Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Economics

Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Education

Summary: Who's Responsible For Job Skills?, Peter Cappelli Sep 2019

Summary: Who's Responsible For Job Skills?, Peter Cappelli

Wharton PPI B-School for Public Policy Seminar Summaries

There has been much discussion in recent years about a skills gap in the U.S., driven largely by employer complaints over filling jobs. The term “skills gap” can mean different things. Usually, it refers to a belief that there is something fundamentally lacking in the labor force. In the typical telling of the skills gap story, schools are failing to educate students effectively and are graduating students who do not have the skills employers need, thus creating a basic skills shortfall in the labor force as a whole. Others who talk about a skills gap really are referring to ...


Analyzing The Impact Of Educational Attainment On Subpar Income Dynamics In Appalachia, Noah Katcher Jan 2019

Analyzing The Impact Of Educational Attainment On Subpar Income Dynamics In Appalachia, Noah Katcher

Joseph Wharton Scholars

This thesis analyzes the relationship between educational attainment and individual economic outcomes throughout the 420 counties of the Appalachian region of the United States. In doing so, this thesis seeks to better understand the impact of education on a region whose income dynamics have lagged significantly behind the rest of the United States for over a half-century. Initial analysis finds that Appalachian counties’ incomes per capita lag consistently behind the remainder of the United States, although they receive similar levels of supplementary income benefits. In general, educational attainment, income and income maintenance benefits have all risen over time across the ...


21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin Jan 2018

21st Century Chinese Art Market Boom, Ayca Deniz Ergin

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

This research paper provides a detailed analysis of how China has become the fastest growing art market around the world. How did the economic development in China led the country to the top in recent years, in contrast to its Western competitors? What is China’s role in the global art market scene? What changes have been made, in a socialist system, to accommodate foreign investors and what future changes should be made to sustain its growth?

Through focusing on the correlation between economic growth and art market expansions, this research develops the relationship through referencing various quantitative and qualitative ...


Wealth Disparities For Early Childhood Anthropometrics And Skills: Evidence From Chilean Longitudinal Data, Jere R. Behrman, Dante Contreras, Isidora Palma, Esteban Puentes Sep 2017

Wealth Disparities For Early Childhood Anthropometrics And Skills: Evidence From Chilean Longitudinal Data, Jere R. Behrman, Dante Contreras, Isidora Palma, Esteban Puentes

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We study wealth disparities in the formation of anthropometrics, cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills. We use a sample of preschool and early school children in Chile. We extend the previous literature by using longitudinal data, which allow us to study the dynamics of child growth and skills formation. Also, we include information on mother's and father's schooling attainment and mother's cognitive ability. We find that there are no significant anthropometric differences favoring the better-off at birth (and indeed length differences at birth to the disadvantage of the better-off), but during the first 30 months of life wealth ...


Essays In The Economics Of Human Capital, Rodrigo Azuero Melo Jan 2017

Essays In The Economics Of Human Capital, Rodrigo Azuero Melo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation deals with two different aspects of human capital accumulation: early childhood development and tertiary education. Specifically, it analyzes the role that public policies or changes in regulations affect incentives of agents in a way that ends up affecting the aggregate endowment of human capital in an economy.

The first chapter is related to early childhood development. Recent literature has shown that skills shaped during childhood have long lasting consequences later in life. This fact has promoted a large number of programs aimed at stimulating the skill formation process for children in disadvantage. However, little is known about how ...


Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis May 2016

Leveraging The Effects Of Loss Framing To Nudge Low-Income, High-Achieving Students In Chicago Towards Higher Education, Benjamin Feis

Honors Theses (PPE)

The vast majority of low-income, high-achieving high school students in the U.S. either do not apply to college or undermatch by attending less selective institutions than those they are qualified to attend. Previous research has demonstrated that behavioral “nudges” can be an effective and low-cost method of influencing students’ application behavior and encouraging them to enroll in selective institutions. This study contributes to this existing body of literature by examining whether framing college earnings premium information as a loss causes low-income high school students in Chicago to report greater likelihood of applying to college than when the same information ...


Essays On Matching With Endogenous Effort, Behrang Kamali Shahdadi Jan 2016

Essays On Matching With Endogenous Effort, Behrang Kamali Shahdadi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis extends the two-sided matching literature by including an endogenous effort choice after the matching stage. We examine how different matching rules affect incentives to exert effort and the costs paid to induce various effort levels in three settings: a legal system, an education system, and a labor market.

In an indigent defense program, the government provides counsel for indigent defendants. After the assignment of an attorney to a defendant, the attorney exerts a costly effort; however, the government only observes a noisy signal of the effort. We model the problem as a one-to-one matching problem with moral hazard ...


Review Of William Easterly, The Tyranny Of Experts: Economists, Dictators, And The Forgotten Rights Of The Poor, Daniel A. Wagner May 2015

Review Of William Easterly, The Tyranny Of Experts: Economists, Dictators, And The Forgotten Rights Of The Poor, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Toilets, plumbers, and development economists. This book is provocative at several levels—designed to disturb the professional development specialist and force a change in the public discourse on economic development. Does Easterly really mean to criticize the accumulated knowledge of so many who have fought so hard to bring knowledge and empiricism to the forefront of development? Yes and no. Yes, because he views accumulated knowledge or "expertise" as being consciously or unconsciously biased against those who strive hard (on their own) for success. No, because he recognizes, as reflected in the above quote, that knowledge (read experts) can really ...


Korean Development Institute, Kdi Jan 2015

Korean Development Institute, Kdi

About Think Tanks: The Mission and Impact of the World's Leading Think Tanks

Since its establishment in 1971, the Korea Development Institute (KDI) has been committed to producing independent, innovative, and impactful, policy research on fundamental Korean economic and social issues. The emphasis to deliver quality and rigorous research and analysis has been rooted in its long tradition of applying scientific methods and collaborating with leading economic thinkers and institutions. As Korea's leading think tank, KDI continues to play a prominent role in framing the national public policy discourse.


Essays On Residential Segregation, The Economics Of Prestige At The Elite Colleges, And Property Rights, Peter Blair Jan 2015

Essays On Residential Segregation, The Economics Of Prestige At The Elite Colleges, And Property Rights, Peter Blair

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three chapters. In the first chapter of the dissertation, I propose a new method for estimating the racial tipping points of US neighborhoods. Applying this method to US census data, I find that the average neighborhood tipping point has increased from 15% in 1970 to 42% in 2010. Moreover, I find that from 1970-2010 that differences in racial preferences play a diminishing role in explaining cross city differences in tipping points. Differences in the outside options of white householdâ??s, on the other hand, play an increasingly important role in explaining cross city differences in tipping ...


An Urban Myth? New Evidence Of Equity, Adequacy And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn Dec 2014

An Urban Myth? New Evidence Of Equity, Adequacy And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn

CPRE Working Papers

In this article, we offer an empirical rejoinder to the oft-told story that large urban districts, like Philadelphia, are inefficient. We situate our study during the very short period in Pennsylvania’s recent history when efforts were dedicated to addressing the inequitable distribution of resources through a fair funding formula and to increasing the amount of resources available for education spending. Even in the presence of a funding formula, school districts like Philadelphia (SDP) with its large percentage of low-income students and English language learners were disproportionately burdened. Unsurprisingly, the SDP, like many districts across the nation, did not receive ...


An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn Nov 2014

An Urban Myth? New Evidence On Equity, Adequacy, And The Efficiency Of Educational Resources In Pennsylvania, Matthew Steinberg, Rand Quinn

CPRE Policy Briefs

How and in what ways money matters in education is a long-standing question among policymakers and education researchers. This issue is particularly salient to large, urban school districts, where debates on the organization of school often gravitate toward issues of financial resources and academic performance. Large urban districts, the story goes, spend more money per pupil but generate lower than expected results. In this policy brief, University of Pennsylvania researchers Matthew P. Steinberg and Rand Quinn present evidence that addresses the oft-told story that large urban districts, such as the School District of Philadelphia (SDP), are inefficient.


Wealth Gradients In Early Childhood Cognitive Development In Five Latin American Countries, Norbert Schady, Jere R. Behrman, Maria Caridad Araujo, Rodrigo Azuero, Raquel Bernal, David Bravo, Florencia Lopez-Boo, Karen Macours, Daniela Marshall, Christina Paxson, Renos Vakis Jan 2014

Wealth Gradients In Early Childhood Cognitive Development In Five Latin American Countries, Norbert Schady, Jere R. Behrman, Maria Caridad Araujo, Rodrigo Azuero, Raquel Bernal, David Bravo, Florencia Lopez-Boo, Karen Macours, Daniela Marshall, Christina Paxson, Renos Vakis

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are ...


Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy Jan 2014

Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

This paper uses a quasi-experimental framework to analyze the impact of India’s largest public works program, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), on schooling enrollment, grade progression, reading comprehension test scores, writing test scores, math test scores and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores. The availability of pre and two rounds of post-intervention initiation data from the three rounds of the Young Lives Panel Study allow us to measure both the short- and medium-run intent-to-treat effects of the program. We find that the program has no effect on enrollment but has strong positive effects on grade progression, reading ...


Two Essays On The Economics Of Education, Nicolas Grau Jan 2014

Two Essays On The Economics Of Education, Nicolas Grau

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In this dissertation I address different topics in education policy, taking advantage of utilizing both micro-data and economic theory. The dissertation consists of two chapters, both using Chilean data. In chapter 1, The Impact of College Admissions Policies on The Performance of High School Students, I empirically evaluate the effects of college admissions policies on high school students' performance. In particular, I empirically demonstrate how increasing equality of opportunity may lead to a boost in average academic effort and shed light on the efficiency of alternative affirmative action policies. The results of this chapter suggest that affirmative action should not ...


What Determines Adult Cognitive Skills? Influences Of Pre-Schooling, Schooling, And Post-Schooling Experiences In Guatemala, Jere R. Behrman, John F. Hoddinott, John A. Maluccio, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Emily L. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Aryeh D. Stein Jun 2013

What Determines Adult Cognitive Skills? Influences Of Pre-Schooling, Schooling, And Post-Schooling Experiences In Guatemala, Jere R. Behrman, John F. Hoddinott, John A. Maluccio, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Emily L. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Aryeh D. Stein

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Most empirical investigations of the effects of cognitive skills assume that they are produced by schooling, and that schooling is exogenous. Drawing on a rich longitudinal data set to estimate production functions for adult reading-comprehension cognitive skills and adult nonverbal cognitive skills, we find that (1) Schooling attainment has a significant and substantial effect on adult reading-comprehension cognitive skills but not on adult nonverbal cognitive skills; and (2) Pre-schooling and post-schooling experiences have substantial positive significant effects on adult cognitive skills. Pre-schooling experiences that increase height for age at age six years substantially and significantly increase adult reading-comprehension and nonverbal ...


Children’S Schooling And Parents’ Behavior: Evidence From The Head Start Impact Study, Alexander M. Gelber, Adam Isen May 2013

Children’S Schooling And Parents’ Behavior: Evidence From The Head Start Impact Study, Alexander M. Gelber, Adam Isen

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children—such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days spent with children by fathers who do not live with their children—both during and after the period when their children are potentially enrolled in Head ...


Racial Disparities In Schooling: Evidence From Cape-Town, South Africa, Moran Blueshtein Jan 2013

Racial Disparities In Schooling: Evidence From Cape-Town, South Africa, Moran Blueshtein

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Racial disparities in education in South Africa have been large and enduring post-apartheid. However, moving beyond simple descriptions of these disparities to a more detailed explanation has proven to be elusive. In this dissertation, I develop and estimate a dynamic model of schooling and labor supply of youths in South Africa, and use it to study several potential explanations for the racial disparities and also evaluate policies aimed to mitigate them. The estimation is based on 1420 males age 12-22, drawn from Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a rich longitudinal study of the lives of youths in the post-apartheid era ...


To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby Jan 2013

To Flop Is Human: Inventing Better Scientific Approaches To Anticipating Failure, Robert Boruch, Alan Ruby

GSE Publications

Postmortems and autopsies, at the individual and hospital unit levels, are disciplined approaches to learning from medical failures. “Safety factors” that engineers use in designing structures and systems are based on past failures or trials and experiments to find points of failure.

The applied social sciences, including education sciences, labor economics, and criminology, have less clarity about failure. While a bridge collapse is usually plain and spectacular, failures of education innovations or attempts at crime control are often quieter, not spectacular, and often occur for no transparent reasons.

The applied social sciences lack disciplined, well-developed, and explicit approaches to anticipating ...


Math Skills And Market And Non-Market Outcomes: Evidence From An Amazonian Society, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Jere R. Behrman, Elena L. Grigorenko, Alan Schultz, Julie Yiu, Ricardo A. Godoy Jan 2013

Math Skills And Market And Non-Market Outcomes: Evidence From An Amazonian Society, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Jere R. Behrman, Elena L. Grigorenko, Alan Schultz, Julie Yiu, Ricardo A. Godoy

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane’). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported mental health and child health. These associations did not vary ...


Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan May 2010

Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan

Health Care Management Papers

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs compensates 13 percent of the nation’s military veterans for service‐related disabilities through the Disability Compensation (DC) program. In 2001, a legislative change made it easier for Vietnam veterans to receive benefits for diabetes associated with military service. In this paper, we investigate this policy’s effect on DC enrollment and expenditures as well as the behavioral response of potential beneficiaries. Our findings demonstrate that the policy increased DC enrollment by 6 percentage points among Vietnam veterans and that an additional 1.7 percent experienced an increase in their DC benefits, which ...


Beyond The Classroom: Using Title Ix To Measure The Return To High School Sports, Betsey Stevenson Jan 2010

Beyond The Classroom: Using Title Ix To Measure The Return To High School Sports, Betsey Stevenson

PSC Working Paper Series

Between 1972 and 1978 U.S. high schools rapidly increased their female athletic participation rates—to approximately the same level as their male athletic participation rates—in order to comply with Title IX, a policy change that provides a unique quasi-experiment in female athletic participation. This paper examines the causal implications of this expansion in female sports participation by using variation in the level of boys’ athletic participation across states before Title IX to instrument for the change in girls’ athletic participation. Analysis of differences in outcomes across states in changes between pre- and post-cohorts reveals that a 10-percentage point ...


Interpreting The Economic Growth And Development Policies Of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence On Higher Education And Prospects For Women, Diane E. Eynon Jan 2010

Interpreting The Economic Growth And Development Policies Of Post-Apartheid South Africa: Its Influence On Higher Education And Prospects For Women, Diane E. Eynon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation is structured as a critical policy analysis employing historical methods. It examines how the post apartheid government's economic growth and development polices have informed the higher education system and how this has changed women's financial, occupational, political, social, and educational prospects in South Africa. Through the telling of this history, the paper provides understanding of the relationship between economic growth and development, higher education, and women within the social, cultural, and political context of the country from 1994 to the present.

This is also a story about the lives of South African women. It examines how ...


Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther Dec 2009

Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous research has shown an ‘interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect’: intergroup interactions generally lead to less cooperative outcomes than interindividual interactions. We replicate the discontinuity effect in the deterministic prisoner’s dilemma, but find that groups are more cooperative than individuals in a stochastic version of the game. Three major factors that underlie the usual discontinuity effect are reduced in the stochastic environment: greed, fear, and persuasion power. Two group mechanisms are proposed to explain the reversed discontinuity effect: the motivation to avoid guilt and blame when making decisions that affect others’ welfare, and the social pressure to conform to certain norms ...


Why Are The Disability Rolls Skyrocketing? The Contribution Of Population Characteristics, Economic Conditions, And Program Generosity, Mark Duggan, Scott. A. Imberman Jan 2009

Why Are The Disability Rolls Skyrocketing? The Contribution Of Population Characteristics, Economic Conditions, And Program Generosity, Mark Duggan, Scott. A. Imberman

Health Care Management Papers

This chapter, which addresses three categories of explanation—the characteristics of individuals insured by the Disability Insurance (DI) program, the state of the economy, and the generosity of program benefits—argues that the growth in DI rolls is likely to continue and perhaps accelerate going forward. The data indicate that the recessions of 1991 and 2001 can explain 24 percent of the growth in DI receipt among men and 12 percent of the growth among women. Changes in health during the past two decades have slowed rather than added to the growth of the DI rolls. DI awards for certain ...


Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song Aug 2007

Aching To Retire? The Rise In The Full Retirement Age And Its Impact On The Social Security Disability Rolls, Mark Duggan, Perry Singleton, Jae Song

Health Care Management Papers

The Social Security Amendments of 1983 reduced the generosity of Social Security retired worker benefits in the U.S. by increasing the program's full retirement age from 65 to 67 and increasing the penalty for claiming benefits at the early retirement age of 62. These changes were phased in gradually, so that individuals born in or before 1937 were unaffected and those born in 1960 or later were fully affected. No corresponding changes were made to the program's disabled worker benefits, and thus the relative generosity of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased. In this paper, we ...


Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley Jan 2005

Local Residential Sorting And Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration, Keith Brouhle, Jay Corrigan, Rachel Croson, Martin Farnham, Selhan Garip, Luba Habodaszova, Laurie T. Johnson, Martin Johnson, David Reiley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of public good provision in the community. Next, the classroom is divided in two, and students may choose to move between the two smaller communities, sorting themselves according to their preferences for public goods. The exercise places cost on movement at first, then allows for costless sorting. Students have the opportunity to observe ...


Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly Oct 2002

Health Insurance And The Growth In Pharmaceutical Expenditures*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Mark V. Pauly

Health Care Management Papers

This paper examines the contribution of insurance coverage to the recent unprecedented growth in spending on pharmaceuticals. Trends in drug spending over time closely paralleled the growth in drug coverage. Most of the coverage growth reflects an increase in the number of people with coverage, 65 percent from 1987 to 1996, rather than increased depth of coverage. The direct moral hazard effect of this insurance growth accounts for between one‐fourth and one‐half of the increase in drug spending. Technological change contributed to these changes, because both the flow of new drugs increased the demand for insurance and information ...


Workers’ Compensation Rate Regulation: How Price Controls Increase Costs*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Scott. E. Harrington Apr 2001

Workers’ Compensation Rate Regulation: How Price Controls Increase Costs*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Scott. E. Harrington

Health Care Management Papers

In the 1980s, regulation constrained workers’ compensation insurance premiums in the face of rapid growth in loss costs. We develop and test the hypothesis that rate suppression exacerbates loss growth, leading to higher losses and premiums. The empirical analysis using rating class data for eight states for the period 1985–91 confirms that rate suppression, measured by lagged residual‐market share of payroll, increased loss growth. The cost‐increasing effects are greater in the residual market than in the voluntary market, but premiums increased more rapidly in the voluntary market. The resulting pattern of cross subsidies between and within classes ...


Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao Oct 2000

Does Regulation Drive Out Competition In Pharmaceutical Markets?*, Patricia. M. Danzon, Li-Wei Chao

Health Care Management Papers

Most countries regulate pharmaceutical prices, either directly or indirectly, on the assumption that competition is at best weak in this industry. This paper tests the hypothesis that regulation of manufacturer prices and retail pharmacy margins undermines price competition. We use data from seven countries for 1992 to examine price competition between generic competitors (different manufacturers of the same compound) and therapeutic substitutes (similar compounds) under different regulatory regimes. We find that price competition between generic competitors is significant in unregulated or less regulated markets (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany) but that regulation undermines generic competition in strict regulatory ...