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University of Pennsylvania

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Education

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2016

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Motivation: Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

Design: We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multi-level logistic regression analysis of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on ...


Ambient Positional Instability Among Teachers In Minnesota Public Schools: 2010-2011 To 2014-2015, Farah Rayes, Jimin Oh, Selene Lee, Robert Boruch Dec 2016

Ambient Positional Instability Among Teachers In Minnesota Public Schools: 2010-2011 To 2014-2015, Farah Rayes, Jimin Oh, Selene Lee, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

This work is a preliminary investigation as part of a larger project on Ambient Positional Instability (API) among teachers in public schools in the United States, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and undertaken by the University of Pennsylvania. API tracks the number of teachers who change school, grade and subject(s) they teach, as well as those who leave the profession. In this paper, API is analyzed through teacher retention and churn. Retention is defined as the proportion of teachers who remain in the system each year over the period covered in analysis, whereas churn is the ratio of ...


Program Evaluation Policy, Practice, And The Use Of Results, Robert Boruch, Jessica L. Chao, Selene S. Lee Dec 2016

Program Evaluation Policy, Practice, And The Use Of Results, Robert Boruch, Jessica L. Chao, Selene S. Lee

GSE Publications

This scholarly commentary addresses the basic questions that underlie program evaluation policy and practice in education, as well as the conditions that must be met for the evaluation evidence to be used. The evaluation questions concern evidence on the nature and severity of problems, the programs deployed to address the issues, the programs’ relative effects and cost-effectiveness, and the accumulation of evidence. The basic conditions for the use of evidence include potential users’ awareness of the evidence, their understanding of it, as well as their capacity and incentives for its use. Examples are drawn from studies conducted in the United ...


A Failing Safety Net: Declining Community College Affordability, Ben Williams, Joni E. Finney, Sarah Torres Dec 2016

A Failing Safety Net: Declining Community College Affordability, Ben Williams, Joni E. Finney, Sarah Torres

GSE Publications

The nation’s community colleges serve as the educational safety net for millions of students. While the safety net is showing signs of wear, it can be restored within current state and federal policies guiding higher education. Bipartisan support can and should be developed for this agenda because it cuts across the desire within both major political parties to create opportunities for those left behind.


From Commons To Classroom: The Evolution Of Learning Spaces In Academic Libraries, Vickie Marre Karasic Nov 2016

From Commons To Classroom: The Evolution Of Learning Spaces In Academic Libraries, Vickie Marre Karasic

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

Over the past two decades, academic library spaces have evolved to meet the changing teaching and learning needs of diverse campus communities. The Information Commons combines the physical and virtual in an informal library space, whereas the recent Active Learning Classroom creates a more formal setting for collaboration. As scholarship has become increasingly digital and interactive, commons and classroom environments in academic libraries promote experimentation with new technology and accommodate millennial learning behaviors. The library, a centrally located and academically neutral campus space, provides an ideal place for classrooms and encourages interdisciplinary scholarship unbounded by specific academic departments.


Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii Oct 2016

Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii

GSE Publications

This paper covers the topic of randomized controlled trials in social, educational, criminological, health, and other human service sectors. It is studded with illustrations from developed and developing countries. We address the basic ideas that underlie trials in different ways, and cover contemporary definitions and vernacular, some history, and idea of cumulating evidence from such trials including recent work on replication and meta-analyses. Standards for evidence and reporting are considered. We attend to statistical matters and also recognize important non-statistical matters that must be taken into account in designing and executing such trials. Cluster randomized, place randomized, and other designs ...


The Bubble Bursts: The 2015 Opt-Out Movement In New Jersey, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Francine Stephens, Julie Kubelka, Patrick Mcguinn, Hannah Ingersoll Sep 2016

The Bubble Bursts: The 2015 Opt-Out Movement In New Jersey, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Francine Stephens, Julie Kubelka, Patrick Mcguinn, Hannah Ingersoll

CPRE Working Papers

The Bubble Bursts: The 2015 Opt-Out Movement in New Jersey analyzes the scope, factors, and context of the opt-out movement that occurred in New Jersey in the spring of 2015. Using test participation data released in February 2016 by the New Jersey Department of Education, we found that approximately 135,000 students did not take the state assessment in the spring of 2015. Depending on how it was calculated, this represented between 11-19% of the population of students eligible for testing in grades 3 to 11 in the state. There was also a positive correlation between higher district opt-out rates ...


Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory J. Collins Sep 2016

Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory J. Collins

CPRE Policy Briefs

PA Act 35 was signed into law on June 1, 2016. The act amended the state public school code, including the creation of a school funding formula. In this policy brief, Pennsylvania School Tax Burden, Gregory Collins examines how the new formula directs state basic education funding, how it is allocated to local school districts based on need, its ability to pay, and the local school tax effort. Pennsylvania School Tax Burden examines the claim that differences exist in local school tax burdens across Pennsylvania's 500 districts.


An Inquiry Into Pennsylvania's Early Childhood Quality Rating And Improvement System, Philip M Sirinides, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Katie Barghaus, Ryan Fink Sep 2016

An Inquiry Into Pennsylvania's Early Childhood Quality Rating And Improvement System, Philip M Sirinides, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Katie Barghaus, Ryan Fink

CPRE Policy Briefs

High-quality care in the earliest years of life has been shown to relate to positive developmental outcomes for children, including improved early academic skills, social-emotional competencies, and cognitive functioning. Unfortunately, the early care experiences of many children are not always high quality; rather, research suggests that high-quality care is the exception. The growing evidence relating quality care to improved learning outcomes, the variability in quality across care settings, and the failure of existing approaches to improve child care have led to a national call to enhance the quality of early care and education programs. In response to this call, states ...


Ambient Positional Instability Among Illinois Teachers, Ay 2007-2012: A Briefing, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Robert Boruch Sep 2016

Ambient Positional Instability Among Illinois Teachers, Ay 2007-2012: A Briefing, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

This briefing concerns two measures of Ambient Positional Instability (API) among teachers in the state of Illinois: cohort retention and churn. The teacher population includes full time public school teachers in the base year of AY2007-2008 and who were followed longitudinally through AY2011-2012. The state, district, and school level cohort retention for elementary, middle and high school teachers over the five years are provided here, as are the cohort retention rates in the five largest school districts in Illinois. Population churn rates, which include both leavers and newcomers to the Illinois system, are reported within the state over the years ...


World Insight: Developing The First Chinese University Branch Campus In Malaysia, Alan Ruby, Bonnie Yingfei He Aug 2016

World Insight: Developing The First Chinese University Branch Campus In Malaysia, Alan Ruby, Bonnie Yingfei He

GSE Publications

The early days of Xiamen University Malaysia illustrate the challenges Chinese universities will face as they open branch campuses in other nations, say Alan Ruby and Bonnie Yingfei He.


Ambient Positional Instability Among Core Subject Arkansas Public School Teachers: Interim Report, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Tianpeng Ye, Robert Boruch Aug 2016

Ambient Positional Instability Among Core Subject Arkansas Public School Teachers: Interim Report, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Tianpeng Ye, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

Ambient positional instability (API) here refers to any type of shift teachers may experience in their assigned position, including changes in school, grade, or subject assignment. API is a factor which has major research design and educational implications. Research designs which do not consider the instability of teaching positions may fail to obtain representative samples due to attrition. Controlled experiments must be designed to account for these potential shifts in teacher positions. Some evidence suggests a notable correlation between teacher turnover and poorer academic achievement among students. Finally, districts, organizations, and DOEs that create teacher training programs will have less ...


Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee Aug 2016

Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The World Development Report is an annual World Bank publication that highlights the latest research and trends in international development programming. This major review carries substantial weight in setting the policy and program agenda for donor and recipient agencies around the world. The 2015 Mind, Society, and Behavior report is remarkable in that, in a field typically driven by economic principles and interventions, it focuses on the human cognitive processes that underlie social and economic decision making. This important, but often neglected, perspective is a substantial contribution to the development discussion. The report represents a noteworthy effort in identifying and ...


The Resilience Compass: How Mindset, Skills-Development, Self-Compassion, Service, And Community Empower Actors To Bounce Back, Reclaim Their Passion, And Live Their Purpose, Kimberly Wimmer Totty Aug 2016

The Resilience Compass: How Mindset, Skills-Development, Self-Compassion, Service, And Community Empower Actors To Bounce Back, Reclaim Their Passion, And Live Their Purpose, Kimberly Wimmer Totty

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Actors often describe their vocation as a passion, a calling, or even a purpose. However, the very nature of a career as an actor is rife with rejection, a lack of agency, and income instability. Such strong identification with their vocation may threaten an actor’s self-concept in the face of so much adversity. Many actors become frustrated, sometimes to the point of giving up, because the gatekeepers (agents, casting directors, network executives, etc.) decide whether they get to exercise their passion or fulfill their purpose by actually working in their chosen profession. While the body of research on resilience ...


Non-Cognitive Dissonance: Clarifying The Theoretical Dimensions, Practical Value, And Empirical Horizons Of Non-Cognitive Skills In Teachers And Students, Adam C. Siler Aug 2016

Non-Cognitive Dissonance: Clarifying The Theoretical Dimensions, Practical Value, And Empirical Horizons Of Non-Cognitive Skills In Teachers And Students, Adam C. Siler

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Academic literature has begun to explore the connection between so-called, non-cognitive skills (e.g. emotional intelligence, resilience, motivation, etc.) and traditional markers of student success. The literature has also begun to examine the relationship between non-cognitive skills and non-traditional markers of student success like wellbeing. Despite academic interest, there is little agreement – across a range disciplines in the humanities and social sciences - as to the theoretical dimensions of these non-cognitive skills. This is problematic at the level of theory and practice. Moreover, proponents of non-cognitive skills that invoke the conceptually flawed and self-limiting characterization may find themselves in a state ...


World Insight: The Untold Story Of Middle America’S Regional Universities, Alan Ruby Jul 2016

World Insight: The Untold Story Of Middle America’S Regional Universities, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Alan Ruby sings the praises of the less-heralded face of US higher education.


Problems In Classroom Engagement: Validation Of An Assessment For District-Wide Use In The Early Primary Grades, Katherine Barghaus, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Cassandra Henderson, Feifei Li, Paul Mcdermott Jul 2016

Problems In Classroom Engagement: Validation Of An Assessment For District-Wide Use In The Early Primary Grades, Katherine Barghaus, John Fantuzzo, Whitney Leboeuf, Cassandra Henderson, Feifei Li, Paul Mcdermott

GSE Publications

Research Findings: The aim of this study was to provide an initial investigation into the psychometric properties of the Problems in Classroom Engagement Scale (PCES). The PCES was designed and tested for district-wide use as part of the report card system for a large urban school district. The PCES was administered to all first, second, and third grade students in the district. Factor analytic examination revealed a bifactor structure as the best fit to the data. The bifactor structure reflected a general factor of Problems in Behavioral Engagement and two key group factors: Problems in Social Engagement and Problems in ...


Do Schools Mater For High Math Achievement? Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson Jun 2016

Do Schools Mater For High Math Achievement? Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson

Health Care Management Papers

This paper uses data from the American Mathematics Competitions to examine the rates at which different high schools produce high-achieving math students. There are large differences in the frequency with which students from seemingly similar schools reach high achievement levels. The distribution of unexplained school effects includes a thick tail of schools that produce many more high-achieving students than is typical. Several additional analyses suggest that the differences are not primarily due to unobserved differences in student characteristics. The differences are persistent across time, suggesting that differences in the effectiveness of educational programs are not primarily due to direct peer ...


Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis May 2016

Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis

Honors Theses (PPE)

The vast majority of low-income, high-achieving high school students in the U.S. either do not apply to college or undermatch by attending less selective institutions than those they are qualified to attend. Previous research has demonstrated that behavioral “nudges” can be an effective and low-cost method of influencing students’ application behavior and encouraging them to enroll in selective institutions. This study contributes to this existing body of literature by examining whether framing college earnings premium information as a loss causes low-income high school students in Chicago to report greater likelihood of applying to college than when the same information ...


Replacing Periods With Question Marks: A Study Of The Role Of Public Education In Kanawha County, West Virginia, Sarah Michelle Engell May 2016

Replacing Periods With Question Marks: A Study Of The Role Of Public Education In Kanawha County, West Virginia, Sarah Michelle Engell

Undergraduate Humanities Forum 2015-2016: Sex

In 1974 the proposal and adoption of new language arts textbooks, that sought to emphasize themes of multiculturalism and egalitarianism, sparked a violent year-long protest in Kanawha County, West Virginia. The opposition perceived the texts as overly sexual, anti-American, and intrusive while supporters celebrated the diversification of narratives and information.


The ability of newly adopted language arts textbooks to spark an explosive controversy reflects the impact of textbooks and, more broadly, public education on creating a sense of identity and belonging. Through objecting or supporting the textbooks and the language they contained, the citizens of Kanawha County were bitterly fighting ...


Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2016

Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

These resources cannot be neglected much longer without lasting negative effects. While we have introdu ed here the idea of a “resource-­language” to talk about cultural and linguistic maintenance, we must see the differences between these and material resources like coal and oil. We can leave the oil in the ground and it will still be there to use in a hundred years; the more we use it, and the more we use it unwisely, the less we have of it later. Just the opposite is true of language and culture. The more we use these, the more we ...


How Don Nakanishi Overcame Prejudice In The Academy, Alan Ruby Apr 2016

How Don Nakanishi Overcame Prejudice In The Academy, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Alan Ruby remembers a pioneer of Asian American studies.


Learning About New Demands In Schools: Considering Algebra Policy Environments (Landscape), Michael D. Steele, Janine Remillard, John Y. Baker, Lindsay M. Keazer, Beth Herbel-Eisenmann Apr 2016

Learning About New Demands In Schools: Considering Algebra Policy Environments (Landscape), Michael D. Steele, Janine Remillard, John Y. Baker, Lindsay M. Keazer, Beth Herbel-Eisenmann

CPRE Research Reports

The past three decades in mathematics education policy and research have seen a considerable focus on algebra and its place in secondary schools. Access to and success in the first high school course, most often termed Algebra I, has been framed as a civil rights issue, a harbinger of college success, and a lynchpin to global competitiveness. Policymakers have targeted access to Algebra I through universal enrollment policies at specific grade levels, while educational researchers and policy analysts have investigated the efficacy of such policies in improving student outcomes.


Ambient Positional Instability In New Jersey Public Schools: 1996-1997 To 2011-2012, Tianpeng Ye, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Robert Boruch Mar 2016

Ambient Positional Instability In New Jersey Public Schools: 1996-1997 To 2011-2012, Tianpeng Ye, Michael Frisone, Tom Hooks, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


The End Of The Lecture?, Peter T. Struck Mar 2016

The End Of The Lecture?, Peter T. Struck

Departmental Papers (Classical Studies)

This is a challenging environment for the lecture. In recent years, we have seen a welcome degree of ferment and experimentation in teaching, mostly using technology. As innovators make their cases for this or that new way, they often find it useful to push back against the old. And when something is needed to push back against, it's usually the lecture that comes into their sights. In an OpEd in the New York Times last fall, Eric Mazur, a Harvard physicist, was quoted as saying, "it's almost unethical to be lecturing." Unethical. That's pretty strong beer.


Partnering With School Districts To Improve Mathematics Instruction, Jonathan A. Supovitz Mar 2016

Partnering With School Districts To Improve Mathematics Instruction, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Conference Presentations and Papers

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Ogap On Elementary Math Teacher Knowledge And Student Achievement, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Abigail Gray Mar 2016

The Impact Of Ogap On Elementary Math Teacher Knowledge And Student Achievement, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Abigail Gray

CPRE Conference Presentations and Papers

No abstract provided.


Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy Mar 2016

Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy

CPRE Research Reports

CPRE released its evaluation of one of the most ambitious and well-documented expansions of a U.S. instructional curriculum. The rigorous independent evaluation of the Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up of Reading Recovery, a literacy intervention for struggling first graders, was a collaboration between CPRE and the Center for Research on Education and Social Policy (CRESP) at the University of Delaware.

The CPRE/CRESP evaluation revealed that students who participated in Reading Recovery significantly outperformed students in the control group on measures of overall reading, reading comprehension, and decoding. These effects were similarly large for English language learners and students ...


Implementing Stronger And More Credible Student Assessment Systems, Alan Ruby Feb 2016

Implementing Stronger And More Credible Student Assessment Systems, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Coaching Applications For Academic Advisors In Higher Education, Jaime R. Kelly Jan 2016

Coaching Applications For Academic Advisors In Higher Education, Jaime R. Kelly

Master of Science in Organizational Dynamics Theses

The field of higher education academic advising is expanding and the needs of students are ever-growing. Many academic advisors lack the training and tools they need to meet their students’ constantly evolving needs. This paper is designed to illustrate the benefit of incorporating coaching techniques into academic advising sessions. The field of coaching can help improve the advisor / advisee relationship enabling a collaboration that is both successful and rewarding. Through research in coaching and academic advising as well as interviews with higher education academic advisors across the United States, this study demonstrates a simple to use model advisors can use ...