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Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration

CPRE Research Reports

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy Mar 2016

Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy

CPRE Research Reports

CPRE released its evaluation of one of the most ambitious and well-documented expansions of a U.S. instructional curriculum. The rigorous independent evaluation of the Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up of Reading Recovery, a literacy intervention for struggling first graders, was a collaboration between CPRE and the Center for Research on Education and Social Policy (CRESP) at the University of Delaware.

The CPRE/CRESP evaluation revealed that students who participated in Reading Recovery significantly outperformed students in the control group on measures of overall reading, reading comprehension, and decoding. These effects were similarly large for English language learners and students ...


Building A Lattice For School Leadership: The Top-To-Bottom Rethinking Of Leadership Development In England And What It Might Mean For American Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz Nov 2014

Building A Lattice For School Leadership: The Top-To-Bottom Rethinking Of Leadership Development In England And What It Might Mean For American Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Research Reports

This report examines the educational leadership development system in England over the last 15 years to identify ideas American leaders and policymakers might learn from looking cross-nationally. The report describes the rise of the National College for School Leadership in England, which spearheaded much of the early policy development and enactment and the subsequent governmental shift towards a more decentralized policy of fostering school networks. Supovitz envisions the potential assimilation of these two movements into an integrated lattice for school leadership.

The lattice for school leadership in England is the careful integration of formal and social learning opportunities for leaders ...


The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn Nov 2012

The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn

CPRE Research Reports

As highlighted in recent news reports, many states are struggling to implement their new teacher-evaluation systems and most of the Race to the Top winners have asked to extend their timetables for completing this work. This paper, written by CPRE’s Patrick McGuinn for the Center for American Progress, offers an assessment of how early adopter states’ departments of education have understaken the preparation and implementation of new evaluation systems. It also identifies challenges and lessons that can be used to guide future reform efforts in this area.


Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes (Ib Access Project): Evaluation Report Year Two, Gail Gerry, Thomas B. Corcoran Sep 2011

Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes (Ib Access Project): Evaluation Report Year Two, Gail Gerry, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

In the fall of 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project proposed by the International Baccalaureate (IB) to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the participation of minority students and students in poverty in its Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP) in selected school districts in the United States. “Expanding Access, Participation and Success in IB Programmes” or the IB Access Project, as it has come to be known, is utilizing a multi-faceted technical assistance and materials development strategy to strengthen IB programs and broaden access for students previously excluded in the Anne Arundel County ...


Growing School Networks For Instructional Improvement In Jordan, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson Aug 2011

Growing School Networks For Instructional Improvement In Jordan, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson

CPRE Research Reports

In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure, technology, and curriculum development. The emphasis has been placed on the development of skills essential to Jordan’s emerging knowledge economy and the use of technology both as a skill set and a delivery platform for the new curriculum. The second phase of this initiative, ERfKE II, which ...


Learning Trajectories In Mathematics: A Foundation For Standards, Curriculum, Assessment, And Instruction, Phil Daro, Frederic A. Mosher, Thomas B. Corcoran Jan 2011

Learning Trajectories In Mathematics: A Foundation For Standards, Curriculum, Assessment, And Instruction, Phil Daro, Frederic A. Mosher, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

Learning Trajectories in Mathematics: A Foundation for Standards, Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction aims to provide:

  • A useful introduction to current work and thinking about learning trajectories for mathematics education
  • An explanation for why we should care about these questions
  • A strategy for how to think about what is being attempted in the field, casting some light on the varying, and perhaps confusing, ways in which the terms trajectory, progression, learning, teaching, and so on, are being used by the education community.

Specifically, the report builds on arguments published elsewhere to offer a working definition of the concept of learning trajectories ...


Report On The Progress Of The In-Step Pilot Program, 2008-2009, Thomas B. Corcoran Dec 2009

Report On The Progress Of The In-Step Pilot Program, 2008-2009, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

This is the second report on the progress of the Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP), an innovative science education initiative being implemented in the lower secondary schools of Phang-nga province. Sponsored by MSD Thailand, a pharmaceutical company, and supported by funding from its parent company, Merck & Co., Inc., IN-STEP is being implemented by a public-private partnership led by the Kenan Institute Asia (K.I.Asia), which, besides MSD Thailand and Merck & Co., includes the Thai Ministry of Education (MOE), the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE), the Educational Services Area Office (ESAO) in Phang-nga province, the Institute ...


School Improvement By Design: Lessons From A Study Of Comprehensive School Reform Programs, Brian Rowan, Richard Miller, Eric Camburn Aug 2009

School Improvement By Design: Lessons From A Study Of Comprehensive School Reform Programs, Brian Rowan, Richard Miller, Eric Camburn

CPRE Research Reports

This CPRE report is a reprint of a chapter that originally appeared as Chapter 49 of the Handbook of Education Policy Research, edited by Gary Sykes, Barbara Schneider, and DavidN.Plank and published for theAmerican Educational Research Association by Routledge Publishers in 2009. The reprinted chapter presents key findings from A Study of Instructional Improvement, a study that was conducted under the auspices of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education and directed by Brian Rowan, David K. Cohen, and Deborah Loewenberg Ball (all at the University of Michigan).This study examined the design, implementation, and instructional effectiveness of three ...


Learning Progressions In Science: An Evidence-Based Approach To Reform, Thomas B. Corcoran, Frederic A. Mosher, Aaron Rogat May 2009

Learning Progressions In Science: An Evidence-Based Approach To Reform, Thomas B. Corcoran, Frederic A. Mosher, Aaron Rogat

CPRE Research Reports

American education policy seems poised to escalate and shift its two decade long commitment to standards and outcome-based reform. That commitment has involved a set of “grand bargains”, in which the federal government provides Title I (The “No Child Left Behind Act” or NCLB) disadvantaged education funds in return for the states’ agreeing to set ambitious content standards, and define performance or “proficiency” standards associated with them that all students in the states’ schools will be expected to meet by the 2013/2014 school year. The disadvantaged children targeted by Title I are expected to meet the same standards as ...


Learning About Assessment: An Evaluation Of A Ten-State Effort To Build Assessment Capacity In High Schools, Elliot H. Weinbaum Feb 2009

Learning About Assessment: An Evaluation Of A Ten-State Effort To Build Assessment Capacity In High Schools, Elliot H. Weinbaum

CPRE Research Reports

In 2006, the State of Delaware and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) partnered with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to conduct an evaluation of a ten-state initiative that sought to enhance assessment practices at the high school level. This effort aimed to help states, districts, and schools build familiarity with instruction that uses assessment as part of the learning process, a practice known as assessment for learning. This report focuses primarily on the third goal of this project, the creation and function of teacher learning teams focused on assessment for learning.


A Formative Study Of The Implementation Of The Inquiry Team Process In New York City Public Schools: 2007‐08 Findings, Marian A. Robinson, Patricia Kannapel, Joan Gujarati, Hakim Williams, Andrea Oettinger Sep 2008

A Formative Study Of The Implementation Of The Inquiry Team Process In New York City Public Schools: 2007‐08 Findings, Marian A. Robinson, Patricia Kannapel, Joan Gujarati, Hakim Williams, Andrea Oettinger

CPRE Research Reports

During the 2007-08 school year, the New York City Department of Education launched the second phase of its ambitious and innovative initiative known as Children First. The reform is guided by three principles: leadership, empowerment, and accountability. Key components include restructuring central-office services, increasing principal authority, providing schools access to new forms and sources of support through affiliate school support organizations (SSOs), and developing new data-driven accountability tools that hold schools responsible for student performance while providing rich diagnostic information to support organizational and instructional improvement. Ultimately, this initiative aims to intensify the focus by all educators on student performance ...


The Inquiry Based Science And Technology Education Program (In-Step): The Evaluation Of The First Year, Thomas B. Corcoran Apr 2008

The Inquiry Based Science And Technology Education Program (In-Step): The Evaluation Of The First Year, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

This is the first report on the evaluation of the Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP), an innovative and ambitious science education initiative being undertaken by a public-private partnership in Thailand. The IN-STEP project is being sponsored by MSD Thailand and supported by funding from its parent company, Merck & Co., Inc., and is being led and implemented by a public-private partnership of organizations committed to improving science education in Thailand. In response to the tsunami disaster in 2004, Merck and MSD Thailand donated US$500,000 to design and implement a science education program in the tsunami-affected province of Phang-nga. Managed by the Kenan Institute Asia, IN-STEP draws heavily on the experience and resources of the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE), founded by Merck in 1993 to improve student performance in science in the United States. MISE’s efforts have shown that the use of well-designed materials and inquiry methods not only raises children’s achievement in science, but also their engagement and enthusiasm.

This report has three aims: first, to share the IN-STEP model with a broad audience of science educators and policymakers; second, to provide baseline information on the teachers and schools involved in the project; third, to provide the IN-STEP team with useful feedback from the first year of implementation. These multiple purposes result in a rather lengthy report. We hope that readers will be forgiving and seek out the ...


A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll Jan 2007

A Comparative Study Of Teacher Preparation And Qualifications In Six Nations, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

Across the educational systems of the world, few issues have received more attention in recent years than the problem of ensuring that elementary and secondary-school classrooms are all staffed with adequately qualified teachers (Mullis, et al., 2000; OECD, 1994, 2005; Wang, et al., 2003). Even in nations where students routinely score high on international exams, the issue of teacher quality is the subject of much concern. This is not surprising. Elementary and secondary schooling is mandatory in almost all nations and children are legally placed in the care of teachers for a significant portion of their lives. It is widely ...


High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Betheny Gross, Margaret E. Goertz Mar 2005

High Hopes: How High Schools Respond To State Accountability Policies, Betheny Gross, Margaret E. Goertz

CPRE Research Reports

This report by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) focuses squarely on strategies for instructional improvement in American high schools. Specifically, this study examines how high schools that perform below average incorporate their state’s accountability goals into their own goals, identify their challenges, and search for strategies for instructional improvement. We focus on how high schools of differing performance levels and contexts, residing in states with different forms of high-stakes accountability and support systems, identify, understand, and respond to the gap between their current levels of performance and external expectations for their performance.


Dashboard Lights: Monitoring Implementation Of District Instructional Reform Strategies, Jonathan A. Supovitz, John M Weathers Dec 2004

Dashboard Lights: Monitoring Implementation Of District Instructional Reform Strategies, Jonathan A. Supovitz, John M Weathers

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, the authors describe the system implemented in Duval County Public Schools (Florida) to monitor the district’s instructional reform efforts and the influences of the system on teachers and school and district leaders. The system, called the Standards Implementation Snapshot System, was implemented by John Fryer, Superintendent of Duval Public Schools, in 2002. The snapshot system seeks to take a "snapshot" at a point in time of the depth of implementation of the district’s standards-based reform initiatives.

This report is the story of the development and influence of the snapshot system.


Getting It Right: The Mise Approach To Professional Development, Thomas B. Corcoran, Siobhan Mcvay, Kate Riordan Dec 2003

Getting It Right: The Mise Approach To Professional Development, Thomas B. Corcoran, Siobhan Mcvay, Kate Riordan

CPRE Research Reports

With an initial 10-year commitment from Merck & Co., Inc. the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE) was founded in 1993 to demonstrate that virtually all students could reach high levels of scientific literacy. Shortly thereafter, MISE formed partnerships with four public school districts -- Linden, Rahway, and Readington Township in New Jersey, and North Penn in Pennsylvania -- where Merck has major facilities and a history of providing employee volunteers and supporting local science education initiatives. These district partnerships quickly merged into one multi-district Partnership.

MISE's approach to improving science teaching has been systemic, addressing both policy and practice in the ...


Changing District Culture And Capacity: The Impact Of The Merck Institute For Science Education Partnership, Thomas B. Corcoran, Nancy Lawrence Nov 2003

Changing District Culture And Capacity: The Impact Of The Merck Institute For Science Education Partnership, Thomas B. Corcoran, Nancy Lawrence

CPRE Research Reports

In 1993, Merck & Co., Inc. began an endeavor to make a significant and visible commitment to improving science education by creating the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE) and supported the new venture with a 10-year, $20-million financial commitment. From its inception, MISE had two goals: to raise the interest, participation, and performance of public school students in science, and to demonstrate to other businesses that direct, focused involvement would hasten the improvement of science teaching and learning in the public schools. MISE initiated its work by forming partnerships with four public school districts — Linden, Rahway, and Readington Township in New Jersey, and North Penn in Pennsylvania — where Merck has major facilities.

CPRE was contracted by MISE in 1993 to document the implementation of the initiative and assess its impact on districts, schools, classrooms, and students. Throughout the evaluation, CPRE conducted interviews with teachers, instructional leaders, and district personnel; surveyed teachers; developed case studies of schools; and examined student achievement data in order to provide feedback on the progress of the MISE Partnership


Out-Of-Field Teaching And The Limits Of Teacher Policy, Richard Ingersoll Sep 2003

Out-Of-Field Teaching And The Limits Of Teacher Policy, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

The failure to ensure that the nation’s classrooms are all staffed with qualified teachers is one of the most important problems in contemporary American education. Over the past decade, many panels, commissions, and studies have focused attention on this problem and, in turn, numerous reforms have been initiated to upgrade the quality and quantity of the teaching force. This report focuses on the problem of underqualified teachers in the core academic fields at the 7-12 th grade level. Using data from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, this analysis examined ...


Is There Really A Teacher Shortage?, Richard Ingersoll Sep 2003

Is There Really A Teacher Shortage?, Richard Ingersoll

CPRE Research Reports

Contemporary educational thought holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. It is widely believed that schools are plagued by shortages of teachers, primarily due to recent increases in teacher retirements and student enrollments. This report summarizes a series of analyses that have investigated the possibility that there are other factors—tied to the organizational characteristics and conditions of schools—that are behind school staffing problems. The data utilized in this investigation are from the Schools and Staffing Survey and its supplement, the Teacher Followup ...


External Support To Schools On Probation: Getting A Leg Up?, Kara Finnigan, Jennifer O'Day Jul 2003

External Support To Schools On Probation: Getting A Leg Up?, Kara Finnigan, Jennifer O'Day

CPRE Research Reports

In 1996, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began implementing a new school accountability policy designed to improve student performance by providing a combination of consequences and support to low-performing schools. The center point of the accountability system, the Chicago school probation policy, designates schools as being "on probation" if fewer than 15% (later raised to 20%) of their students score at grade-level norms on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in reading. When placed on probation, schools face the consequences of decreased autonomy and the threat of more severe sanctions. At the same time, probation schools receive direct assistance from ...


The Merck Institute For Science Education: A Successful Intermediary For Education Reform, Thomas B. Corcoran Mar 2003

The Merck Institute For Science Education: A Successful Intermediary For Education Reform, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

A variety of technical assistance organizations have been created in the last 20 years to help public schools implement reforms to improve their perfor- mance. These organizations vary in size, sponsorship, and focus, but their creation rests on the common premise that the reforms needed in the schools to educate all children to high standards require strong external stimuli and resources and knowledge beyond what are ordinarily available in public school systems (McDonald, McLaughlin, & Corcoran, 2000). Accordingly, these technical assistance organizations forge partnerships with school systems under pressure to improve their performance. Working across the boundaries of the educational system ...


What Large-Scale, Survey Research Tells Us About Teacher Effects On Student Achievement: Insights From The Prospectus Study Of Elementary Schools, Brian Rowan, Richard Correnti, Robert J. Miller Nov 2002

What Large-Scale, Survey Research Tells Us About Teacher Effects On Student Achievement: Insights From The Prospectus Study Of Elementary Schools, Brian Rowan, Richard Correnti, Robert J. Miller

CPRE Research Reports

This report is about conceptual and methodological issues that arise when educational researchers use data from large-scale, survey research studies to investigate teacher effects on student achievement. In the report, we illustrate these issues by reporting on a series of analyses we conducted using data from Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Opportunity. This large-scale, survey research effort gathered a rich store of data on instructional processes and student achievement in a large sample of U.S. elementary schools during the early 1990s as part of the federal government's evaluation of the Title I program. We use data ...


The Limits And Contradictions Of Systemic Reform: The Philadelphia Story, Thomas B. Corcoran, Jolley Bruce Christman Nov 2002

The Limits And Contradictions Of Systemic Reform: The Philadelphia Story, Thomas B. Corcoran, Jolley Bruce Christman

CPRE Research Reports

In Philadelphia, the Annenberg Challenge was known as Children Achieving and was a districtwide systemic reform initiative designed and led by a small core group of District officials and external partners. This report examines the Children Achieving Challenge and the strategies the designers employed to improve teaching and learning in the public schools. Among the conditions associated with the Annenberg Challenge were requirements that two matching dollars be raised for each one received from the Annenberg Foundation and that an independent management structure be created to provide program, fiscal, and evaluation oversight of the grant. In Philadelphia, a business organization ...


Civic Engagement And Urban School Improvement: Hard-To-Learn Lessons From Philadelphia, Jolley Bruce Christman, Amy Rhodes Jun 2002

Civic Engagement And Urban School Improvement: Hard-To-Learn Lessons From Philadelphia, Jolley Bruce Christman, Amy Rhodes

CPRE Research Reports

Philadelphia’s Children Achieving was a sweeping systemic reform initiative. Systemic reform eschews a school-byschool approach to reform and relies on coherent policy, improved coordination of resources and services, content and performance standards, decentralization of decision-making, and accountability mechanisms to transform entire school systems. Led by a dynamic superintendent and central office personnel, Children Achieving was the first attempt by an urban district to test systemic reform in practice.

In 1996, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA), were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the ...


Mayoral Influences, New Regimes, And Public School Governance, Michael W. Kirst May 2002

Mayoral Influences, New Regimes, And Public School Governance, Michael W. Kirst

CPRE Research Reports

In recent years, a spate of cities -- including Boston, Chicago, and Cleveland -- have shifted governance structures to give more control to mayors in the hope that such changes would ultimately lead to improved school quality and student achievement, as well as to diminished scandal and turmoil in the school systems. A closer look at these instances, however, shows that these governance changes have to be understood within the broader context of a particular city, and the particular frustration and challenges that led to the willingness to alter the top levels of educational control. The ways in which mayors have become ...


Implementation Of The America's Choice Literacy Workshops, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Susan M. Poglinco, Amy J. Bach Apr 2002

Implementation Of The America's Choice Literacy Workshops, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Susan M. Poglinco, Amy J. Bach

CPRE Research Reports

Fostering literacy is at the heart of the America’s Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design. Strong reading and writing skills are viewed as cornerstones of successful student performance in all subject areas. The readers and writers workshops, which together we call the literacy workshops, play a central role in moving all children toward high standards of performance. The workshops are designed to provide students with a rich immersion into the numerous skills and habits necessary to become fluent readers and writers. The structures of the literacy workshops are intended to facilitate teachers’ analyses of student skills (as represented by their ...


An Analysis Of The Effects Of Children Achieving On Student Achievement In Philadelphia Elementary Schools, Erin Tighe, Aubrey Wang, Ellen Foley Feb 2002

An Analysis Of The Effects Of Children Achieving On Student Achievement In Philadelphia Elementary Schools, Erin Tighe, Aubrey Wang, Ellen Foley

CPRE Research Reports

Philadelphia’s Children Achieving was a sweeping systemic reform initiative. Systemic reform eschews a school-byschool approach to reform and relies on coherent policy, improved coordination of resources and services, content and performance standards, decentralization of decision-making, and accountability mechanisms to transform entire school systems. Led by a dynamic superintendent and central office personnel, Children Achieving was the first attempt by an urban district to test systemic reform in practice.

In 1996, the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and its partner, Research for Action (RFA), were charged by the Children Achieving Challenge with the ...


Defining, Developing, And Using Curriculum Indicators, Andrew C. Porter, John L. Smithson Dec 2001

Defining, Developing, And Using Curriculum Indicators, Andrew C. Porter, John L. Smithson

CPRE Research Reports

We begin with a brief review of the lessons learned in the Reform Up Close study, a Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) project funded by the National Science Foundation, then discuss the central issues involved in defining and measuring curriculum indicators, while noting how our approach has developed over the past 10 years (1992-2002). This is followed by a discussion about using curriculum indicators in school improvement, program evaluation, and informing policy decisions.


Powerful Ideas, Modest Gains: Five Years Of Systemic Reform In Philadelphia Middle Schools, Jolley Bruce Christman Dec 2001

Powerful Ideas, Modest Gains: Five Years Of Systemic Reform In Philadelphia Middle Schools, Jolley Bruce Christman

CPRE Research Reports

In this report, we draw on data from a total of 11 middle schools where we conducted interviews and observations during our five-year evaluation. Five of these schools were part of more intensive, multi-year case study research. Throughout this report, we offer sketches of what happened in these five schools during the Children Achieving reform to give a sense of the progress that they did and did not make toward becoming organizations capable of supporting both teachers as they adopted challenging new instructional practices and students as they stretched to reach higher standards of achievement.


Do Higher State Test Scores In Texas Make For Better High School Outcomes?, Martin Carnoy, Susanna Loeb, Tiffany L. Smith Nov 2001

Do Higher State Test Scores In Texas Make For Better High School Outcomes?, Martin Carnoy, Susanna Loeb, Tiffany L. Smith

CPRE Research Reports

Making schools accountable through state testing was the pre-eminent educational reform of the 1990s. Thirty-nine states now administer some form of performance-based assessment, 24 states attach stakes to their tests, and 40 states use test scores for school accountability purposes (Stecher and Barron, 1999). Proponents argue that using student scores on curriculum-based tests as a measure of school effectiveness encourages teachers to teach the curriculum. The test results set a minimum standard by which schools can be judged; they quantify school quality in a way that parents and politicians can easily understand. By setting student improvement goals for schools, states ...