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Application Of The Fusion Model For Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment With Non-Diagnostic Algebra-Geometry Readiness Test Data, Robert H. Fay Jul 2018

Application Of The Fusion Model For Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment With Non-Diagnostic Algebra-Geometry Readiness Test Data, Robert H. Fay

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study retrofitted a Diagnostic Classification Model (DCM) known as the Fusion model onto non-diagnostic test data from of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra and Geometry Readiness test post-test used with Transition Mathematics (Third Edition, Field-Trial Version). The test contained 24 multiple-choice middle school math items, and was originally given to 95 advanced 6th grade and 293 7th grade students. The use of these test answers for this study was an attempt to show that by using cognitive diagnostic analysis techniques on test items not constructed for that purpose, highly predictable multidimensional cognitive attribute profiles for ...


Predictive Validity Of Florida’S Postsecondary Education Readiness Test, Alisa Murphy Žujović Apr 2018

Predictive Validity Of Florida’S Postsecondary Education Readiness Test, Alisa Murphy Žujović

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The role of the community college is constantly evolving. At its inception in the early 1900’s, the community college’s broad focus was to provide quality, affordable education to the members of the community the college serves. Today, that focus remains the same, but has also morphed into one that meets the specific needs of its students. One of these needs that is a critical issue for community colleges relates to developmental education.

The assessment of developmental education has been a contentious subject among higher education institutions. Defining college readiness, methods describing how to measure it, and instruments with ...


Assessing Readiness To Seek Formal Mental Health Services: Development And Initial Validation Of The Mental Health Belief Model Assessment (Mhbma), Jennifer A. Greene Mar 2018

Assessing Readiness To Seek Formal Mental Health Services: Development And Initial Validation Of The Mental Health Belief Model Assessment (Mhbma), Jennifer A. Greene

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Only a small percentage of people with mental health issues utilize mental health services. This would seem contradictory given the increasing understanding of mental disorders, their high prevalence, and associated disability and distress. Research shows that individual level factors, such as perceptions of need, mental health knowledge, mental health attitudes, and mental health literacy, are related to individuals’ decisions to seek mental health services. The Health Belief Model (HBM) posits four types of health beliefs that affect an individual’s health behavior, in this case, the decision to seek mental health services. To date, researchers and clinicians have no assessment ...


A Classroom Based Assessment In A High School Social Studies Classroom, Sam Busick Jan 2018

A Classroom Based Assessment In A High School Social Studies Classroom, Sam Busick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of brain-based pre-writing strategies will improve students’ abilities to support claims, with evidence, on a state-mandated, classroom-based, assessment. Specifically, the research evaluated the working hypothesis that using brain-based, pre-writing activity in the non-fiction, expository writing process will assist students in their performances, as assessed by the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the state-approved You and the Economy CBA CBA Rubric. By using brain-based strategies as a pre-writing activity in the non-fiction, explanatory, secondary social studies writing process, I hypothesized that those students would demonstrate logical use ...


Teacher Ethics Code Violations That Result In Licensure Or Certification Sanctions, Karen Pearse Apgar Jan 2018

Teacher Ethics Code Violations That Result In Licensure Or Certification Sanctions, Karen Pearse Apgar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Given the societal expectation of high ethical standards for teachers, best practice suggests that teacher preparation programs employ real-world case scenarios in their ethics education. However, at present, the field lacks a thorough account of modern ethics code violations in the teaching profession from which preparation programs might draw case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher licensure sanctions across multiple states in order to gain a clearer picture of ethics code violations in the modern teaching profession. Focusing on eight U.S. states, ten years of final orders of licensure sanction were examined (n = 8,765 ...


Discerning Disciples: A Mixed Methods Study On Attitudes Toward And Practices Of Evaluation Among Lay Catechetical Leaders, Anthony Dallas Paz Jan 2018

Discerning Disciples: A Mixed Methods Study On Attitudes Toward And Practices Of Evaluation Among Lay Catechetical Leaders, Anthony Dallas Paz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the work of catechetical leaders to help fellow Catholics deepen their relationship with Jesus Christ, the Catholic Church in the US continues to lose members at an alarming rate. In other educational and professional settings, practices of assessment and evaluation have been employed to determine whether and how their missions are achieved. The literature reveals that there is very little research on evaluative practices and attitudes among professional catechetical leaders and suggests that there is a great lack of evaluation in the field of catechesis and religious education in the US. This study utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods ...


Change Readiness In Teacher Education: A Multiple Case Study Of Educator Preparation Programs (Epps) And How They Address The Demands Of Mandated National Accreditation, Susan Mackin Boe Jan 2018

Change Readiness In Teacher Education: A Multiple Case Study Of Educator Preparation Programs (Epps) And How They Address The Demands Of Mandated National Accreditation, Susan Mackin Boe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The nationwide attention to education accountability continues to grow, with educator preparation programs (EPPs) facing growing scrutiny through state-mandated accountability systems. The accreditation process for Oregon EPPs shifted significantly in 2015 with the passing of Senate Bill 78, a state-mandated policy requiring all EPPs to become nationally accredited. As a result, university-based EPPs, who are not yet nationally accredited, are faced with implementing change at the institution and EPP levels which may result in challenges and constraints that could threaten program continuance.

Utilizing the conceptual framework of education policy and organizational change with a focus on Lewin’s force field ...


Investigating Students’ Basic Needs And Motivation In College Chemistry Courses With The Lens Of Self-Determination Theory, Yujuan Liu Jun 2017

Investigating Students’ Basic Needs And Motivation In College Chemistry Courses With The Lens Of Self-Determination Theory, Yujuan Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

More graduates in science, technology, engineering, and mathmetics (STEM) fields are needed to keep our nation’s preeminance in the global fields of technology and science. However, fewer than 40% of students who intend to major in STEM fields when entering college complete a STEM degree. Therefore, it is important to explore factors to improve student persistence in STEM fields at the college level as well as to understand the interrelationship between student motivation, academic achievement, and persistence. Motivation is strongly associated with student achievement and persistence; meanwhile, academic achievement can also affect persistence. Self-determination theory (SDT) represents a framework ...


The Empirical Selection Of Anchor Items Using A Multistage Approach, Brandon Craig Jun 2017

The Empirical Selection Of Anchor Items Using A Multistage Approach, Brandon Craig

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if using a multistage approach for the empirical selection of anchor items would lead to more accurate DIF detection rates than the anchor selection methods proposed by Kopf, Zeileis, & Strobl (2015b). A simulation study was conducted in which the sample size, percentage of DIF, and balance of DIF were manipulated. The outcomes of interest were true positive rates, false positive rates, familywise false positive rates, anchor contamination rates, and familywise anchor contamination rates. Results showed the proposed multistage methods produced lower anchor contamination rates than the non-multistage methods under some conditions, but ...


Learner-Directed Vs. Instructor-Provided Curriculum Among Undergraduate Students, Christopher D. Martinez Apr 2017

Learner-Directed Vs. Instructor-Provided Curriculum Among Undergraduate Students, Christopher D. Martinez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There has been little or no research on the use of a Learning Object in the field of religious studies. The purpose of this research study was to assess undergraduate student knowledge gain outcomes between instructor-provided and learner-directed methods, which is the independent variable, using asynchronous, online, narrated PowerPoint presentations compared to undergraduate student knowledge gain using an online learning-objects unit, in a college-level world religions survey course at St. Petersburg College. This study assessed undergraduate student knowledge gain outcomes between instructor-provided and learner-directed methods among 90 college undergraduate students and determined whether there was a significant difference in the ...


Perceptual Learning Style Modalities: Comparing Latino, Black, And Caucasian Adults, Nicolle Chantelle Hardy Apr 2017

Perceptual Learning Style Modalities: Comparing Latino, Black, And Caucasian Adults, Nicolle Chantelle Hardy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the individual learning modalities of Latino, Black, and Caucasian males and females with at least some college education utilizing the Multi-modal Paired Associates Learning Test IV (MMPALT IV). Using the MMPALT IV, 20 participants from each of the three race/ethnicities above the age of 40 were measured in each of the seven perceptual modalities: Visual, Print, Aural, Interactive, Haptic, Kinesthetic, and Olfactory. The MMPALT IV is a performance-based test, which measures a person’s capacity to acquire information through each of the seven learning channels.

ANOVA tests (2 x 3 ...


Extending The Model With Internal Restrictions On Item Difficulty (Mirid) To Study Differential Item Functioning, Yong "Isaac" Li Apr 2017

Extending The Model With Internal Restrictions On Item Difficulty (Mirid) To Study Differential Item Functioning, Yong "Isaac" Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Differential item functioning (DIF) is a psychometric issue routinely considered in educational and psychological assessment. However, it has not been studied in the context of a recently developed componential statistical model, the model with internal restrictions on item difficulty (MIRID; Butter, De Boeck, & Verhelst, 1998). Because the MIRID requires test questions measuring either single or multiple cognitive processes, it creates a complex environment for which traditional DIF methods may be inappropriate. This dissertation sought to extend the MIRID framework to detect DIF at the item-group level and the individual-item level. Such a model-based approach can increase the interpretability of DIF statistics by focusing on item characteristics as potential sources of DIF. In particular, group-level DIF may reveal comparative group strengths in certain secondary constructs. A simulation study was conducted to examine under different conditions parameter recovery, Type I error rates, and power of the proposed approach. Factors manipulated included sample size, magnitude of DIF, distributional characteristics of the groups, and the MIRID DIF models corresponding to discrete sources of differential functioning. The impact of studying DIF using wrong models was investigated.

The results from the recovery study of the MIRID DIF model indicate that the four delta (i.e., non-zero value DIF) parameters were underestimated whereas item locations of the four associated items were overestimated. Bias and RMSE were significantly greater when delta was larger; larger sample size reduced RMSE substantially while the effects from the impact factor were neither strong nor consistent. Hypothesiswise and adjusted experimentwise Type I error rates were controlled in smaller delta conditions but not in larger delta conditions as estimates of zero-value DIF parameters were significantly different from zero. Detection power of the DIF model was weak ...


Many Hands Make Light Work: Crowdsourced Ratings Of Medical Student Osce Performance, Mark Grichanik Apr 2017

Many Hands Make Light Work: Crowdsourced Ratings Of Medical Student Osce Performance, Mark Grichanik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Clinical skills are often measured using objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) in healthcare professions education programs. As with assessment centers, it is challenging to provide learners with effective feedback due to burdensome human capital demands. The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate the viability of using a crowdsourced system to gather OSCE ratings and feedback. Aggregating evaluations of student performance from a crowd of patient proxies has the potential to mitigate biases associated with single-rater evaluations, allow the patient a voice as the consumer of physician behavior, improve reliability, reduce costs, improve feedback latency, and help learners develop a ...


Exploring Teacher Assessment Literacy Through The Process Of Training Teachers To Write Assessment Items, Heather Peltier Wright Mar 2017

Exploring Teacher Assessment Literacy Through The Process Of Training Teachers To Write Assessment Items, Heather Peltier Wright

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the process and impact of assessment training content and delivery mode on the quality of assessment items developed by the teachers in a two-year assessment development project. Teacher characteristics were examined as potential moderating factors. Four types of delivery mode were employed in the project: synchronous online, asynchronous online, in-person workshop, and blended (a combination of online and in-person training). The quality of assessment items developed by participating teachers was measured via: 1) item acceptance rate, 2) number of item reviews (as an indicator of how many times accepted items were rejected ...


Exploring The Test Of Covariate Moderation Effect And The Impact Of Model Misspecification In Multilevel Mimic Models, Chunhua Cao Mar 2017

Exploring The Test Of Covariate Moderation Effect And The Impact Of Model Misspecification In Multilevel Mimic Models, Chunhua Cao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In multilevel MIMIC models, covariates at the between level and at the within level can be modeled simultaneously. Covariates interaction effect occurs when the effect of one covariate on the latent factor varies depending on the level of the other covariate. The two covariates can be both at the between level, both at the within level, and one at the between level and the other one at the within level. And they can create between level covariates interaction, within level covariates interaction, and cross level covariates interaction. Study One purports to examine the performance of multilevel MIMIC models in estimating ...


Intercultural Competence And Employability Of Students At Iowa State University: Outcomes Assessment Of Study Abroad, Katie Marie Davidson Jan 2017

Intercultural Competence And Employability Of Students At Iowa State University: Outcomes Assessment Of Study Abroad, Katie Marie Davidson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to answer questions pertaining to the design of study abroad programs at Iowa State University and determine which types of programs result in positive change in student development as it relates to intercultural competence and employability. The study implements the administration of an assessment instrument selected as part of a Capstone project with study abroad stakeholders at the university. The instrument selected, memo©, was piloted with groups of Iowa State University students studying abroad in the spring, spring break, and summer terms of 2016; of the 1221 students studying abroad during ...


A Computer-Adaptive Test Of Productive And Contextualized Academic Vocabulary Breadth In English (Cat-Pav): Development And Validation, Victor Dias De Oliveira Santos Jan 2017

A Computer-Adaptive Test Of Productive And Contextualized Academic Vocabulary Breadth In English (Cat-Pav): Development And Validation, Victor Dias De Oliveira Santos

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation study aimed, first and foremost, to address the current scarcity of assessments of productive and contextualized academic vocabulary in English, and thus contribute to the Applied Linguistics and Language Assessment field, by developing what seems to be the first IRT-based computer-adaptive test of productive and contextualized breadth of academic vocabulary in English (henceforth, CAT-PAV), which will be made freely available online to any researchers, ESL instructors, or other interested parties who believe the test can potentially be useful for their specific scenarios. A second aim of the present study was to validate the interpretation of scores from the ...


Examining Content Validity Of The Nurse Competence Scale In The United States, Jessica B. Shearer Oct 2016

Examining Content Validity Of The Nurse Competence Scale In The United States, Jessica B. Shearer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nursing competence is a necessity as it affects public health, safety and welfare; however there are very few reliable and valid tools that measure nursing competence. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in many different countries outside of the United States and is based on Benner’s Novice to Expert theory. The purpose of this study was to examine the content validity of the Nurse Competence Scale using a mixed methods approach. Descriptive statistics were used to report results of the frequency of use scale and the critical to practice scale. Nursing faculty indicate Prioritizing My Activities Flexibility According ...


Examinees' Perceptions Of The Physical Aspects Of The Testing Environment During The National Physical Therapy Examination, Ellen Kroog Donald Jul 2016

Examinees' Perceptions Of The Physical Aspects Of The Testing Environment During The National Physical Therapy Examination, Ellen Kroog Donald

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increasing number of individuals taking computer-based tests, little is known about how examinees perceive computer-based testing environments and the extent to which these testing environments are perceived to affect test performance. The purpose of the present study was to assess the testing environment as perceived by individuals taking the National Physical Therapy Examination (NPTE), a high-stakes licensure examination. Perceptions of the testing environments were assessed using an examinee self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included items that measured individuals’ preference and perception of specific characteristics of the environment, along with demographic information and one open-ended item. Questionnaires were distributed by ...


Multilevel Analysis Of A Scale Measuring Educators’ Perceptions Of Multi-Tiered Systems Of Supports Practices, Leslie Marie Marshall Jul 2016

Multilevel Analysis Of A Scale Measuring Educators’ Perceptions Of Multi-Tiered Systems Of Supports Practices, Leslie Marie Marshall

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to provide evidence of reliability and validity for the 42-item Perceptions of Practices Survey. The scale was designed to assess educators’ perceptions of the extent to which their schools were implementing multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) practices. The survey was initially given as part of a larger evaluation project of a 3-year, statewide initiative designed to evaluate MTSS implementation. Elementary educators (Level-1 n = 2,109, Level-2 n = 62) completed the survey in September/October of 2007, September/October of 2008 (Level-1 n = 1,940, Level-2 n = 61), and January/February of 2010 (Level-1 n = 2,058, Level-2 ...


Motivation For Mathematics: The Development And Initial Validation Of An Abbreviated Instrument, Kenneth Lee Butler Apr 2016

Motivation For Mathematics: The Development And Initial Validation Of An Abbreviated Instrument, Kenneth Lee Butler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study outlines the development and initial validation of an abbreviated instrument intended to measure motivation for mathematics of university students in developmental algebra courses. I look across many of the predominant theories on motivation with the aim of representing several of these theories as latent constructs in a single instrument that is short enough to be administered in a reasonable amount of time, but inclusive enough that it could incorporate subscales representing multiple distinct latent factors. This study answers a call by researchers expressing a need to investigate relationships between disparate theories on motivation and is a response to ...


A Comparison Of Educational "Value-Added" Methodologies For Classifying Teacher Effectiveness: Value Tables Vs. Covariate Regression, Theodore J. Dwyer Mar 2016

A Comparison Of Educational "Value-Added" Methodologies For Classifying Teacher Effectiveness: Value Tables Vs. Covariate Regression, Theodore J. Dwyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a great deal of concern regarding teacher impacts on student achievement being used as a substantial portion of a teacher’s performance evaluation. This study investigated the degree of concordance and discordance between mathematics teacher ranking using value tables and covariate regression, which have both been used as measures for teacher effectiveness. The researcher examined teacher rankings, before and after the state recommended classification, using correlational techniques, comparison matrices, and visual examination for value-added scores derived from the value table versus the covariate regression approach. Examination demonstrated strong correlations between the initial rankings (r = .77 to .98) and ...


Predictive Modeling Of Human Placement Decisions In An English Writing Placement Test, Ngan Hoa Vu Jan 2016

Predictive Modeling Of Human Placement Decisions In An English Writing Placement Test, Ngan Hoa Vu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Writing is an important component in standardized tests that are utilized for admission decisions, class placement, and academic or professional development. Placement results of the EPT Writing Test at the undergraduate level are used to determine whether international students meet English requirements for writing skills (i.e., Pass); and to direct students to appropriate ESL writing classes (i.e., 101B or 101C). Practical constraints during evaluation processes in the English Writing Placement Test (the EPT Writing Test) at Iowa State University, such as rater disagreement, rater turnover, and heavy administrative workload, have demonstrated the necessity to develop valid scoring models ...


A Study Of How Culture, Collaboration, And Advocacy Influence Data-Driven Decision Making At Community Colleges, Marvin Leo Dejear Jan 2016

A Study Of How Culture, Collaboration, And Advocacy Influence Data-Driven Decision Making At Community Colleges, Marvin Leo Dejear

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Data-driven decision making (DDDM), or the use of data to inform educational practices, has become an emerging field of interest over the past decade for educational leaders and researchers (Mandinach and Gummer, 2013). With increased pressure for accountability and improved outcomes by educational institutions, agencies from the federal to the local level have adjusted policies accordingly. National discussions about education reform are replete with calls for more transparency, stronger accountability, improved outcomes, and a more efficient use of public resources (Achieving the Dream, 2012). Advancements in technology have given educators improved access to data, making it easier to retrieve and ...


Challenges Of Accrediting Distance Education Allied Health Programs With Clinical Components, Auburne Kay Deming Hutchins Jan 2016

Challenges Of Accrediting Distance Education Allied Health Programs With Clinical Components, Auburne Kay Deming Hutchins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study examined the challenges of assessing allied health education programs with clinical components offered in a distance education (DE) format from the perspective of the educational accreditor. As technology continues to expand our virtual horizons of educational opportunity, so does the ability to offer programs of higher education in ways that before may have never been imagined possible. The mark of a high quality education in healthcare is that the student graduates from an accredited program. It is the responsibility of the accrediting body to ensure that these programs meet all of the necessary standards, regardless of the ...


An Empirical Comparison Of The Effect Of Missing Data On Type I Error And Statistical Power Of The Likelihood Ratio Test For Differential Item Functioning: An Item Response Theory Approach Using The Graded Response Model, Patricia Rodriguez De Gil Nov 2015

An Empirical Comparison Of The Effect Of Missing Data On Type I Error And Statistical Power Of The Likelihood Ratio Test For Differential Item Functioning: An Item Response Theory Approach Using The Graded Response Model, Patricia Rodriguez De Gil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the context of educational research, missing data arise when examinees omit or do not reach an item, which generates an item nonresponse problem. Using a simulation approach, in addition to conducting complete data analyses, this study compared the performance of six methods for treating item nonresponse in the context of differential item functioning (DIF). The effect of missing data on the Type I error and statistical power of the Likelihood Ratio test for DIF detection in small scales was examined in the context of Item Response Theory (IRT-LR), using polytomous, Likert-type data and the graded response model. The effect ...


Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans As A Strategy To Increase Pass Rates On The National Licensure Exam, Virginia Sue Wangerin Jan 2015

Seeking Success: Program Improvement Plans As A Strategy To Increase Pass Rates On The National Licensure Exam, Virginia Sue Wangerin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nursing is a practice profession that has long been regarded with esteem and trust by the public. The education of nurses is a process that has evolved over the last 150 years from apprenticeship-based training to an academic program grounded in the arts and sciences. Nurses must successfully learn a rigorous academic curriculum, demonstrate application of knowledge and skills in the clinical setting, and pass a national licensure exam to practice their profession. Boards of nursing are legislated the responsibility of protecting the public by assuring that nurses who practice in their state are safe, competent, and ethical practitioners. This ...


Investigating Relationships Between Educational Technology Use And Other Instructional Elements Using "Big Data" In Higher Education, Karly Good Jan 2015

Investigating Relationships Between Educational Technology Use And Other Instructional Elements Using "Big Data" In Higher Education, Karly Good

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of educational technology in higher education has been growing over the past few years. The focus of this research study is to understand the relationships between college students’ reactions to instruction and those courses that use educational technology, together with other important instructional elements, to facilitate learning. The research took place at a small liberal arts university in the Midwestern United States between August 2012 and December 2014. The research uses Student Ratings of Instruction and Courses from the IDEA Center, otherwise known as student evaluations of teaching. A total of 34,480 survey responses were analyzed for ...


An Argument-Based Validation Study Of The English Placement Test (Ept) – Focusing On The Inferences Of Extrapolation And Ramification, Zhi Li Jan 2015

An Argument-Based Validation Study Of The English Placement Test (Ept) – Focusing On The Inferences Of Extrapolation And Ramification, Zhi Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

English placement tests have been widely used in higher education as post-admission assessment instruments to measure admitted English as a second language (ESL) students’ English proficiency or readiness in academic English, usually upon their arrival at universities in English-speaking countries. Unlike commercial standardized English proficiency tests, many English placement tests are locally developed with comparatively limited resources and are relatively under-investigated in the field of language testing. Even less attention has been directed to the score interpretation and the impact of placement decisions on ESL students’ English learning and academic achievement. Undoubtedly, this scarcity of research on English placement tests ...


What You Know Counts: Why We Should Elicit Prior Probabilities From Experts To Improve Quantitative Analysis With Qualitative Knowledge In Special Education Science, Tyler Aaron Hicks Jan 2015

What You Know Counts: Why We Should Elicit Prior Probabilities From Experts To Improve Quantitative Analysis With Qualitative Knowledge In Special Education Science, Tyler Aaron Hicks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative knowledge is about types of things, and their excellences. There are many ways we humans produce qualitative knowledge about the world, and much of it is derived from non-quantitative sources (e.g., narratives, clinical experiences, intuitions). The purpose of my dissertation was to investigate the possibility of using Bayesian inferences to improve quantitative analysis in special education research with qualitative knowledge.

It is impossible, however, to fully disentangle philosophy of inquiry, methodology, and methods. My evaluation of Bayesian estimators, thus, addresses each of these areas. Chapter Two offers a philosophical argument to substantiate the thesis that Bayesian inference is ...