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University of Iowa

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Development And Validation Of Thai Versions Of Big Five Measures From The International Personality Item Pool, Chakadee Waiyavutti Aug 2019

Development And Validation Of Thai Versions Of Big Five Measures From The International Personality Item Pool, Chakadee Waiyavutti

Theses and Dissertations

The Big-Five is the most popular personality taxonomy used to characterize fundamental personality traits and their individual differences. This model has been well replicated across English speaking samples, several other languages, and different item formats, thereby begging the question of its universality. However, two key issues have challenged the validity of the cultural group comparisons using Big Five measures of personality. The first is methodology for translation and adaptation, and the second is construct equivalence across cultures. The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1992) has been used to create several non-commercial versions of Big Five measures (IPIP-BFMs), with a ...


“Developing All These Petals”: A Narrative Study Of The Strategies And Networks African American Women At Historically White Institutions Access, Create, And Employ To Succeed, Davida L. Anderson Aug 2019

“Developing All These Petals”: A Narrative Study Of The Strategies And Networks African American Women At Historically White Institutions Access, Create, And Employ To Succeed, Davida L. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

African American women continue to enroll at historically White institutions (HWIs) to pursue their bachelor’s degrees (Miller, 2017). African American women continue to experience exclusion (Zamani, 2003) and hostile environments (Evans, 2007; Patton & Croom, 2017; Zamani, 2003) that demean African American women. Nevertheless, African American women persist and succeed in higher education. Although access in the United States has increased for non-white populations, decades of research on discriminatory environments at historically white colleges and universities creating campus climates that are unwelcoming towards African American women. Intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1991) focuses on how African American women’s lives cannot be explored without consideration ...


Exploring The Ways First-Generation Mexican American Male Transfer Students Experience Their Community College Support Structure, Luis S Moreno Aug 2019

Exploring The Ways First-Generation Mexican American Male Transfer Students Experience Their Community College Support Structure, Luis S Moreno

Theses and Dissertations

This study offers recommendations for community college personnel in assisting first-generation Mexican American male college students access and properly utilize college agents and services to succeed and transfer to a four-year institution. Students must recognize that colleges have many programs and services designed to help them become successful, but they need to be open to the idea of asking for assistance and honest with themselves about the assistance they need.


A Comparison Of Fixed Item Parameter Calibration Methods And Reporting Score Scales In The Development Of An Item Pool, Keyu Chen Aug 2019

A Comparison Of Fixed Item Parameter Calibration Methods And Reporting Score Scales In The Development Of An Item Pool, Keyu Chen

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of the study were to compare the relative performances of three fixed item parameter calibration methods (FIPC) in item and ability parameter estimation and to examine how the ability estimates obtained from these different methods affect interpretations using reported scales of different lengths.

Through a simulation design, the study was divided into two stages. The first stage was the calibration stage, where the parameters of pretest items were estimated. This stage investigated the accuracy of item parameter estimates and the recovery of the underlying ability distributions for different sample sizes, different numbers of pretest items, and different types ...


Cyberbullying And The Workplace: An Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Social Self-Efficacy, Andrew S Jones Aug 2019

Cyberbullying And The Workplace: An Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Social Self-Efficacy, Andrew S Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Relatively little research has been devoted to understanding the implications of adult cyberbullying on workers. However, recent research focused on how cyberbullying affects adults has indicated cyberbullying has negative implications for job satisfaction of workers. The purpose of this study was to use Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) as a framework to investigate the impact of cyberbullying in the workplace by examining the relationship between cyberbullying and both job satisfaction and social self-efficacy. The results of this study indicate that among individuals who are cyberbullied, higher rates of cyberbullying has a significant negative relationship with social self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy ...


Optimizing Design Of Incorporating Off-Grade Items For Constrained Computerized Adaptive Testing In K-12 Assessment, Xiangdong Liu Aug 2019

Optimizing Design Of Incorporating Off-Grade Items For Constrained Computerized Adaptive Testing In K-12 Assessment, Xiangdong Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Incorporating off-grade items within an on-grade item pool is often seen in K-12 testing programs. Incorporating off-grade items may provide improvements in measurement precision, test length, and content blueprint fulfillment, especially for high- and low-performing examinees, but it may also identify some concerns when using too many off-grade items on tests that are primarily designed to measure grade-level standards. This dissertation investigates how practical constraints such as the number of on-grade items, the proportion, and range of off-grade items, and the stopping rules affect item pool characteristics and item pool performance in adaptive testing.

This study includes simulation conditions with ...


Cigarette Smoking, Depressive Symptoms, And Social Cognitions: An Examination Of Their Intercorrelationships Among High School Students, Wilbeth Lugo-Morales Aug 2019

Cigarette Smoking, Depressive Symptoms, And Social Cognitions: An Examination Of Their Intercorrelationships Among High School Students, Wilbeth Lugo-Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms are two problems that affect adolescents’ health. Although it has been well-documented that a relationship exists between these two concerns, most researchers have used self-report methods to study smoking behaviors. While adolescents are typically accurate when reporting depressive symptoms, they tend to be less accurate reporting smoking. Moreover, research supporting the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) has shown that the social cognitions of willingness to smoke, and the prototypes or images of smokers are predictors of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about the association between social cognitions and depressive symptoms in adolescence.

In this study ...


Engaging With The Other: Black College Students' Perceptions Of Perspective Taking At Historically White Colleges And Universities, Laila Ilham Mccloud Aug 2019

Engaging With The Other: Black College Students' Perceptions Of Perspective Taking At Historically White Colleges And Universities, Laila Ilham Mccloud

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines Black students’ perceptions of their campus climate for perspective taking and how their perceptions influence their participation in high impact practices. Using ordinary least squares regression, I analyzed how the psychological climate, behavioral climate, and institutional structural diversity predict Black students’ perceptions and engagement in comparison to their Asian American, Hawaiian, Latinx, Multiracial, Native American, and White peers.

Results from this study revealed that Black students have a positive perception of their campus climate for perspective taking. For the most part, Black students’ perceptions of campus climate were not significantly associated with participating in high-impact practices. However ...


Beta Observed Score And True Score Equating Methods, Shichao Wang Aug 2019

Beta Observed Score And True Score Equating Methods, Shichao Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Equating is a statistical process that is used to adjust scores on test forms so that scores on the forms can be used interchangeably. This dissertation offered intensive investigation of beta true and observed score methods by comparing them to existing traditional and IRT equating methods under multiple designs and various conditions using real data, pseudo-test data and simulated data. Weighted and conditional bias, standard error of equating and root mean squared error were used to evaluate the accuracy of equating results obtained from the pseudo data and simulated data analyses. The single group equipercentile equating based on large sample ...


The Language And Rhetoric Of Affirmative Action: A Structural Topic Model Analysis Of Supreme Court Amicus Briefs, Ryan Lewis Young Aug 2019

The Language And Rhetoric Of Affirmative Action: A Structural Topic Model Analysis Of Supreme Court Amicus Briefs, Ryan Lewis Young

Theses and Dissertations

Using a structural topic model text analysis approach in a mixed methods framework, these studies seek to better understand the language, rhetoric, and rationales amici curiae employ to defend or deride affirmative action in cases before the Supreme Court. Through a better understanding of the content and framing of these briefs, the next time an affirmative action case is before the court a larger, more articulate, and more united network of advocates from the higher education sector and beyond will be better position to have their voices heard.


On A Path Toward Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: How Teachers Experience Race, Culture, Family, And Family Literacies In A Professional Development Course, Laura Elisabeth Szech May 2019

On A Path Toward Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy: How Teachers Experience Race, Culture, Family, And Family Literacies In A Professional Development Course, Laura Elisabeth Szech

Theses and Dissertations

Public schools teachers in the U.S. strive to reach the needs of all students in the elementary classroom. However, teachers are increasingly expected to follow standardized curriculum. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy (Paris, 2012) pushes toward individualized educational practices and against the assimilationism embedded in standardization. This study considers the ways in which nine women-identified teachers, one Black, two Latina, six white, who teach elementary school in a Midwestern university town, experience, discuss, and implement Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy in a professional development course, specifically through the lens of the following question: In a course on culturally sustaining pedagogy, how do teachers ...


The Use Of Crowdsourcing In The Development Of Measurement Instruments, Emily Michelle Wetherell May 2019

The Use Of Crowdsourcing In The Development Of Measurement Instruments, Emily Michelle Wetherell

Theses and Dissertations

Crowdsourcing has gained favor among many social scientists as a method for collecting data because this method is both time- and resource-efficient. The present study uses a within-subject test-retest design to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of crowdsource samples for developing and field testing measurement instruments. As evidenced by similar patterns of psychometric characteristics across time, strong test-retest reliability, and low failure rates of attention check items, the results of this study provide evidence that Amazon Mechanical Turk might represent a fruitful platform for field testing to support the development of a variety of measures. These findings, in turn, have significant ...


Darkness & Light, Emily Nicole Willms May 2019

Darkness & Light, Emily Nicole Willms

Theses and Dissertations

Darkness & Light is a narrative body of work that reflects upon recent changes in my life. The series begins dark and abstract and becomes lighter and more refined with each artwork, functioning as a visual timeline. The chosen color palettes of each artwork are symbolic of my emotional experiences. Darkness & Light is an up-close, very small facet of the much larger work that is taking place within my community. I am inspired by my life and by others who share my philosophy. Throughout the creation of this body of work, I collaborated with various individuals within my community to create ...


Teacher Autonomy With Reading Interventions In An Rti Model, Erin L. Witek May 2019

Teacher Autonomy With Reading Interventions In An Rti Model, Erin L. Witek

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ level of autonomy in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model school system and with delivering a Tier 2 reading intervention, as well as, to understand teachers’ perception of student response to the adapted reading materials. Qualitative data collection involved individual teacher interview, observations, post-intervention survey, and a focus group. Teachers selected reading materials that focused on sight word learning to adapt to fit student need and then delivered the intervention for six weeks. Quantitative data were the students’ progress monitoring scores of sight words learned and overall oral reading fluency rate. Results showed ...


The Impact Of Collateral Information On Ability Estimation In An Adaptive Test Battery, Qing Xie May 2019

The Impact Of Collateral Information On Ability Estimation In An Adaptive Test Battery, Qing Xie

Theses and Dissertations

The advantages of administering an adaptive test battery, a collection of multiple adaptive subtests that are specifically tailored to examinees’ abilities, include shortening the subtest length and maintaining the accuracy of individual subtest scores. The test battery can incorporate a range of subjects, though this study focused primarily on Math and Reading.

This study compared different ways of incorporating collateral information (CI), supplementary information beyond examinees’ current test performance, under two frameworks (Unidimensional and Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing). It also investigated the impact of subtest intercorrelations (the relationship between an examinee’s test scores), as well as the sequences of ...


A Comparison Of Two Types Of Remote Performance Feedback On Treatment Integrity, Jing Zhu May 2019

A Comparison Of Two Types Of Remote Performance Feedback On Treatment Integrity, Jing Zhu

Theses and Dissertations

Treatment integrity has a direct impact on early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) outcomes for children with autism. Research suggests that providing feedback can improve treatment integrity in EIBI. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two remote feedback methods, videoconference feedback and email feedback, on treatment integrity. Participants included six teachers who were providing EIBI to children with autism in China. Using a single-case alternating treatment design, each feedback method was associated with a specific teaching procedure, either discrete trial training or incidental teaching. The teachers implemented the two teaching procedures daily but only received feedback ...


Effects Of Intervention On Handwriting Accuracy And Speed For Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kristin Monroe Panos May 2019

Effects Of Intervention On Handwriting Accuracy And Speed For Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kristin Monroe Panos

Theses and Dissertations

Elementary students who demonstrate accuracy and speed in handwriting are better equipped to generate higher quality, longer composition. Unfortunately, students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to encounter significant difficulties with legibility, size, and speed of handwriting. The present study used a single-subject, multiple-baseline design across participants to examine the effects of CASL (Center for Advancing Student Learning) Handwriting intervention on handwriting accuracy and speed for three early elementary students with ASD. The dependent variable was correct letter points (CLP) and error letter points (ELP) as measured on a 90-s sentence copy probe. The intervention was delivered over eighteen, 20-min ...


Representations Of Diversity And Inclusion: Unpacking The Language Of Community Engagement In Higher Education Using Critical Discourse Analysis, Kira Pasquesi May 2019

Representations Of Diversity And Inclusion: Unpacking The Language Of Community Engagement In Higher Education Using Critical Discourse Analysis, Kira Pasquesi

Theses and Dissertations

Colleges and universities use language (i.e., talk and text) to represent diversity and inclusion in community engagement. Diversity refers to individual and social or group differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, national origin, social class, gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, ability), while inclusion is the intentional and ongoing engagement with difference. Community engagement involves collaborations between institutions of higher education and their local, regional, national, and global communities. The language used to describe diversity and inclusion in community engagement is socially constructed and situated in complex power relations.

The purpose of the study was to describe how three universities ...


A Paragraph Text-Writing Intervention For Secondary Students With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A Single Case Design Study, Derek B. Rodgers May 2019

A Paragraph Text-Writing Intervention For Secondary Students With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A Single Case Design Study, Derek B. Rodgers

Theses and Dissertations

Written expression can be a critical skill for academic, vocational, and social pursuits. Unfortunately, research suggests that students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) struggle to develop writing skills. Paragraph text-writing is a component of written expression and refers to constructing multiple sentences about a singular topic with appropriate capitalization, punctuation, and grammar. The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention of explicit instruction and timed practice on the paragraph text-writing skills of four secondary student with IDD. The study included four dependent measures (paragraph text-writing rubric, total words written, and correct and incorrect writing sequences) and used ...


Trends And Changes In The National Association For Gifted Children's Special Populations Network Annual Convention Presentations, 2001-2010, Kaleb Farnham Jan 2019

Trends And Changes In The National Association For Gifted Children's Special Populations Network Annual Convention Presentations, 2001-2010, Kaleb Farnham

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This qualitative study examines the trends and changes in the National Association for Gifted Children’s (NAGC) Special Populations Network annual convention presentations from the years 2001-2010. Factors examined include demographic information about the presenters, including gender, geographic location, and workplace represented, as well as the number of presentations and their topics. This content analysis is especially important when considering talented and gifted education in public schools across the United States, and what educators learn from these convention presentations that might impact priorities regarding special populations. After analyzing ten years of Special Populations Network presentations, it becomes apparent that while ...


Wordless Picture Books For The Young Gifted And Talented Learners, Nabeeha Pasha Jan 2019

Wordless Picture Books For The Young Gifted And Talented Learners, Nabeeha Pasha

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This article discusses what a wordless picture book entails from its content to the images included in the picture book leading them to be “visually rendered narratives”. It further explains the purpose of wordless picture books, and how educators can incorporate these stories within their classrooms. The possible opportunities of differentiation with wordless picture books include using them with Talented and Gifted students, ELL learners, and individuals with dyslexia or other disabilities. Teachers can also develop unique lessons and activities specific to the various needs of their young learners. Following the explanation for how wordless picture books can be used ...


Integrating Art Into Instruction, Alexandria Sanford Jan 2019

Integrating Art Into Instruction, Alexandria Sanford

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Although integrating art into instruction is commonly overlooked in elementary education, it is proven to improve student achievement. Pre-service elementary teachers should learn in college how to effectively teach students with arts integration. This literature review will discuss strategies to integrating art into instruction and the benefits to doing so. This study will confirm that arts integration is not frequently taught in education, but teachers are still expected to do so in their own classrooms even though they are not familiar with the strategies. Arts integration is key to student achievement and should be taught and used in the college ...


School Of The Wild's Impact On Students' Attitudes Towards The Outdoors, Learning Science, And Sustainability, Rebekah Stelzle Jan 2019

School Of The Wild's Impact On Students' Attitudes Towards The Outdoors, Learning Science, And Sustainability, Rebekah Stelzle

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Current educational priorities are forcing students to stay inside to the detriment of students’ well-being. Research proves that outdoor education provides many positive benefits for students’ learning, health, and relationships. With this in mind, we set out to answer the question of how an outdoor education program in the Midwest affects student’s attitudes towards science, the outdoors, and sustainability. The School of the Wild is a week-long outdoor education program provided to every sixth-grade student in the Midwest school district. We created an instrument to discover participants’ changes in attitudes towards the outdoors, learning science, and sustainability. Students were ...


Child Dental Fear And Anxiety: Examining The Effects Of An Intervention, Jessica Hipnar Jan 2019

Child Dental Fear And Anxiety: Examining The Effects Of An Intervention, Jessica Hipnar

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This study examines the change in child anxiety and fear towards dentistry when an intervention in the elementary classroom setting was put in place. My literature review exhibits a lack of information pertaining to attempting to change the views of children in relation to dentistry. There is strong evidence of the reasoning for child dental fear and anxiety, but no information showing the effects of an intervention. This study revealed that an increase in information about dentistry was correlated to an increase in positive feelings towards dentistry. The most statistical piece of data was an increase in student responses to ...


Investigating The Instruction Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Speech-Language Pathology Clinical Education, Lauren Brown Jan 2019

Investigating The Instruction Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Speech-Language Pathology Clinical Education, Lauren Brown

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the instruction of the therapeutic alliance in the graduate education of future speech-language pathologists.

Method: Surveys were created for graduate student clinicians and supervising clinicians consisting of three Likert scale questions and open-ended questions. T-tests were performed on the scaled questions and the open-ended questions were analyzed with thematic analysis.

Results: Graduate student clinicians reported being taught the therapeutic alliance less than clinical supervisors reported teaching it. Both populations emphasized the bond as an important aspect of the alliance with less emphasis on collaboration on goals and tasks of therapy. Modalities ...


The Impact And Implications Of Two Or More Children Identifying As Lesbian, Gay, Or Bisexual (Lgb) Within The Family System, Casey Michael Gamboni Jan 2019

The Impact And Implications Of Two Or More Children Identifying As Lesbian, Gay, Or Bisexual (Lgb) Within The Family System, Casey Michael Gamboni

Theses and Dissertations

Coming out as a sexual minority can be a challenging process (D’amico, Julien, Tremblay, & Chartrand, 2015) and having supportive allies and advocates within the family makes that process less strenuous (Luke & Goodrich, 2015). The sibling relationship has been shown to play a significant supportive role in the lives of LGB people while coming out as sexual minorities (Haxhe, Cerezo, Bergfeld, & Walloch, 2017). Scholars have found that when a second child within the family system comes out as LGB, it gives the parents a chance to improve aspects of their parenting compared to the first child who came out to ...


Referral Source, Employment, And The Recovery Of Underserved Substance Use Treatment Clients, Ethan Sahker Jan 2019

Referral Source, Employment, And The Recovery Of Underserved Substance Use Treatment Clients, Ethan Sahker

Theses and Dissertations

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious public health concern contributing to health risks for individuals and communities. Recovery capital are client strengths associated with SUD recovery. Employment represents recovery capital associated with positive SUD treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between employment mechanisms and SUDs are not well understood. The present study investigates how specific employment variables at SUD treatment intake predict (a) successful treatment completion, (b) abstinence at six-month treatment follow-up, (c) reduced use at six-month treatment follow-up. Additionally, employment variable change is explored. A retrospective, cross-sectional investigation with logistic regression modeling to predict substance use at six-months post ...


Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin Dec 2018

Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin

Theses and Dissertations

With the widespread use of technology in the assessment field, many testing programs use both computer-based tests (CBTs) and paper-and-pencil tests (PPTs). Both the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014) and the International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet Delivered Testing (International Test Commission, 2005) have called for studies on the equivalence of scores from different modes to support the uses and interpretations of scores across modes. Studies of administration mode effects, however, are quite limited and have found mixed results in the early childhood literature. In addition, little research has focused on both construct comparability and ...


Using Video Modeling To Improve The Social Communication Of An Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rebecca Marie Hawbaker Dec 2018

Using Video Modeling To Improve The Social Communication Of An Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rebecca Marie Hawbaker

Theses and Dissertations

Difficulty with many aspects of social interactions is a defining characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Video modeling (VM) has successfully improved a range of social skills for individuals with ASD in previous studies, but most often with simple social skills with young children. The current study used VMs scripted and recorded by peers to improve complex conversation and social gestures by a young adult with ASD. A multiple-probe, across-behaviors design found mixed evidence of experimental control of VM on the social behaviors of the individual with ASD, although all behaviors increased from baseline and generalized to other settings and ...


Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine Dec 2018

Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, open, online learning environments have become progressively more popular and well-funded. An integral aspect of this open learning movement is the transition of a substantial amount of control of the learning process from designers and instructors to the users engaging with the environment. With heavy investments coming from both the public and private sectors, and an ever-growing market of online learners, it is crucial that we better understand how the provision of user control over the learning process affects the quality of that learning process.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one ...