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Full-Text Articles in Education

Comparison Of Cognitive, Psychosocial, And Adaptive Behavior Profiles Among Gifted Children With And Without Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alissa F. Doobay Dec 2010

Comparison Of Cognitive, Psychosocial, And Adaptive Behavior Profiles Among Gifted Children With And Without Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alissa F. Doobay

Theses and Dissertations

The diagnostic category of autism has been extensively investigated over the past 65 years since the condition was first described by Dr. Leo Kanner (1943), making it one of the most validated psychological disorders. Research has examined the characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across a variety of domains, including diagnostic symptomology, intellectual profiles, adaptive behavior, and psychosocial functioning. However, there exists a paucity of empirical research on intellectually gifted children with ASD. The goal of the current study was to compare the psychometric profiles of gifted youth with and without ASD across the domains of intellectual functioning ...


Impact Of Matched Samples Equating Methods On Equating Accuracy And The Adequacy Of Equating Assumptions, Sonya Jean Powers Dec 2010

Impact Of Matched Samples Equating Methods On Equating Accuracy And The Adequacy Of Equating Assumptions, Sonya Jean Powers

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the interaction of population invariance, equating assumptions, and equating accuracy with group differences. In addition, matched samples equating methods are considered as a possible way to improve equating accuracy with large group differences.

Data from one administration of four mixed-format Advanced Placement (AP) Exams were used to create pseudo old and new forms sharing common items. Population invariance analyses were conducted based on levels of examinee parental education using a single group equating design. Old and new form groups with common item effect sizes (ESs) ranging from 0 to 0.75 were created by sampling examinees based ...


Child Self-Report And Parent Ratings Of Health-Related Quality Of Life In School-Aged Children Born Preterm, Thomasin E. Mccoy Dec 2010

Child Self-Report And Parent Ratings Of Health-Related Quality Of Life In School-Aged Children Born Preterm, Thomasin E. Mccoy

Theses and Dissertations

Recent progress in science and medicine is that regions such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe have witnessed dramatic declines in infant morbidity and mortality. The most significant of these declines has occurred among infants born prematurely and low birth weight (LBW)--the cohort that represents the highest proportion of illness and death among infants Despite these medical advances, recent longitudinal studies have provided clear evidence of physical health problems; cognitive and neuropsychological dysfunction; and other social, emotional, and behavioral problems among children born prematurely. A number of studies have indicated that premature and LBW infants are ...


Mental Health Practices Of School Psychologists, Dana Leann Miller Dec 2010

Mental Health Practices Of School Psychologists, Dana Leann Miller

Theses and Dissertations

The current literature suggests an increasing need for mental health services for school-age children (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999; Friedman, Katz-Levey, Manderschied, and Sondhiemer 1996; Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler, and Angold, 2003; Kataoka, Zhang, and Wells 2002 and Kessler, Berglund, Demier, Jin, Merkangas, and Walters, 2005). Research indicates that the schools may be the ideal place for children to receive such services. Studies have found that school psychologists do spend some of their time providing counseling, however the time spent on these services is significantly limited (Curtis et al, 1999; Bramlett et al 2002; Yates 2003 ...


The Impact Of Recognition On Talent Award Winners: A Follow-Up Study Of Davidson Fellows Scholarship Winners, Samuel Joseph Shepard Dec 2010

The Impact Of Recognition On Talent Award Winners: A Follow-Up Study Of Davidson Fellows Scholarship Winners, Samuel Joseph Shepard

Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the impact of recognition on a group of talent award winners, including attributions for success and the consequences of these attributions for continued engagement in the talent field. Participants were winners of the Davidson Fellows Scholarship, which recognizes students under the age of 18 who have completed a significant piece of original work in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, music, literature, or philosophy. The study used survey data collected from Davidson Fellows who received an award between 2001-2007. Descriptive statistics revealed that the majority of participants (70.5%) were still clearly engaged in the field ...


Examining The Neurocognitive Profile Of Dysnomia: A Comparison Of School-Aged Children With And Without Dyslexia Across The Domains Of Expressive Language, Attention/Memory, And Academic Achievement, Robyn Ann Howarth Dec 2010

Examining The Neurocognitive Profile Of Dysnomia: A Comparison Of School-Aged Children With And Without Dyslexia Across The Domains Of Expressive Language, Attention/Memory, And Academic Achievement, Robyn Ann Howarth

Theses and Dissertations

Word-retrieval and rapid naming abilities play an important role in language processing and cognitive development. Researchers have demonstrated that early language difficulties may lead to later reading impairments and several decades of research has convincingly demonstrated that rapid automatized naming is a powerful predictor of concurrent and future reading development. As a result, researchers have argued that naming and reading tasks involve some shared cognitive processes.

Language and reading deficits have implications for academic success and self-esteem, particularly during childhood. Hence, the identification of children at-risk for developing reading impairments is an important task for educators and clinicians. Debates still ...


Performance Of Patients With Ventromedial Prefrontal, Dorsolateral Prefrontal, And Non-Frontal Lesions On The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Ekaterina Keifer Dec 2010

Performance Of Patients With Ventromedial Prefrontal, Dorsolateral Prefrontal, And Non-Frontal Lesions On The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Ekaterina Keifer

Theses and Dissertations

Executive functioning is a multidimensional concept encompassing higher-order adaptive abilities, such as judgment, decision-making, self-monitoring, planning, and emotional regulation. Disruption in executive functioning often results in devastating impairments in vitally-important areas of life, such as one's ability to hold employment and maintain social relationships.

Executive functions have been associated primarily with the prefrontal cortex. However, the nature and degree of the association between frontal lobe damage and performance on executive functioning tests remains controversial. Research suggests that the association may vary based on the specific location of damage within the prefrontal cortex, as well as the used measure of ...


Estimating Standard Errors Of Estimated Variance Components In Generalizability Theory Using Bootstrap Procedures, Joann Lynn Moore Dec 2010

Estimating Standard Errors Of Estimated Variance Components In Generalizability Theory Using Bootstrap Procedures, Joann Lynn Moore

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the extent to which rules proposed by Tong and Brennan (2007) for estimating standard errors of estimated variance components held up across a variety of G theory designs, variance component structures, sample size patterns, and data types. Simulated data was generated for all combinations of conditions, and point estimates, standard error estimates, and coverage for three types of confidence intervals were calculated for each estimated variance component and relative and absolute error variance across a variety of bootstrap procedures for each combination of conditions. It was found that, with some exceptions, Tong and Brennan's (2007) rules ...


An Evaluation Of Variables Affecting Response Allocation Among Concurrently Available Mand Topographies, Kelly Marie Vinquist Dec 2010

An Evaluation Of Variables Affecting Response Allocation Among Concurrently Available Mand Topographies, Kelly Marie Vinquist

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of the current study was to determine which variables influence or change response allocation among mand topographies. The variables evaluated consisted of response effort, schedule of reinforcement (extinction), changes in concurrent schedules arrangements, and availability of visual stimuli (i.e., a communication card). The stability of responding was evaluated across more than one reinforcement context (escape, attention, and tangible) for each of the 2 participants. Finally, a concurrent schedules arrangement was used to evaluate response allocation among card touches, manual sign, microswitch touches, and vocalizations. Results of the evaluation suggested that response allocation varied across reinforcement contexts ...


Indiana Teachers' Perspectives On Testing Accommodations For Limited English Proficient Students Taking The Graduation Qualifying Exam, Angela Dawn Hetler Dec 2010

Indiana Teachers' Perspectives On Testing Accommodations For Limited English Proficient Students Taking The Graduation Qualifying Exam, Angela Dawn Hetler

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their non-LEP peers. If the IDOE intends a "level playing field" to be a situation of equity in testing, several years of recent test scores show that accommodations have failed to assist LEP students to achieve on par with their peers in both English/Language Arts and Mathematics.

The 14 teachers from Grant High ...


A Case Study Exploration Of Placement In A Therapeutic Day School As An Educational Intervention Package For Children And Adolescents With Bipolar Disorders, Wesley Arnold Clevenger Dec 2010

A Case Study Exploration Of Placement In A Therapeutic Day School As An Educational Intervention Package For Children And Adolescents With Bipolar Disorders, Wesley Arnold Clevenger

Theses and Dissertations

The number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorders has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s, while the treatment literature has failed to keep pace. Few studies have explored any aspect of the educational functioning of this population, and no empirically supported educational interventions have been identified. As a result, school psychologists have little guidance regarding how to effectively serve these students.

In this study, case study methodology was utilized to explore the effectiveness of placement in a therapeutic day school as an educational intervention package for eleven (n=11) children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorders. Both quantitative and ...


Empowerment Of Non-Academic Personnel In Higher Education: Exploring Associations With Perceived Organizational Support For Innovation And Organizational Trust, Wing Keung Jason Lau Dec 2010

Empowerment Of Non-Academic Personnel In Higher Education: Exploring Associations With Perceived Organizational Support For Innovation And Organizational Trust, Wing Keung Jason Lau

Theses and Dissertations

Employee empowerment has long been associated with organizational outcomes such as innovation, greater effectiveness, and better performance. Non-academic professional employees in higher education are responsible for the important day-to-day operations of a university; therefore, organizational strategies such as employee empowerment that encourage initiatives and innovative behaviors among them may become crucial to the long-term survival of today's colleges and universities. Surprisingly, non-academic professional employees in higher education have received little attention in the scholarly literature.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of empowerment and perceived organizational support for innovations and organizational trust ...


The Effects Of Task Fluency And Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules On Student Choice Allocation Between Math Tasks, Maliha Zaman Dec 2010

The Effects Of Task Fluency And Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules On Student Choice Allocation Between Math Tasks, Maliha Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

Students may avoid working on difficult tasks because it takes them longer to complete those tasks, which results in a delay to reinforcement. Research studies show that reinforcer and response dimensions can be manipulated within a concurrent operants framework to bias choice allocation toward more difficult tasks. The current study extends previous literature on concurrent choice assessments by examining the effects of reinforcement schedules and fluency interventions on the choice allocation between low and high effort math tasks. The study was conducted with 4 second graders in an elementary school. The choice assessment conducted prior to fluency training (Phase 1 ...


Factors Associated With Va Versus Non-Va Substance Use Treatment Among Women Veterans, Margarita Ana Graeber Dec 2010

Factors Associated With Va Versus Non-Va Substance Use Treatment Among Women Veterans, Margarita Ana Graeber

Theses and Dissertations

There are more women enlisting in the military and, as a result, the Veterans Administration (VA) is experiencing an increase in women veteran's utilization of healthcare services. This study examined the factors that facilitate and/or impede women veterans with a substance use disorder seeking VA substance use treatment. The current study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to utilization of VA substance use treatment. An intact dataset of 1004 participants were utilized in addition to a subset of 143 women veterans with a substance use disorder who sought substance use treatment. Predisposing factors significantly differentiated women veterans ...


"It's Raining Money": Identity, Class, And The Unfolding Curriculum At Three Schools Through The Lens Of Socioeconomic Status, Amy Lynn Pfeiler-Wunder Jul 2010

"It's Raining Money": Identity, Class, And The Unfolding Curriculum At Three Schools Through The Lens Of Socioeconomic Status, Amy Lynn Pfeiler-Wunder

Theses and Dissertations

Using a multilayered qualitative approach I draw from hermeneutical phenomenology informed by autoethnography through a case study to illuminate the culture and community of three elementary art rooms through the lens of socioeconomic status. Through my own story of having limited art education as a child from a rural working class background I simultaneously tell the story of students from three economically diverse schools in the same district. Focusing on their experiences within the space of the art room, I explore the ways children negotiate identity, notions of class, and interpret the shared district art curriculum.

A rich description of ...


Critical Incidents That Lead To Homelessness: Recommendations For Counselors, Ren Francis Stinson Jul 2010

Critical Incidents That Lead To Homelessness: Recommendations For Counselors, Ren Francis Stinson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes a qualitative investigation of two research questions: "What do homeless individuals perceive to be the critical incidents that led to their homelessness?" and "What do people who are homeless recommend for how counselors can help the homeless and individuals at risk of becoming homeless?" Twenty-five participants were recruited from an Iowa City homeless shelter and were interviewed using an interview protocol. Participants were asked to provide detailed accounts of critical incidents that led to their homelessness and recommendations for counselors who would be working with people who are homeless or at a risk of becoming homeless. The ...


The Impact Of Equating Method And Format Representation Of Common Items On The Adequacy Of Mixed-Format Test Equating Using Nonequivalent Groups, Sarah Lynn Hagge Jul 2010

The Impact Of Equating Method And Format Representation Of Common Items On The Adequacy Of Mixed-Format Test Equating Using Nonequivalent Groups, Sarah Lynn Hagge

Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-format tests containing both multiple-choice and constructed-response items are widely used on educational tests. Such tests combine the broad content coverage and efficient scoring of multiple-choice items with the assessment of higher-order thinking skills thought to be provided by constructed-response items. However, the combination of both item formats on a single test complicates the use of psychometric procedures. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine how characteristics of mixed-format tests and composition of the common-item set impact the accuracy of equating results in the common-item nonequivalent groups design.

Operational examinee item responses for two classes of data were considered ...


Sleep Disorders And Cognition In Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease, Clare Thomson Humphreys Jul 2010

Sleep Disorders And Cognition In Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease, Clare Thomson Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

The elderly population in the United States is growing rapidly, presenting increasing challenges in health care provision. One of the most salient and complex issues facing the elderly is cognitive impairment. This condition often leads to dementia and has a significant quality of life and financial impact. One of the most common and preventable causes of cognitive decline is heart disease, specifically atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). This condition is related to myriad health risk factors and conditions, including sleep disorders. The current study examined 51 adults between the ages of 55 and 88 with a diagnosis of AVD. Participants were ...


Self-Regulatory Training For Helping Students With Special Needs To Learn Mathematics, Yanrong Kang Jul 2010

Self-Regulatory Training For Helping Students With Special Needs To Learn Mathematics, Yanrong Kang

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research suggests that self-regulation interventions are effective in improving students' self-regulatory skill and school performance in a wide variety of educational domains. Inspired by social cognitive theory (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997) and goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990), I designed, implemented, and examined the beneficial impact of a two-part intervention to teacher effective self-regulation (i.e., goal setting and self-reflection) of 62 high school students with special needs (40 males, 22 females) during in-class math instruction. Results indicate that the two-part intervention led to high self-efficacy judgments and to better math performance compared to students with special needs who were ...


Literacy In Elementary School In Jamaica: The Case Of The Grade Four Literacy Test, Yewande Eleene Lewis Jul 2010

Literacy In Elementary School In Jamaica: The Case Of The Grade Four Literacy Test, Yewande Eleene Lewis

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to describe changes that led to the revision of the Grade Four Literacy Test in Jamaica from a classroom-based assessment to a national high-stakes examination in 2009. Educators and researchers in Jamaica have observed and examined the less-than-desired student performance in English literacy exams over several decades. My research continues the tradition and adds to the investigation of literacy challenges in Jamaica. The overarching research question for this study was to understand how the Grade Four Literacy Test, originally a classroom-based assessment for a decade, became a national high-stakes exam in 2009? I used ...


The Effects Of Skill Training On Preference For Individuals With Severe To Profound Multiple Disabilities, Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt Jul 2010

The Effects Of Skill Training On Preference For Individuals With Severe To Profound Multiple Disabilities, Anuradha Salil Kumar Dutt

Theses and Dissertations

Behavioral researchers have investigated procedures for identifying preferred items for individuals with varying levels of developmental disabilities. Some researchers in this area have reported difficulties in identifying preferred items for individuals with severe to profound multiple disabilities (SPMD), in part because the individuals may not possess the motor skills needed to select and manipulate the items included within the assessment. The purpose of the current study was to address three research questions: Would differences in preference patterns be observed if individuals with SPMD could activate toys with a motor response that is within their repertoire (i.e., press a large ...


Client-Rated Helpfulness Of Two Approaches For Addressing Religious Concerns In Therapy, Alice Fridman Jul 2010

Client-Rated Helpfulness Of Two Approaches For Addressing Religious Concerns In Therapy, Alice Fridman

Theses and Dissertations

Multicultural competence is widely considered to be an integral part of psychological research, theory, training, and effective as well as ethical practice. While some specific components of culture have received significant attention in multicultural literature and practice, religion remains an often-neglected component of culture, with little research, training, and practical guidelines available on the topic. The current study investigated potential therapy clients' perceptions of the helpfulness of two different therapist approaches to addressing religious concerns in order to identify the approach that clients find more helpful and promote its use in practice and training. One approach was characterized by basic ...


When A Law Degree Is Not Enough: The Necessity Of A Second Professional Degree For Lawyers, Rebecca Leanne Bowman Jul 2010

When A Law Degree Is Not Enough: The Necessity Of A Second Professional Degree For Lawyers, Rebecca Leanne Bowman

Theses and Dissertations

This research attempts to answer the question of why some attorneys obtain a second advanced degree after their law degree. That is, if a law degree is all that is needed to practice law, then why do some attorneys continue with their studies, especially since they lack an economic incentive to do so?

The research includes a literature review with background information on credentialism and human capital theory, on lawyers and law school, dissatisfaction, income and debt, alternatives to law, joint graduate degree programs, and gender. SPSS modeling is utilized to arrive at the conclusion that human capital theory and ...


An Evaluation Of Motivating Operations In The Treatment Of Food Refusal, Melanie Hope Bachmeyer Jul 2010

An Evaluation Of Motivating Operations In The Treatment Of Food Refusal, Melanie Hope Bachmeyer

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research on the assessment of pediatric feeding disorders has shown that negative reinforcement (escape) plays a major role in the maintenance of food refusal and that escape extinction (EE) may be necessary in the treatment of severe food refusal. The current study examined the influence of two potential motivating operations (MOs) on escape from bite presentations for 3 children with severe food refusal: (a) noncontingent positive reinforcement (NCR) and (b) food satiation (as a result of enteral nutritional support). The abolishing effects of NCR on negative reinforcement for refusal behaviors were demonstrated in Experiment 1 when escape was allowed ...


Observed Score And True Score Equating Procedures For Multidimensional Item Response Theory, Bradley Grant Brossman May 2010

Observed Score And True Score Equating Procedures For Multidimensional Item Response Theory, Bradley Grant Brossman

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted. These procedures account for indeterminacies in (1) translation, (2) dilation, (3) rotation, and (4) correlation. However, no procedures currently exist to equate number correct scores after parameter estimates are placed on the same scale. This research sought to fill this void in the current psychometric literature.

Three equating procedures--two ...


The Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Sudanese Refugee Youth In An American Public High School In The Midwest, Anne Omwango Kiche May 2010

The Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Sudanese Refugee Youth In An American Public High School In The Midwest, Anne Omwango Kiche

Theses and Dissertations

Research on the educational and occupational aspirations of U.S. youth born in Africa is not only rare, but some studies have assumed that these immigrants are a monolithic group. However, they differ in experiences according to whether they are refugees, asylum seekers, or voluntary immigrants coming from various countries in Africa. These immigrants also come from different countries with different ethnicities, cultures, religions, and races. This case study makes such a needed distinction based on a small sample of high school students from Northern Sudan who lived in a small Midwest U.S. city. Diversity in ethnicities and cultures ...


Developing Orthographic Awareness Among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating The Influence Of Beginning Level Textbooks, Hui-Mei Fan May 2010

Developing Orthographic Awareness Among Beginning Chinese Language Learners: Investigating The Influence Of Beginning Level Textbooks, Hui-Mei Fan

Theses and Dissertations

The present study is based on the theoretical assumptions that frequency of characters and their structural components, as well as the frequency types of structural components, are important to enable learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) to discover the underlying structure of Chinese characters. In the CFL context, since reliable target language input is limited largely to textbook materials and teacher instruction, it is important to more rigorously examine the inventory of Chinese characters that is typically presented in CFL textbooks.

The purpose of this study was to systematically describe and classify Chinese characters from ten CFL textbooks ...


Comparison Of Test Directions For Ability Tests: Impact On Young English-Language Learner And Non-Ell Students, Joni Marie Lakin May 2010

Comparison Of Test Directions For Ability Tests: Impact On Young English-Language Learner And Non-Ell Students, Joni Marie Lakin

Theses and Dissertations

Ability tests play an important role in the assessment programs of many schools. However, the inferences about ability made from such tests presume that students understand the tasks they are attempting. Task familiarity can vary by student as well as by format. By design, nonverbal reasoning tests use formats that are intended to be novel. The popularity of nonverbal reasoning tests has increased substantially in recent years because of the increasing number of English-language learner (ELL) students in many U.S. school districts. Nonverbal tests are thought to eliminate the need for language in test items and to reduce cultural ...


A Survey Of College Math Professors' Reported Instructional Strategies In Courses In Which Prospective Teachers Enroll, Kelly Frances Finn May 2010

A Survey Of College Math Professors' Reported Instructional Strategies In Courses In Which Prospective Teachers Enroll, Kelly Frances Finn

Theses and Dissertations

This study is survey research on the reported instructional strategies of college mathematics professors. I modified an Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI-R) that contained likert scale, demographic and rank order items in order to characterize the instructional strategies of college math professors.


An Examination Of Relations Among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, And Adjustment At School, Chin-Fang Huang May 2010

An Examination Of Relations Among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, And Adjustment At School, Chin-Fang Huang

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among Taiwanese elementary school children's effortful control, social relationships and their adjustment at school. Data were gathered on 407 third- to sixth-grade children (81 third graders, 79 fourth graders, 116 fifth graders, and 131 sixth graders) attending three low- to middle-class public elementary schools in Taipei County, Taiwan. Participating children as well as their parents, teachers, and peers provided questionnaire and peer sociometric data. Two main research questions were addressed: a) whether there were direct relations among children's effortful control, social relationships, and adjustment at school; b ...