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Australian Journal of Teacher Education

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Culturally And Linguistically Diverse School Environments – Exploring The Unknown, Lyn Gilmour, Dr Helen Klieve, Dr Minglin Li Jan 2018

Culturally And Linguistically Diverse School Environments – Exploring The Unknown, Lyn Gilmour, Dr Helen Klieve, Dr Minglin Li

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Abstract: Australian education policies aspire to meet the unique needs of all students including those from linguistically diverse backgrounds; however, a first step in achieving this aim is clear identification of such students. Many children from previous migrant families and new arrivals to Australia come from homes where at least one parent speaks a language other than English. This exploratory research utilises survey and interview responses from students and staff in five Queensland state high schools. Results showed that 79.5% of the 2,484 students surveyed were from English-only homes with only 10.5% classified as having English as ...


Professional Teaching Standards: A Comparative Analysis Of Their History, Implementation And Efficacy, Kairen Call Jan 2018

Professional Teaching Standards: A Comparative Analysis Of Their History, Implementation And Efficacy, Kairen Call

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Since the publication of results from the first iteration of testing within the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the ensuing media consternation and political rhetoric about teacher quality in education systems around the world, professional standards for teachers have been considered, developed and implemented globally in various forms. Justified by the argument that they raise teacher quality which in turn raises student outcomes, professional standards for teachers are being considered as an integral part of the solution to current deficits in education. This article explores the forces driving and restraining professional standards for teachers within international and Australian ...


A Systematic Review Of The Research On The Knowledge And Skills Of Australian Preservice Teachers, Jennifer Stephenson Jan 2018

A Systematic Review Of The Research On The Knowledge And Skills Of Australian Preservice Teachers, Jennifer Stephenson

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Since knowledge and skills related to curriculum content and pedagogy are crucial for teachers, it is of interest to explore the research relating to what preservice teachers know and can do. Refereed journal articles published between 2005 and 2015 that reported on the assessment of the knowledge or skills of Australian preservice teachers are reviewed. Data were extracted from 52 articles relating to the context of the research, participants in the research and the adequacy of the knowledge and skills of preservice teachers. Most authors expressed some concern about the level of knowledge and skills of preservice teachers and where ...


Teachers’ Phonological Awareness Assessment Practices, Self-Reported Knowledge And Actual Knowledge: The Challenge Of Assessing What You May Know Less About, Karyn Carson, Anne Bayetto Jan 2018

Teachers’ Phonological Awareness Assessment Practices, Self-Reported Knowledge And Actual Knowledge: The Challenge Of Assessing What You May Know Less About, Karyn Carson, Anne Bayetto

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study investigates the relationship between early childhood (EC) and early years’ primary school (EYPS) teachers’ phonological awareness (PA) assessment practices, self-reported PA knowledge and actual PA knowledge. Method: A survey design was employed whereby 102 registered Australian EC and EYPS teachers responded to questions regarding PA assessment practices, self-reported PA knowledge and actual PA knowledge. Results: The results showed: a) more than 80% of teachers use PA assessments, with EYPS teachers conducting frequent assessments and EC teachers conducting rare-to-occasional assessments; b) over-estimation of self-reported PA knowledge; c) low levels of actual PA knowledge; and d) high usage of observations ...


Trainee Teachers’ Learning About Collective Worship In Primary Schools, Imran Mogra Jan 2018

Trainee Teachers’ Learning About Collective Worship In Primary Schools, Imran Mogra

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This article gives an account of a qualitative research project which investigated acts of collective worship (hereafter CW) in primary schools through non-participant observations undertaken by second year trainee teachers during one of their placements. The data were gathered from a range of schools across the West Midlands. The findings illustrate structural elements which show a lack of uniformity in terms of the venue and time. Religious leaders, classroom assistants and staff at all levels of responsibility deliver assemblies and CW. The focus of the content is diverse and includes religious and ‘secular’ material and events. Trainees learnt about the ...


Implementation Of Portfolios Within Australian Initial Teacher Education: Who’S Leading The Charge?, Chad M. Morrison, Jennifer Masters, Megan Quentin-Baxter Jan 2018

Implementation Of Portfolios Within Australian Initial Teacher Education: Who’S Leading The Charge?, Chad M. Morrison, Jennifer Masters, Megan Quentin-Baxter

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Recent changes to national accreditation requirements have emphasised portfolios as the required mechanism for initial teacher education providers to demonstrate the impact of their programs against the Graduate Teacher Standards and to prepare graduates to be classroom ready. This paper presents findings from a national survey of teacher educators developed to capture how and where implementation of portfolios of evidence has been occurring. Discussion focuses on the reported concentration of activities within small programmatic teams and the comprehensive level of involvement that champions of portfolios are assuming. The priorities pursued by these individuals and teams are presented alongside possible implications ...


‘Aboriginal Learning Style’ And Culturally Responsive Schooling: Entangled, Entangling, And The Possibilities Of Getting Disentangled, Greg Vass Jan 2018

‘Aboriginal Learning Style’ And Culturally Responsive Schooling: Entangled, Entangling, And The Possibilities Of Getting Disentangled, Greg Vass

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Arising from the author’s experiences as a high school teacher, and now teacher educator and education researcher, this article is motivated by concerns to do with ‘good’ schooling practices in connection with Indigenous education in Australia. More specifically, the paper critically considers the enduring and worrying influences of ‘Aboriginal learning style theory’, alongside considering the possibilities of culturally responsive approaches. While interest in culturally responsive schooling is growing, the argument put forward here is that concomitant with these efforts, more attention needs to be invested into teasing out how and why this approach differs from learning styles in significant ...


A Leadership Strategy: Coaching, A Singaporean Example, Marjory A. Ebbeck, Connie Seah Geok Lian Jan 2018

A Leadership Strategy: Coaching, A Singaporean Example, Marjory A. Ebbeck, Connie Seah Geok Lian

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The demand for recruiting and retaining early childhood teachers remains a challenging problem in the early childhood field in Singapore as well as in many other countries. A research study was devised to investigate if the use of a ‘coaching approach’ could bring about change in teachers’ participation in their centre’s management and organisational climate. The study involved 72 teachers and seven principals from seven, privately owned child care centres. A before-and-after study intervention was conducted over an 18-month period of time. Results showed significant statistical increases in that a coaching intervention had made a difference to both teachers ...


Rethinking Teacher Education For Classroom Behaviour Management: Investigation Of An Alternative Model Using An Online Professional Experience In An Australian University., Angela Page, Marguerite Jones Jan 2018

Rethinking Teacher Education For Classroom Behaviour Management: Investigation Of An Alternative Model Using An Online Professional Experience In An Australian University., Angela Page, Marguerite Jones

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper responds to the theory-practice divide regarding classroom behaviour management in teacher education. Qualitative interviews and surveys were used to investigate whether an alternative model using an online professional experience could improve perceptions of teacher education students’ beliefs, knowledge, perceived skills and confidence in classroom management. Teacher education students participated in an innovative Master of Teaching course designed to integrate ecological classroom management theory, video observation, and critical reflection in an online professional experience (practicum). Results indicated that participants, upon completion of the course, reported improvements in their beliefs, knowledge, perceived skills and confidence in classroom management. Additionally, in ...


Integrated Co-Professional Evaluation? Converging Approaches To School Evaluation Across Frontiers, Martin Brown, Gerry Mcnamara, Joe Ohara, Shivaun O'Brien, Jerich Faddar, Cornelius Young Jan 2018

Integrated Co-Professional Evaluation? Converging Approaches To School Evaluation Across Frontiers, Martin Brown, Gerry Mcnamara, Joe Ohara, Shivaun O'Brien, Jerich Faddar, Cornelius Young

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper posits that almost all inspectorates are now following, if to varying degrees, a similar overarching ideology and methodology for school accountability and improvement. The first part of the paper provides an analysis of recent changes to school inspection policies across Frontiers. Using Ireland as a case example, the next part of the paper provides an analysis of Irish school inspection policies and practices that appear to mirror other school inspection systems. To test these assumptions, the paper then provides an analysis of a key informant interview with the Chief Inspector of schools in Ireland.

The evidence suggests that ...


Issues Arising From The Use Of University Ilectures: A Case Study Of One Australian Campus, Toni J. Dobinson, Tatiana Bogachenko Jan 2018

Issues Arising From The Use Of University Ilectures: A Case Study Of One Australian Campus, Toni J. Dobinson, Tatiana Bogachenko

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Australian universities have moved towards greater reliance on technology as a learning tool. The use of podcasts or recorded lectures (sometimes called ilectures) is now common practice in both on-campus and online modes. Using a qualitative approach to data collection which included recorded interviews, an online survey of open-ended questions and the researcher’s own reflections on using ilectures, this study investigated 1) the impact of ilectures on the teaching and learning practices of both academics and students 2) student attendance in recorded lectures and 3) the responses of lecturers and students to being recorded. Findings highlighted a mix of ...


Student And Staff Perceptions Of A Learning Management System For Blended Learning In Teacher Education, Kathryn A. Holmes, Elena Prieto-Rodriguez Jan 2018

Student And Staff Perceptions Of A Learning Management System For Blended Learning In Teacher Education, Kathryn A. Holmes, Elena Prieto-Rodriguez

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Higher education institutions routinely use Learning Management Systems (LMS) for multiple purposes; to organise coursework and assessment, to facilitate staff and student interactions, and to act as repositories of learning objects. The analysis reported here involves staff (n=46) and student (n=470) responses to surveys as well as data collected in interviews and focus groups. The research focuses on participants’ perceptions of two broad affordances of the LMS: accessibility and interactivity. Differences were found between student and staff views in relation to accessibility of online materials, with students rating its contribution to their learning more highly than staff. However ...


Reading Aloud: Children's Attitudes Toward Being Read To At Home And At School, Susan Ledger, Margaret K. Merga Jan 2018

Reading Aloud: Children's Attitudes Toward Being Read To At Home And At School, Susan Ledger, Margaret K. Merga

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

: Whilst there exists a plethora of research about the benefits of reading aloud on children’s literacy development and a range of government reports highlighting the positive investment return on early intervention strategies such as reading aloud, most literature is presented from an adult perspective. Limited research exists on children’s attitudes toward being read to at home or school or the frequency of reading aloud practices that occur within these contexts. This mixed method study examines reading aloud practices in schools (N=21) and homes (N=220). It captures the attitude toward reading aloud practices from the viewpoint of ...


Factors Associated With Technology Integration To Improve Instructional Abilities: A Path Model, Öner Uslu Jan 2018

Factors Associated With Technology Integration To Improve Instructional Abilities: A Path Model, Öner Uslu

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Today, students are expected to access, analyse and synthesise information, and work cooperatively. Their learning environment, therefore, should be equipped with appropriate tools and materials, and teachers should have instructional abilities to use them effectively. This study aims to propose a model to improve teachers’ instructional abilities through technology integration. To this end, data on variables that affect technology integration were collected from 600 teachers and analysed by using path analysis. The results revealed an acceptable fit between the model and the data. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, attitude towards technology use in education, gender, frequency of computer use, seniority, duration ...


Language Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Review Of The Literature (2005-2016), Mark Wyatt Jan 2018

Language Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Review Of The Literature (2005-2016), Mark Wyatt

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Research into language teachers’ self-efficacy (LTSE) beliefs, a domain-specific branch of research into teachers’ self-efficacy (TSE) beliefs in general education, has emerged in the past 16 years. To date, though, this emergent domain-specific research field has not been described in depth, with most accounts of it summarised very briefly, even in published research that provides empirical data relating to the specific topic of LTSE beliefs. Guided by a synthetic research ethic, this literature review aims to explore the gap. It highlights the characteristics of this LTSE beliefs research field, discussing the methodology employed by various studies that have elicited LTSE ...


Factors Influencing The Evolution Of Vocational Teachers’ Beliefs And Practices Related To Classroom Management During Teacher Education, Céline Girardet, Jean-Louis Berger Jan 2018

Factors Influencing The Evolution Of Vocational Teachers’ Beliefs And Practices Related To Classroom Management During Teacher Education, Céline Girardet, Jean-Louis Berger

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Two studies were conducted to investigate the evolution of 71 Swiss vocational teachers’ classroom management as a result of the inputs of a teacher education program, and to identify the factors that encouraged or impeded teacher change. Study 1 consisted of a longitudinal survey, and Study 2 of interviews. Longitudinal analyses were performed using a multilevel approach. This mixed-method study revealed that vocational teachers’ classroom management evolved towards the beliefs and practices encouraged by the teacher education program. Years of prior teaching experience and motivations for choosing teaching were found to moderate teachers’ evolutions. Moreover, influential people, providing alternative strategies ...


Examining Preservice Teachers’ Reflective Thinking Skills In The Context Of Web-Based Portfolios: The Role Of Metacognitive Awareness, Emine Adadan, Diler Oner Jan 2018

Examining Preservice Teachers’ Reflective Thinking Skills In The Context Of Web-Based Portfolios: The Role Of Metacognitive Awareness, Emine Adadan, Diler Oner

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This mixed method study aimed to examine if, and then potentially how, the level of preservice teachers’ metacognitive awareness (MA) influences their reflective thinking on their teaching practicum experiences in the context of web-based portfolio construction. Data sources included two sets of reflection task responses and a Likert-type metacognitive awareness inventory. Data from these sources were coded and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The total number of high-level reflective thinking indicators produced by the preservice teachers with high MA was notably higher than those generated by the preservice teachers with low MA. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test revealed a statistically significant ...


Investigating The Potential Effect Of Race And Culture On Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Corporal Punishment And Its Subsequent Effect On Mandated Reporting, John Kesner, Vera Stenhouse Jan 2018

Investigating The Potential Effect Of Race And Culture On Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions Of Corporal Punishment And Its Subsequent Effect On Mandated Reporting, John Kesner, Vera Stenhouse

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In the United States, not only are parents permitted to utilize corporal punishment in disciplining their children, but 19 states still permit the use of corporal punishment in schools. Teachers are legally bound to report suspected maltreatment, yet their school may engage in a discipline practice which they may consider abuse. This potential conflict depends on the teacher’s definition of “acceptable” physical discipline and abuse. Thus, teachers’ attitudes teachers towards corporal punishment and child maltreatment are critical.

Preservice teachers were surveyed about their attitudes towards corporal punishment, knowledge of child maltreatment and mandated reporting, personal experiences with corporal punishment ...


Education For Sustainability Policies: Ramifications For Practice, Deborah Moore, Sylvia Christine Almeida, Melissa M. Barnes Jan 2018

Education For Sustainability Policies: Ramifications For Practice, Deborah Moore, Sylvia Christine Almeida, Melissa M. Barnes

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

While it is well understood there is an urgent need to address global environmental problems, there is less understanding around how these problems can be addressed. At each level of government, policy is initiated as a response to a perceived problem. However, research has shown governmental policies are overly generalised which creates a universal approach, with little regard for contextual difference. This paper seeks to push back against unspoken assumptions surrounding Education for Sustainability (EfS) policy processes from development to implementation, showing that context is important in the interpretation of policy. Through a mixed method survey, the findings illustrate how ...


Challenges And Opportunities In The Introduction Of A Tertiary Education Program In Regional South Australia: A Case Study, Hannah Harvey, Sandra Walsh Jan 2018

Challenges And Opportunities In The Introduction Of A Tertiary Education Program In Regional South Australia: A Case Study, Hannah Harvey, Sandra Walsh

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This paper explores the implementation of a Bachelor of Education program in regional South Australia. Using a case study approach, this paper describes the site of implementation, with attention paid to the challenges regional locations experience in attracting and retaining suitably qualified staff. It will explore the program model and consider the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation and sustainability. At the individual level, it has provided students with an additional study option that negates the costs and stresses of relocation. At an organisational and community level, there is benefit for local schools as the provision of students and ...


Written Teacher Feedback: Reflections Of Year Seven Music Students, Kimberley Goh, Rebecca Walker Jan 2018

Written Teacher Feedback: Reflections Of Year Seven Music Students, Kimberley Goh, Rebecca Walker

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Providing effective feedback to students is a significant issue for Australian educators. The ability to provide effective feedback comprises one of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers and is seen as being a key element of quality teaching. Much research has been conducted into what constitutes effective feedback. Yet in spite of this existing knowledge, evidence suggests that feedback continues to be poorly received by students. The overall purpose of this research was to explore how ten Year Seven students (aged 12-13) reflected on and responded to written teacher feedback on a music history/appreciation project. Data from this pilot ...


Early Career Teachers’ Knowledge And Practice In Spelling Instruction: Insights For Teacher Educators, Grace Oakley Jan 2018

Early Career Teachers’ Knowledge And Practice In Spelling Instruction: Insights For Teacher Educators, Grace Oakley

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Children who cannot spell fluently are likely to encounter difficulty in writing texts across the curriculum. Furthermore, spelling is often a component in high stakes tests, the results of which have significant implications for students and schools. In the context of debates on teacher quality, it is pertinent to examine the views of early career teachers on their preparedness to teach spelling. This article reports on a small scale study on the views, knowledge and practices of early career teachers in relation to the teaching of spelling, and their views on their pre-service teacher preparation. Participants were early career teachers ...


Music Activities Delivered By Primary School Generalist Teachers In Victoria: Informing Teaching Practice, Fiona King Jan 2018

Music Activities Delivered By Primary School Generalist Teachers In Victoria: Informing Teaching Practice, Fiona King

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The purpose of this paper is to share teacher practice in the inclusion and delivery of music education experiences for children, to inform teacher education and to guide professional learning. It draws on a larger investigation into the music activities delivered by three primary school classroom (generalist) teachers in Victoria, Australia. There is a gap in the literature regarding the music activities and experiences facilitated by teachers in day-to-day classroom learning. The case study investigation inquired into the content, pedagogy, planning and the place of music activities provided to children aged six to eleven. Teacher education is addressed in this ...


Building Critically Reflective Practice In Higher Education Students: Employing Auto-Ethnography And Educational Connoisseurship In Assessment, Jane Southcott, Renee Crawford Jan 2018

Building Critically Reflective Practice In Higher Education Students: Employing Auto-Ethnography And Educational Connoisseurship In Assessment, Jane Southcott, Renee Crawford

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study posed the question: Does using an educational connoisseurship framework applied to auto-ethnography assist in the development of reflective practice in teacher education? The design of authentic assessments that assist students in making meaningful links between theory and practice is a complex process. We created an assessment task that was directly linked to the lived experience of the students and specifically focused on their educational practice. Students were required to write an auto-ethnography that was shaped by educational connoisseurship and criticism. With ethical permission we retained the auto-ethnographic assignments by nineteen students. After independent thematic analysis we built a ...


Strengthening Identities And Involvement Of Aboriginal Children Through Learning On Country., Elizabeth M. Jackson-Barrett, Libby Lee-Hammond Jan 2018

Strengthening Identities And Involvement Of Aboriginal Children Through Learning On Country., Elizabeth M. Jackson-Barrett, Libby Lee-Hammond

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Djarlgarra Koolunger (Canning River kids) is a culturally centred outdoor learning project referred to as ‘On Country Learning’ or OCL. The project explores Aboriginal connectedness to the spiritual, social, cultural, environmental and geographic dimensions of particular outdoor spaces. This allows Indigenous and non- Indigenous students and their educators to connect at what Nakata (2007) terms the ‘cultural interface’. OCL offers opportunities to transform the ways in which schools engage with Aboriginal perspectives whilst facilitating deep learning through what we describe as culturally responsive pedagogies. This paper stories the journey of Aboriginal students and their teachers, engaging in learning that is ...


Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion Across The Training Years, Corrina Goddard, David Evans Jan 2018

Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion Across The Training Years, Corrina Goddard, David Evans

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Teachers are responsible for meeting the needs of increasingly diverse learners. Given their position as catalysts for educational change, teachers’ positive attitudes towards inclusive education must be considered prerequisite to its success in Australian classrooms. This study investigated the extent to which pre-service training affects pre-service primary teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education. A survey was designed to examine such attitudes among primary pre-service teachers at all year levels of their Bachelor of Education (Primary). To reflect the increasingly broad definition of inclusion established in the literature, participants’ attitudes towards gifted and talented students, those learning English as a second language ...


Cultural And Intercultural Education: Experiences Of Ethnoeducational Teachers In Colombia., Irma A. Flores H., Nancy Palacios Mena Jan 2018

Cultural And Intercultural Education: Experiences Of Ethnoeducational Teachers In Colombia., Irma A. Flores H., Nancy Palacios Mena

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This article focuses on the analysis of the pedagogical component of ethno-educational experiences developed in different departments of Colombia. A qualitative methodology that integrated a systemic explanatory analysis model was chosen for this study together with a content analysis of these experiences from a systemic point of view, in order to consider those educational practices as the expression of interests, struggles, relationships and social dynamics. The text includes a fragment on the emergence of ethno-educational processes in Latin America and examines the conceptualization of the term, the objectives, the emphasis given in literature to political empowerment, the struggle for preserving ...


Teachers Taking Up Explicit Instruction: The Impact Of A Professional Development And Directive Instructional Coaching Model, Lorraine Hammond, Wendy M. Moore Jan 2018

Teachers Taking Up Explicit Instruction: The Impact Of A Professional Development And Directive Instructional Coaching Model, Lorraine Hammond, Wendy M. Moore

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In this study we measured the impact of a professional development model that included directive coaching on the instructional practices of Western Australian primary school teachers taking up explicit instruction. We developed and validated protocols that enabled us to measure teachers’ fidelity to the salient elements of explicit instruction and interviewed participants about the impact of the coaching program on student learning, their feelings of self-efficacy and attitudes to being coached. Numerical scores to indicate teachers’ demonstration of explicit instruction lesson design and delivery components changed positively over the five observed lessons and directive coaching had a positive impact on ...


Pre-Service Teachers: Knowledge, Attitudes And Their Perceived Skills In Addressing Student Bullying, Leanne Lester, Stacey Waters, Natasha Pearce, Barbara Spears, Sarah Falconer Jan 2018

Pre-Service Teachers: Knowledge, Attitudes And Their Perceived Skills In Addressing Student Bullying, Leanne Lester, Stacey Waters, Natasha Pearce, Barbara Spears, Sarah Falconer

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Understanding pre-service teachers’ capacity to prevent and manage student bullying behaviours is critical for ensuring a smooth transition into early career teaching and the success of schools’ anti-bullying initiatives. This exploratory study investigated 234 pre-service teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, perception of skills, personal experience of bullying and current undergraduate learnings in relation to bullying behaviours in schools.

Most undergraduate pre-service teachers could identify bullying behaviours, however many reported they felt their undergraduate degree had not prepared them well enough to deal with bullying behaviours. As a consequence they felt they lacked the skills to prevent and respond effectively to incidents of ...


“Fitting Into The Teaching Profession”: Supervising Teachers’ Judgements During The Practicum, Lynn Sheridan, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford Jan 2018

“Fitting Into The Teaching Profession”: Supervising Teachers’ Judgements During The Practicum, Lynn Sheridan, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

This study explores supervising teachers’ judgements about pre-service teachers during a practicum experience. Making judgements is a complex, subjective process with judgements being conscious and intuitive, influenced by individual beliefs, contextual expectations and personal learning biographies. This research draws on Social Judgement Theory to guide the analysis of data collected from interviews with experienced supervising teachers. Analysis indicated that the supervisors placed most emphasis on ‘personal qualities’ of pre-service teachers. This has implications for the selection of candidates for teaching, the importance of non-academic capabilities in teaching and the development of pre-service teachers’ personal qualities within initial teacher education programs.