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University of Pennsylvania

Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration

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Full-Text Articles in Education

21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin Jan 2018

21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

This research paper provides a detailed analysis of how China has become the fastest growing art market around the world. How did the economic development in China led the country to the top in recent years, in contrast to its Western competitors? What is China’s role in the global art market scene? What changes have been made, in a socialist system, to accommodate foreign investors and what future changes should be made to sustain its growth?

Through focusing on the correlation between economic growth and art market expansions, this research develops the relationship through referencing various quantitative and qualitative ...


Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis May 2016

Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis

Honors Theses (PPE)

The vast majority of low-income, high-achieving high school students in the U.S. either do not apply to college or undermatch by attending less selective institutions than those they are qualified to attend. Previous research has demonstrated that behavioral “nudges” can be an effective and low-cost method of influencing students’ application behavior and encouraging them to enroll in selective institutions. This study contributes to this existing body of literature by examining whether framing college earnings premium information as a loss causes low-income high school students in Chicago to report greater likelihood of applying to college than when the same information ...


Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy Mar 2016

Reading Recovery: An Evaluation Of The Four-Year I3 Scale-Up, Henry May, Philip M Sirinides, Abigail Gray, Heather Goldsworthy

CPRE Research Reports

CPRE released its evaluation of one of the most ambitious and well-documented expansions of a U.S. instructional curriculum. The rigorous independent evaluation of the Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up of Reading Recovery, a literacy intervention for struggling first graders, was a collaboration between CPRE and the Center for Research on Education and Social Policy (CRESP) at the University of Delaware.

The CPRE/CRESP evaluation revealed that students who participated in Reading Recovery significantly outperformed students in the control group on measures of overall reading, reading comprehension, and decoding. These effects were similarly large for English language learners and students ...


In Search Of Terra Firma: Administrative Records On Teachers’ Positional Instability Across Subjects, Grades, And Schools And The Implications For Deploying Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, F. Joseph Merlino, Jill Bowdon, John Baker, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Michael Frisone, Tianpeng Ye, Tom Hooks, Andrew C. Porter Jan 2016

In Search Of Terra Firma: Administrative Records On Teachers’ Positional Instability Across Subjects, Grades, And Schools And The Implications For Deploying Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, F. Joseph Merlino, Jill Bowdon, John Baker, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Michael Frisone, Tianpeng Ye, Tom Hooks, Andrew C. Porter

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Philly, Delhi And Beyond: What Is A Social Science Studio?, Kushanava Choudhury May 2015

Philly, Delhi And Beyond: What Is A Social Science Studio?, Kushanava Choudhury

Reports (Social Science Studio)

In Spring 2014, six students and one professor took part in a course offered by Urban Studies at U Penn, titled "Social Science Studio: Immigrants Make the City". By focusing on the Italian Market neighborhood, in South Philadelphia, students explored how immigration transforms urban spaces in large American cities. They researched how immigrants are remaking the city economically, politically, socially, and culturally. We approached the field with multiple sets of disciplinary tools to describe what exists on the ground, in order to accommodate multiple ways of seeing.

The "Social Science Studio" concept is simple: Use the design studio format to ...


Building A Lattice For School Leadership: Lessons From England, Jonathan A. Supovitz Mar 2015

Building A Lattice For School Leadership: Lessons From England, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Policy Briefs

This policy brief examines the evolution of the educational leadership development system in England to see what ideas American leaders and policymakers might take from looking transnationally. The brief is based on a more in-depth examination of that leadership development system described in a CPRE research report entitled Building a Lattice for School Leadership: The Top-to-Bottom Rethinking of Leadership Development in England and What It Might Mean for American Education. The research report was based upon a year of research on school leadership in England that included extensive background research, site visits to schools and leadership programs, and over 20 ...


#Commoncore: Methods, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno Feb 2015

#Commoncore: Methods, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno

The #commoncore Project—How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

This section provides a detailed discussion of the methods used to arrive at the conclusions in #CommonCore: How social media is changing the politics of education.


#Commoncore Project: How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno Feb 2015

#Commoncore Project: How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Alan J. Daly, Miguel Del Fresno

The #commoncore Project—How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

The Common Core has become a flashpoint at the nexus of education politics and policy, fueled by ardent social media activists. To explore this phenomenon, this innovative and interactive website examines the Common Core debate through the lens of the influential social media site Twitter. Using a social network perspective that examines the relationships among actors, we focus on the most highly used Twitter hashtag about the Common Core: #commoncore. The central question of our investigation is: How are social media-enabled social networks changing the discourse in American politics that produces and sustains social policy? To join a conversation about ...


A Digital Revitalization: Immigration And The Italian Market, Sean Lynch Jan 2015

A Digital Revitalization: Immigration And The Italian Market, Sean Lynch

Reports (Social Science Studio)

Existing theories of public spaces are outdated because they largely ignore the advent of digital socialization. The revitalization of public spaces such as parks, sidewalks in the new urbanist mold is premised on ideas of public space from the 1950s, before suburban sprawl. However, technology, such as smart phones and social media, have fundamentally changed the way in which all groups now interface with space. This is especially true of immigrants, who exist in multiple spaces, at home and in the new city, at once and maintain these myriad linkages through digital space.

This project presents a critique of proposed ...


An Urban Myth? New Evidence Of Equity, Adequacy And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn Dec 2014

An Urban Myth? New Evidence Of Equity, Adequacy And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn

CPRE Working Papers

In this article, we offer an empirical rejoinder to the oft-told story that large urban districts, like Philadelphia, are inefficient. We situate our study during the very short period in Pennsylvania’s recent history when efforts were dedicated to addressing the inequitable distribution of resources through a fair funding formula and to increasing the amount of resources available for education spending. Even in the presence of a funding formula, school districts like Philadelphia (SDP) with its large percentage of low-income students and English language learners were disproportionately burdened. Unsurprisingly, the SDP, like many districts across the nation, did not receive ...


An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn Nov 2014

An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn

CPRE Policy Briefs

How and in what ways money matters in education is a long-standing question among policymakers and education researchers. This issue is particularly salient to large, urban school districts, where debates on the organization of school often gravitate toward issues of financial resources and academic performance. Large urban districts, the story goes, spend more money per pupil but generate lower than expected results. In this policy brief, University of Pennsylvania researchers Matthew P. Steinberg and Rand Quinn present evidence that addresses the oft-told story that large urban districts, such as the School District of Philadelphia (SDP), are inefficient.


The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith Nov 2014

The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith

CPRE Policy Briefs

After the Spring 2014 primaries, the Common Core State Standards were viewed as a political hot potato. As former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee said, “the Common Core has become toxic, I think it’s radioactive…It has become an incredibly controversial topic on both the left and the right.” Even so, the Common Core turned out to play a role in some of the governor’s races in November 2014.

In this analysis of candidate positions and the role of the Common Core across the 36 gubernatorial races of 2014, CPRE researchers Bobbi Newman, Jonathan Supovitz and Arial Smith used ...


Building A Lattice For School Leadership: The Top-To-Bottom Rethinking Of Leadership Development In England And What It Might Mean For American Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz Nov 2014

Building A Lattice For School Leadership: The Top-To-Bottom Rethinking Of Leadership Development In England And What It Might Mean For American Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Research Reports

This report examines the educational leadership development system in England over the last 15 years to identify ideas American leaders and policymakers might learn from looking cross-nationally. The report describes the rise of the National College for School Leadership in England, which spearheaded much of the early policy development and enactment and the subsequent governmental shift towards a more decentralized policy of fostering school networks. Supovitz envisions the potential assimilation of these two movements into an integrated lattice for school leadership.

The lattice for school leadership in England is the careful integration of formal and social learning opportunities for leaders ...


State Of Attainment: Three Ways That States Can Help More Students Access Higher Levels Of Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney Nov 2014

State Of Attainment: Three Ways That States Can Help More Students Access Higher Levels Of Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney

GSE Publications

Fourteenth place. That's where the United States ranked in the proportion of 25- to 34-year-olds who achieved postsecondary degrees, according to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unless the U.S. increases the share of the population that has completed a college degree, the country will lack the educational skills and training required to meet the workforce demands of a global economy. Sixty-three percent of job researchers predict, will require education beyond high school in 2018. For the U.S. to be competitive on a global scale, it must devote more effort to closing ...


Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design In New York City, 2011-12, Jonathan A. Supovitz Oct 2014

Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design In New York City, 2011-12, Jonathan A. Supovitz

CPRE Policy Briefs

How do policymakers craft policies, particularly centered on the Common Core State Standards, to be more resilient and less likely to disintegrate during enactment? Researcher Jonathan Supovitz in Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12 examines the design of a New York City Department of Education policy intended to engage teachers and principals across NYC with the instructional challenges of Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This summary provides an instructive backstory to some of the thought processes of the policy architects and provides insight into the way that careful policymaking can be more resilient to decay as ...


How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes Oct 2014

How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes

CPRE Policy Briefs

Policymakers have urged state education agencies (SEAs) to engage with organizations outside of their agencies to extend their capacity and to help them collect and use research to support school improvement. However, little is known about how SEAs search for, select, and use research in their school improvement efforts.

In the first study to examine communication structures, social capital, and information networks within SEAs, researchers Goertz, Barnes, and Massell in How State Education Agencies Acquire and Use Research in School Improvement Strategies applied social network perspectives and methods to identify knowledge sources utilized by SEAs. Their findings provide important insights ...


On Not Taking Language Inequality For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa’S Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2014

On Not Taking Language Inequality For Granted: Hymesian Traces In Ethnographic Monitoring Of South Africa’S Multilingual Language Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

South African higher education is at a critical juncture in the implementation of South Africa’s multilingual language policy promoting institutional status for nine African languages, English, and Afrikaans. South African scholars, not content merely to comment from the sidelines on the policy, its promise, and challenges, have also engaged in implementation efforts. This article explores two such initiatives, both focusing on the use of African languages in higher education institutions where English is already established as the medium of instruction, and both undertaken with explicit goals of righting South Africa’s longstanding social injustices. I collaborated with colleagues at ...


Youth Mentoring Partnership's Friend Fitness Program: Theoretical Foundations And Promising Preliminary Findings From A New Positive Psychology Intervention For Grit And Positive Youth Development, Chris Major Aug 2013

Youth Mentoring Partnership's Friend Fitness Program: Theoretical Foundations And Promising Preliminary Findings From A New Positive Psychology Intervention For Grit And Positive Youth Development, Chris Major

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Education reform and promotion of adolescent positive health (both physical and psychological) are two major public policy issues that can be impacted by direct intervention. The fields of positive psychology and positive youth development offer a theoretical foundation for scientific research as well as pragmatic, evidence-based methods of positive interventions (PIs). Mentoring is a unique intervention method geared towards both promotion and prevention. The Youth Mentoring Partnership’s Friend Fitness Program represents a new PI method with the goal of strengthening character traits in young people through a unique form of physical fitness-based mentoring in which adolescents must persevere through ...


Children’S Schooling And Parents’ Behavior: Evidence From The Head Start Impact Study, Alexander M. Gelber, Adam Isen May 2013

Children’S Schooling And Parents’ Behavior: Evidence From The Head Start Impact Study, Alexander M. Gelber, Adam Isen

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children—such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days spent with children by fathers who do not live with their children—both during and after the period when their children are potentially enrolled in Head ...


An Interview With Laura Perna: Reactions To President Obama's State Of The Union Address, Michael F. Shaughnessy, Laura W. Perna Feb 2013

An Interview With Laura Perna: Reactions To President Obama's State Of The Union Address, Michael F. Shaughnessy, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn Nov 2012

The State Of Teacher Evaluation Reform, Patrick Mcguinn

CPRE Research Reports

As highlighted in recent news reports, many states are struggling to implement their new teacher-evaluation systems and most of the Race to the Top winners have asked to extend their timetables for completing this work. This paper, written by CPRE’s Patrick McGuinn for the Center for American Progress, offers an assessment of how early adopter states’ departments of education have understaken the preparation and implementation of new evaluation systems. It also identifies challenges and lessons that can be used to guide future reform efforts in this area.


Learning From Nclb: School Responses To Accountability Pressure And Student Subgroup Performance, Elliot H Weinbaum, Michael J. Weiss, Jessica K. Beaver Sep 2012

Learning From Nclb: School Responses To Accountability Pressure And Student Subgroup Performance, Elliot H Weinbaum, Michael J. Weiss, Jessica K. Beaver

CPRE Policy Briefs

Much has been written in the last decade about the spotlight that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) shines on schoolperformance. Proponents and opponents alike are quick to discuss the law’s rigid definitions of school performance— exemplified by the classification of schools as making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) or not making AYP based largely on annual tests in reading and mathematics, disaggregating school performance by student subgroups, and requiring that all schools reach 100% proficiency. Yet for all its rigidity, the law has offered schools little guidance on how to make use of the performance data that the ...


Measuring School Capacity, Maximizing School Improvement, Jessica K. Beaver, Elliot H. Weinbaum Jul 2012

Measuring School Capacity, Maximizing School Improvement, Jessica K. Beaver, Elliot H. Weinbaum

CPRE Policy Briefs

Given the nearly ubiquitous use of the term "capacity" in education policy discourse, this policy brief offers a common framework for analyzing capacity that educators, policymakers, and researchers alike can apply and understand with consistency. Drawing data from a larger three-year CPRE study of school responses to accountability in Pennsylvania, the authors' goal is not to provide an easy, new, one-sentence definition, but rather to create a shared language that can be applied to research and improvement efforts in schools. To accomplish this, the authors break capacity down into component parts, explaining how each one builds off the next and ...


A Policy Analysis Of The Federal Growth Model Pilot Program's Measures Of School Performance: The Florida Case, Michael J. Weiss, Henry May Jan 2012

A Policy Analysis Of The Federal Growth Model Pilot Program's Measures Of School Performance: The Florida Case, Michael J. Weiss, Henry May

GSE Graduate Student Research

As test-based educational accountability has moved to the forefront of national and state education policy, so has the desire for better measures of school performance. No Child Left Behind's (NCLB) status and safe harbor measures have been criticized for being unfair and unreliable, respectively. In response to such criticism, in 2005 the federal government announced the Growth Model Pilot Program, which permits states to use projection models (a type of growth model) in their accountability systems. This article uses historical longitudinal data from a large school district to empirically show the inaccuracy of one state's projection model, to ...


Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman Jan 2012

Understanding The Role Of Research Universities In Improving College Preparation And Access At Local Urban High Schools, Laura W. Perna, Ira Harkavy, Cory Bowman

GSE Publications

Urban colleges and universities not only have a responsibility to engage in activities designed to improve the educational attainment of local urban youth, but also have extensive financial, human, intellectual, and organizational resources that may be directed productively toward this purpose. This article describes the multipronged approach that the University of Pennsylvania is using to improve college opportunities for students attending Philadelphia high schools. We conclude by offering lessons that other institutions may draw from this example.


From Policy To Practice: Implementation Of The Legislative Objectives Of Charter Schools, Katherine M Barghaus, Erling E. Boe Nov 2011

From Policy To Practice: Implementation Of The Legislative Objectives Of Charter Schools, Katherine M Barghaus, Erling E. Boe

GSE Publications

Key legislative objectives of charter schools are to provide more school and classroom options, increase teacher influence over decision making, and increase school autonomy from state and district policy. Using national data from the 2003–4 School and Staffing Survey, we found that charter schools attained these legislative objectives when compared with regular schools, although increases in teacher influence and school autonomy were modest. Although charter schools have been implemented much as intended by legislation, other research has shown that charter schools in general have not improved student achievement—a major objective of charter school legislation. Our results suggest that ...


Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes (Ib Access Project): Evaluation Report Year Two, Gail Gerry, Thomas B. Corcoran Sep 2011

Expanding Access, Participation, And Success In International Baccalaureate Programmes (Ib Access Project): Evaluation Report Year Two, Gail Gerry, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

In the fall of 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded a three-year project proposed by the International Baccalaureate (IB) to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the participation of minority students and students in poverty in its Middle Years Programme (MYP) and Diploma Programme (DP) in selected school districts in the United States. “Expanding Access, Participation and Success in IB Programmes” or the IB Access Project, as it has come to be known, is utilizing a multi-faceted technical assistance and materials development strategy to strengthen IB programs and broaden access for students previously excluded in the Anne Arundel County ...


The Role Of Learning Progressions In Standards-Based Education Reform, Fritz Mosher Sep 2011

The Role Of Learning Progressions In Standards-Based Education Reform, Fritz Mosher

CPRE Policy Briefs

The Role of Learning Progressions in Standards-Based Education Reform written by Frederic A. Mosher, summarizes findings from two reports examining the concepts of learning progressions and learning trajectories as they are being applied in science and mathematics education. This policy brief reviews conclusions from the two extensive reports and discusses the implications of their findings for policy and for future research and development.


Growing School Networks For Instructional Improvement In Jordan, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson Aug 2011

Growing School Networks For Instructional Improvement In Jordan, 2009-2010, Marian A. Robinson

CPRE Research Reports

In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure, technology, and curriculum development. The emphasis has been placed on the development of skills essential to Jordan’s emerging knowledge economy and the use of technology both as a skill set and a delivery platform for the new curriculum. The second phase of this initiative, ERfKE II, which ...


Working The Crevices: Granting Students Authority In Authoritarian Schools, Joan F. Goodman, Jessica Hoagland, Nadel Pierre-Toussaint, Celeste Rodriguez, Christina Sanabria May 2011

Working The Crevices: Granting Students Authority In Authoritarian Schools, Joan F. Goodman, Jessica Hoagland, Nadel Pierre-Toussaint, Celeste Rodriguez, Christina Sanabria

GSE Publications

Schools are beset with a serious “alienation gap” between teachers and students that is no less a problem than the “achievement gap.” Increasing student voice is thought to be one means to fill the gap, for it activates agency and thereby decreases passivity. The extent of agency ranges from attentive adult listening to strong student leadership. Here we concentrate on distinguishing elements of freedom, power, and authority in the enactment of agency, particularly how these elements can be distributed to students in urban authoritarian schools. In this article, four second-year Teach for America graduate students describe and reflect on their ...