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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger Feb 2019

The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger

CPRE Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


Mapping The Reading Improvement Sector In New York City The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger Feb 2019

Mapping The Reading Improvement Sector In New York City The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger

CPRE Working Papers

This report shares the results of a project designed to help build the collective capacity and increase the impact of the external support providers working to improve K-3 reading outcomes in New York City public elementary schools. In the first phase of the project, we identified all the programs in what we call the K-3 reading improvement sector in NYC 2014-15. In the second phase, we examined the extent to which a sample of these programs have the goals, resources, and personnel to improve reading outcomes system-wide. In the third phase, we mapped the relationships among a sample of programs ...


Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas Mar 2018

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas

GSE Publications

A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea five years earlier for language users, educators, and researchers to fill up and wedge open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities, and practices to flourish and grow rather than dwindle and disappear. With roots going back to the 1980s and 1990s, ethnographic research in LPP had been ...


Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger Sep 2017

Portraits Of Three Language Activists In Indigenous Language Reclamation, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In an approach inspired by portraiture and ‘history in person,’ this paper portrays three women Indigenous language activists engaged in language reclamation, highlighting the mutually constitutive nature of language and the enduring struggles of Indigenous peoples that are crucibles for forging their identities. Neri Mamani breaks down longstanding language and identity compartmentalisations in Peru by assuming a personal language policy of using Quechua and engaging in Indigenous practices in public, urban, and literate spaces. Nobuhle Hlongwa teaches a university course on language planning through isiZulu medium and is a key figure in advocating for, negotiating, and implementing multilingual language policy ...


El Aprendizaje En La Base De La Pirámide: Restricciones, Comparabilidad Y Política En Países En Vías De Desarrollo, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo Jan 2017

El Aprendizaje En La Base De La Pirámide: Restricciones, Comparabilidad Y Política En Países En Vías De Desarrollo, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Los objetivos para el desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas han asignado, de manera sostenida, una alta prioridad a la calidad educativa —y a la del aprendizaje. Esto ha llevado a avances sustanciales en ayuda para el desarrollo internacional hacia la educación, y también a una mayor atención, a nivel mundial, a la importancia del aprendizaje de los niños. Sin embargo, tales metas son principalmente normativas: tienden a representar promedios entre naciones, brindando limitada atención a las variaciones dentro de dichos países. La presente investigación proporciona un análisis de las tensiones científicas en la comprensión del aprendizaje en poblaciones pobres y ...


Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2017

Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In personal tribute to Joshua A. Fishman, I tell a few stories about this remarkable scholar as I got to know him – a glimpse of the person behind the great ideas that have so powerfully shaped our thinking. My many vivid memories of things Fishman said or wrote in my personal encounters with him – often pithy one-liners – are testimony to the power of his mind and voice, his spirit and soul. From my first year of Ph.D. study when I took his course Sociology of Bilingual Education at the 1980 Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute at the University ...


Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2016

Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

These resources cannot be neglected much longer without lasting negative effects. While we have introdu ed here the idea of a “resource-­language” to talk about cultural and linguistic maintenance, we must see the differences between these and material resources like coal and oil. We can leave the oil in the ground and it will still be there to use in a hundred years; the more we use it, and the more we use it unwisely, the less we have of it later. Just the opposite is true of language and culture. The more we use these, the more we ...


Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2016

Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upon Ruiz’s own work as well as the work of other scholars who have been inspired by him, we unpack the ideas aligned with each orientation in order to reflect upon the application of the three orientations as a heuristic for LPP. In ...


Learning At The Bottom Of The Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability And Policy In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo Dec 2014

Learning At The Bottom Of The Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability And Policy In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

United Nations development goals have consistently placed a high priority on the quality of education—and of learning. This has led to substantive increases in international development assistance to education, and also to broader attention, worldwide, to the importance of children’s learning. Yet, such goals are mainly normative: they tend to be averages across nations, with relatively limited attention to variations within countries. This review provides an analysis of the scientific tensions in understanding learning among poor and marginalized populations: those at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP). While international agencies such as UNESCO and OECD often invoke these ...


Mobiles For Reading: A Landscape Research Review, Daniel A. Wagner Jun 2014

Mobiles For Reading: A Landscape Research Review, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

This landscape review takes the broad domain of new information and communications technologies (ICTs) for education, and focuses on the fast-evolving sub-domain of mobiles for reading, or M4R. The 'mobiles' in this review primarily refer to mobile technologies— ICTs that are portable, typically battery powered, and may be connected to cellular networks and/or the Internet. The term 'reading' refers to the joint abilities of understanding and producing written language, for children, youth and adults. This review of M4R focuses primarily on the use of mobile ICTs designed to help children learn to read, practice reading (reading to learn), and ...


Mobiles For Literacy In Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo, Katie M. Murphy, Molly Crofton, Fatima T. Zahra Mar 2014

Mobiles For Literacy In Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework, Daniel A. Wagner, Nathan M. Castillo, Katie M. Murphy, Molly Crofton, Fatima T. Zahra

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have been called successful, but little credible evidence exists for those claims. Drawing on a robust sample of projects in the domain of mobiles for literacy, this article introduces a design solution framework that combines intervention purposes with devices, end users, and local contexts. In combination with ...


Quality, Learning, And Cultural Comparisons: Trade-Offs In Educational Policy Development, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2014

Quality, Learning, And Cultural Comparisons: Trade-Offs In Educational Policy Development, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

With the advent of the United Nations Education First initiative, and considering the continued efforts to focus on the quality of education in low-income countries, there has been a renewed interest in the improvement of learning (as distinct from school attendance) in poor and marginalized populations (Wagner, Murphy, and de Korne, 2012).1 There is a large and diverse empirical research base in the area of human learning. Yet much of the available research is substantially limited by boundary constraints of various kinds. Most prominent among them is the limited ability to generalize from findings in one population context to ...


Learning First: A Research Agenda For Improving Learning In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Katie M. Murphy, Haley De Korne Dec 2012

Learning First: A Research Agenda For Improving Learning In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Katie M. Murphy, Haley De Korne

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

In 2011, the Center for Universal Education (CUE) at the Brookings Institution spearheaded the development of a common policy agenda on global education entitled A Global Compact on Learning: Taking Action on Education in Developing Countries. The report recommended a call to action for a diverse group of international stakeholders to come together to work toward achieving quality education for all. As a part of this larger policy agenda, CUE works with various scholars and organizations to address the many issues within the scope of the Global Compact on Learning.


What Should Be Learned From Learning Assessments?, Daniel A. Wagner Mar 2012

What Should Be Learned From Learning Assessments?, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Learning assessments have grown increasingly important as policy makers and other educational consumers (agencies, schools, communities, parents, individuals, etc.) have sought to understand what is (and isn’t) learned as a function of information inputs. Increasingly, ministers of education are no longer satisfied with who is attending school, but also how well what is being taught is learned, and perhaps how well the minister is doing relative to ministers in other countries. Even at the individual level, in both wealthy and poor countries, both parents and children want to know whether or not they will succeed in school, or in ...


What Happened To Literacy? Historical And Conceptual Perspectives On Literacy In Unesco, Daniel A. Wagner May 2011

What Happened To Literacy? Historical And Conceptual Perspectives On Literacy In Unesco, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

For more than six decades, UNESCO has dedicated itself to be the international agency leader in literacy, even though other aspects of educational development have received greater attention and resources by the broader international community. Resources for UNESCO's literacy work have not increased, and its programmatic activities have been increasingly debated when seen in relationship to the scope of literacy challenges across the globe. Moving forward in a time of restricted budgets will require UNESCO to strengthen itself as a professional innovator and thought leader.


Review Of Agneta Lind, Literacy For All: Making A Difference And John Oxenham, Effective Literacy Programmes: Options For Policy-Makers, Gina Arnone, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 2011

Review Of Agneta Lind, Literacy For All: Making A Difference And John Oxenham, Effective Literacy Programmes: Options For Policy-Makers, Gina Arnone, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All (EFA) in Jomtien (Thailand) spurred a collective global movement to meet the basic learning needs of each person, with a special focus on developing countries. Ten years later, with the stated goals not met, and indeed far from it, the international community renewed its commitments in Dakar, Senegal. At the World Education Forum in 2000, national and organizational representatives resolved to improve educational opportunities and services and set six objectives for 2015, including a 50 percent increase in adult literacy. Despite this pledge and others (e.g., launch of the UN Literacy ...


How Much Is Learning Measurement Worth? Assessment Costs In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Andrew Babson, Katie M. Murphy Jan 2011

How Much Is Learning Measurement Worth? Assessment Costs In Low-Income Countries, Daniel A. Wagner, Andrew Babson, Katie M. Murphy

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Timely and credible data on student learning has become a global issue in the ongoing effort to improve educational outcomes. With the potential to serve as a powerful diagnostic tool to gauge the overall health and well-being of an educational system, educational assessments have received increasing attention among specialists and the media. Though the stakes are high, relatively little is known about the cost-benefit ratio of various assessments compared to other educational expenditures. This paper presents an overview of four major types of assessments — national, regional, international and hybrid — and the costs that each has incurred within 13 distinct contexts ...


Technology And Mother-Tongue Literacy In Southern India: Impact Studies Among Young Children And Out-Of-School Youth, Daniel A. Wagner, C. J. Daswani, Romilla Karnati Jan 2010

Technology And Mother-Tongue Literacy In Southern India: Impact Studies Among Young Children And Out-Of-School Youth, Daniel A. Wagner, C. J. Daswani, Romilla Karnati

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The present research began with one main question: How can new technologies be effective for poor and illiterate children and youth in developing countries? We addressed this question through a research-based implementation project in India that included the development of local language multimedia software for literacy; a built-in, user-friendly interface; and the use of existing computer infrastructure. Two studies were undertaken in Andhra Pradesh state. One included a sample of youth and young adults who had never gone to school (or dropped out early) in peri-urban Hyderabad, and the other was composed of young second- and third-grade school children in ...


Quality Of Education, Comparability, And Assessment Choice In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2010

Quality Of Education, Comparability, And Assessment Choice In Developing Countries, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Over the past decade, international development agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than simply quantity) of education in developing countries. This new focus has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality. As this interest in assessment has grown, low-income countries have begun to adopt and adapt international and other assessments for a variety of uses, including the comparability of national quality with other countries, improved ways of measuring reading achievement, and further attempts to reach marginalized populations within a country ...


New Technologies For Adult Literacy And International Development, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2009

New Technologies For Adult Literacy And International Development, Daniel A. Wagner

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

Few areas of social and economic development have received as much attention and as few proportionate resources as adult literacy. Across the world – in both industrialized and developing countries alike – it is widely acknowledged that at most, 5 percent of national education budgets is spent on the roughly 50 percent of the adult population in need of increased literacy skills.

For several centuries, it has been variously claimed that literacy – a key (if not the key) product of schooling – would lead to economic growth, social stability, a democratic way of life, and other social 'good things.' Detailed historical reviews have ...


Introduction To Ict And Learning: Supporting Out-Of-School Youth And Adults, Daniel A. Wagner, Richard Sweet Jan 2006

Introduction To Ict And Learning: Supporting Out-Of-School Youth And Adults, Daniel A. Wagner, Richard Sweet

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

In attempting to raise levels of educational achievement and attainment, countries will obtain the greatest increase in overall national performance if they raise the performance of the lowest achievers and of those with the lowest level of qualifications. These are the groups whose improvement will make the greatest difference to the national average. Policies that specifically target low achievers and those with few formal qualifications have a special relevance to two groups outside the education system: youth who have dropped out of school without having completed a secondary education qualification, and low-skilled adults. The pressures for public policy to focus ...


Information Technologies And Education For The Poor In Africa: Recommendations For A Pro-Poor Ict4d Non-Formal Education Policy, Daniel A. Wagner, Bob Day, Joseph S. Sun May 2004

Information Technologies And Education For The Poor In Africa: Recommendations For A Pro-Poor Ict4d Non-Formal Education Policy, Daniel A. Wagner, Bob Day, Joseph S. Sun

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

More than half of Africa's youth and adults do not have basic literacy skills and/or have not completed primary or secondary school. It is deeply concerning how little serious attention has been paid to the potential ways in which ICT can enhance such skills, as part of a pro-poor model of ICT for Development (ICT4D). Such work is crucial if the goals of Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) are to be achieved. The present effort, "Information Technologies and Education for the Poor in Africa" (ITEPA), is designed to focus attention on what is ...


Literacy Assessment Practices (Lap) In Selected Developing Countries: Analytic Review Of Four Lap Country Case Studies, Daniel A. Wagner Apr 2002

Literacy Assessment Practices (Lap) In Selected Developing Countries: Analytic Review Of Four Lap Country Case Studies, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

The present paper provides an analytic review of four country case studies that were prepared for the Literacy Assessment Practices (LAP) project, undertaken jointly by the International Literacy Institute (ILI) and UNESCO, in collaboration with UIS and UIE. This report attempts to provide a summary of key issues, as well as to identify lessons learned and areas that are in need of further investigation. Examples are drawn from the four cases in the light of the present context of the field of adult literacy, and various conclusions and new directions are drawn from this material. Overall, in the context for ...


It And Education For The Poorest Of The Poor: Constraints, Possibilities, And Principles, Daniel A. Wagner Jul 2001

It And Education For The Poorest Of The Poor: Constraints, Possibilities, And Principles, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Long before the term "Digital Divide" became a common term to describe gaps between the rich and poor in the effective access and use of information technology (IT), most policy makers, researchers and practitioners could at least agree on one thing: Reaching the poorest of the poor was going to be the most difficult of challenges.


Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner May 2000

Literacy, Technological Literacy, And The Digital Divide, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The United Nations estimates that there are one billion illiterate adults in the world today (about one-quarter of the world's adult population), the vast majority of whom are located in the poorest half of the world. Furthermore, recent surveys suggest that this situation is even more serious than previously believed. Industrialized (OECD) countries now admit to having very serious problems of their own in literacy and basic skills, with up to 25% of adults considered to be lacking the basic skills needed to function effectively in the workforce (see OECD/Statistics Canada, 1995; Tuijnman et al., 1997).


Literacy And Adult Education: Thematic Studies, Daniel A. Wagner Apr 2000

Literacy And Adult Education: Thematic Studies, Daniel A. Wagner

Working Papers (Literacy.org)

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) in Jomtien, Thailand, included adult literacy as one of its six major worldwide goals. Although the complete elimination of illiteracy by the year 2000 was adopted as a goal of UNESCO and a significant number of its Member States in the Udaipur Declaration of two decades ago, the Jomtien Conference scaled back such promises, and chose a more modest, and theoretically achievable, goal of cutting illiteracy rates in half by the year 2000. The reasons for this reduction in targeted goal were numerous. As this report describes, important gains have been ...


Basic Skills In Adult Education And The Digital Divide, Lynda Ginsburg, John Sabatini, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 2000

Basic Skills In Adult Education And The Digital Divide, Lynda Ginsburg, John Sabatini, Daniel A. Wagner

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

Traditionally, basic adult education has had a particular concern with the skills of literacy and numeracy, seeing these as essential for entry to the world of work. Adult education teachers may therefore be reluctant to adopt ICT, unsure of the part it should play, and worried about the time it takes away from the development of these basic skills. As we enter the 21st century, however, ICT has already become a necessary and important component of adult education. Formal and non-formal education are being delivered at a distance via technology — particularly the Internet — with the promise that learning can take ...


Assessing Basic Learning Competencies Among Youth And Young Adults In Developing Countries: Analytic Survey Framework And Implementation Guidelines, Daniel A. Wagner Sep 1999

Assessing Basic Learning Competencies Among Youth And Young Adults In Developing Countries: Analytic Survey Framework And Implementation Guidelines, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) in 190 at Jomtien, Thailand, included a number of educational targets related to out-of-school youth and adults, including: (1) to reduce the number of adilt illiterates to half of the 1990 level by the year 2000; and (2) to improve learning achievement to an agreed percentage of an appropriate age cohort. WCEFA also stresed the need to monitor and evaluate the performance of individual learners as well as the delivery mechanisms and outcomes of literacy and other non-formal education programmes. At the Mid-Decade Review meeting on EFA in Amman (in June 1996 ...


Adult Literacy Assessment In Comparative Contexts, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1997

Adult Literacy Assessment In Comparative Contexts, Daniel A. Wagner

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

In an ever-shrinking world, there are increasing efforts among many countries to understand their economic, social, and educational policies in the relative light of other nations' successes and failures. Largely begun by anthropologiests in the colonial era, cross-cultural studies examined and compared human behavior ranging from childrearing practices and initiation rites to the training of craftsmen and sedentary agriculturists. Cross-cultural and cross-national comparisons of literacy ability are of rather more recent vintage; for example, studies of the cultural specificities of reading in different languages and scripts, the cognitive consequences of literacy in cultural groups, and skill performance across industrialized countries ...


To Read Or Not To Read: The Enduring Question Of Low Adult Literacy In America, Daniel A. Wagner Oct 1995

To Read Or Not To Read: The Enduring Question Of Low Adult Literacy In America, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

In 1990, America's governors reached a historic consensus on a set of national educational goals as targets for the year 2000. Among these national goals was that " ... every adult American shall be literate." While this goal was widely applauded by those in the literacy community, much more national attention (and nearly 15 times the budgetary resources) has been devoted to the other goals that focus almost exclusively on improving the formal K-12 school system. Now, with the new Adult Education Act, welfare-reform legislation pending in Congress, and renewed debate over the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, the troubling (and ...