vary between institutions. This research focuses on the geographic analysis of Eco Pass, a student led initiative implemented in the Foothill De Anza Community College District in California to offset transportation costs for students. Through the use of Environmental Science Research Institute software, the research aimed to determine which geographic areas, if any, were of high and low probability of Eco Pass use from data during 2011-2017 using Tobler’s first law of ...