Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

2018

University of New Mexico

Discipline
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Education

Evaluation Of The New Onset Diabetic Education Program For Navajo Adults, Denise S. Bartley Dec 2018

Evaluation Of The New Onset Diabetic Education Program For Navajo Adults, Denise S. Bartley

Nursing ETDs

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is higher in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) than in any other racial or ethnic group in the United States (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2018). In response to this escalating health issue, the U.S. government funded a number of DM education and treatment programs focusing on AI/AN populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the New Onset Diabetes Education Program (NODEP) based at Northern Navajo Medical Center (NNMC) in Shiprock, N.M.

The Navajo philosophy of learning ...


The Relationship Between Challenge Courses And The, Christopher Luna Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Challenge Courses And The, Christopher Luna

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

There has been an increasing demand among education agencies to utilize challenge courses, also known as ropes courses, for personal growth opportunities among students of all ages. Teachers often tell students how they want students to work as a “team” and “get along” without providing the experiences for them to practice such behaviors. A low ropes experience allows students to practice cooperative skills. The focus of garnering participants for this study was to identify a specific target of first-generation college students from two separate classroom settings. The research focused on identifying the relationship between first-generation college students and low ropes ...


Mothers’ Voices: A Narrative Study Of The Experiences And Perspectives Of Mothers Raising School Age Children With Disabilities In One Of Zimbabwe’S Urban Areas, Emillia Masaka Dec 2018

Mothers’ Voices: A Narrative Study Of The Experiences And Perspectives Of Mothers Raising School Age Children With Disabilities In One Of Zimbabwe’S Urban Areas, Emillia Masaka

Special Education ETDs

This narrative study examined (1) how women raising school age children with disabilities in one of Zimbabwe’s urban areas, articulated and conceptualized (a) their children’s disabilities and (b) their experiences as mothers of children with disabilities and (2) how their social status, marital status, age, ethnicity, and/or race intersected with their experiences of raising children with disabilities. A localized understanding of how mothers view their children’s disabilities was important because it influences results of any interventions their children might receive. Eight participants volunteered to have three interviews each, with me. Utilizing the social construction of disability ...


Perceptions And Clinical Applications Of Feedback Type If Dental Hygiene, Elmer Eleazar Gonzalez Dec 2018

Perceptions And Clinical Applications Of Feedback Type If Dental Hygiene, Elmer Eleazar Gonzalez

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Purpose/Objectives: The study assesses whether or not feedback type and feedback delivery method play a significant role in students’ learning and clinical performance. The study explores Ego Stroking Sandwich feedback and Non-Sandwich feedback as the feedback types and Instructors feedback vs. Scoring guide feedback as the feedback delivery method. Students’ perceptions and clinical applications were considered as part of the study.

Methods: Eleven participants were included in the study. One group was the Ego Stroking Sandwich type feedback (n=5) and the other was the Non-Sandwich Type feedback (n=6). Each group performed two dental impressions (a maxillary and ...


Learning Statistics Through Guided Block Play: A Pre-Curriculum In Statistical Literacy, Robert P. Giebitz Nov 2018

Learning Statistics Through Guided Block Play: A Pre-Curriculum In Statistical Literacy, Robert P. Giebitz

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

Learning to use data to investigate the world and make decisions has become an essential skill for all citizens. Play and curiosity are powerful motivators for learning. Inquiry – the process of asking questions and seeking answers – can engage the natural curiosity of young learners and motivate early learning. Recent research in statistics education has shown that children as young as 4 and 5 years old can learn to collect, organize, and interpret data they acquire through observation, counting, and measuring in a process of guided inquiry. Guided block play has been used for over 100 years to enable children to ...


Playing Sports In College: Understanding The Factors That Influence The College Choice Process For High School Student-Athletes, Lauren Holzberg Nov 2018

Playing Sports In College: Understanding The Factors That Influence The College Choice Process For High School Student-Athletes, Lauren Holzberg

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

The college athletic recruiting process at times can be overwhelming, confusing, and intimidating. It is my hope that Playing Sports in College: Understanding the Factors that Influence the College Choice Process for High School Student-Athletes will alleviate some of the questions associated with the recruiting process and allow prospective student-athletes to pursue their college student-athlete dreams by offering simple advice, some basic ground rules, and plenty of inspiration.

This book is a go-to guide for the numerous questions that arise during the recruiting process and can be used when a student-athlete begins the recruiting process and it can be referred ...


Pakistani English Language Teachers’ Preparedness: An Investigation Of Ideological Meaning-Making In Higher Education Institutions In Pakistan, Yasir Hussain Nov 2018

Pakistani English Language Teachers’ Preparedness: An Investigation Of Ideological Meaning-Making In Higher Education Institutions In Pakistan, Yasir Hussain

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

This research study is an attempt to understand the ideological preparedness of English language teachers at the higher education institutions (HEIs) in Pakistan. The construct of preparedness is unique in this study because the phenomenon of preparedness is simplified for pedagogical methodologies and teaching practices. This study is a journey of understanding ideology, its representations through discourse, and its enactment through discursive practices of the participant-teachers. In this hermeneutical phenomenological study, I used interview texts as the data source and critical discourse analysis (CDA) as the analytical framework. The participants included 15 English language teachers at nine different HEIs in ...


Race, Disability And The Possibilities Of Radical Agency: Toward A Political Philosophy Of Decolonial Critical Hermeneutics In Latinx Discrit, Alexis C. Padilla Nov 2018

Race, Disability And The Possibilities Of Radical Agency: Toward A Political Philosophy Of Decolonial Critical Hermeneutics In Latinx Discrit, Alexis C. Padilla

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

The present dissertation is a non-empirical methodology project grounded in political philosophy. As a practical exercise, it bridges knowledge workers (e.g., educators, action researchers and other engaged scholars) with activists to explore the situated emancipation possibilities of radical agency at the intersection of blindness and Latinidad. It does so in line with DisCrit and other bodies of literature within critical disability studies, works centered on trans-Latinidades and border-crossing, intersectional decoloniality theorizing, critical hermeneutics, critical race theory and blackness/ whiteness studies. It interrogates performative and movement building spaces for teaching and learning that foster radical exteriority trajectories of decolonial solidarity ...


The Role Of Mothers And Fathers In Predicting Adolescents' Peer Affiliation And Behavioral Adjustment, Becky Grelle, Alexandra N. Davis, Ryan J. Kelly, Cara Streit Nov 2018

The Role Of Mothers And Fathers In Predicting Adolescents' Peer Affiliation And Behavioral Adjustment, Becky Grelle, Alexandra N. Davis, Ryan J. Kelly, Cara Streit

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

The current study aimed to examine the associations between parental warmth and control and adolescents’ social behaviors (altruistic and public prosocial behaviors, aggression, and delinquency) in a low-income, Midwestern sample. The study also aimed to examine how peer relationships may play an indirect role in these associations. The results demonstrated complex links between parenting dimensions and adolescents' peer affiliation and social behaviors. Specifically, maternal and paternal warmth were predictive of peer affiliation, which in turn predicted adolescents' prosocial behaviors as well as negative social behaviors. There were also direct links between maternal and paternal parenting dimensions and social behaviors, highlighting ...


Experiences Of Western Clinical Practice And Traditional Mexican American Healing When The Provider Is The Same Person, Helen Marie Tafoya Nov 2018

Experiences Of Western Clinical Practice And Traditional Mexican American Healing When The Provider Is The Same Person, Helen Marie Tafoya

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

EXPERIENCES OF WESTERN CLINICAL PRACTICE AND TRADITIONAL MEXICAN AMERICAN HEALING WHEN THE PROVIDER IS THE SAME PERSON

By

Helen Marie Tafoya

B.A. Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1991

M. A. Clinical Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, 1995

Ph.D., Counselor Education, University of New Mexico, 2018

ABSTRACT

In counseling ethics and standards, there is a call to integrate practices and for practitioners to become more aware of other cultures and traditions (Sue, Arrendondo, & McDavis, 1992; Ratts, Singh, Butler, Nassar-McMillan, & McCullough, 2015). Very little research exists that addresses when the Western mental health practitioner and the traditional healer are the same ...


Teaching Evidence-Based Practices To Teachers, Jennifer M. Pena Nov 2018

Teaching Evidence-Based Practices To Teachers, Jennifer M. Pena

Special Education ETDs

A convenience sample of 32 teachers (general and special education) and instructional coaches participated in professional development (PD) focused on finding, researching, and implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in a charter elementary/middle/high school that uses an inclusive model of special education services. Research questions addressed participants’ understandings and implementation of EBPs prior to and following the PD, as well as their reports about the PD model itself. Results indicated teachers had limited understanding of EBPs and knowledge of resources (i.e., where to find EBPs), and mixed reports of implementation prior to the PD. Throughout the study, participants reported ...


What Factors Influence Catholic Parents’ Choice Of School(S) For Their Child(Ren)?, Andrea R. Aiello Nov 2018

What Factors Influence Catholic Parents’ Choice Of School(S) For Their Child(Ren)?, Andrea R. Aiello

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

In 1965, the American Catholic school system had 5.66 million students, 13,296 schools and educated nearly 13% of all school-aged children. Fifty years later, Catholic school enrollments had fallen to approximately 1.93 million and a total of 6,250 schools, while more than 17% of the students enrolled in Catholic schools identified as non-Catholic. Although there appear to be several positive points of difference for selecting Catholic schools, nevertheless families are making other choices. In this exploratory study, I endeavored to understand the demographic characteristics, attitudes toward education as well as more general motivations of American Catholic ...


Drop In Or Drop Out: A Case Study On The Effects Of Academic Track Placement, And Levels Of Student Skill And Will, On Successful Ninth-Grade Completion, Channell M. Wilson-Segura Nov 2018

Drop In Or Drop Out: A Case Study On The Effects Of Academic Track Placement, And Levels Of Student Skill And Will, On Successful Ninth-Grade Completion, Channell M. Wilson-Segura

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

The ninth grade is a transition year from middle school to high school where many students struggle to successfully navigate a new environment, new teachers and peers, new academic and behavioral expectations, and the concept of graduation requirements. This qualitative study examined the effects of academic track placement, and student levels of skill and will, on successful ninth-grade completion in one New Mexico Title I high school. It also provided insight into their perceptions of the success factors and challenges that they felt impacted their ability to successfully promote to the tenth-grade, and thus, remain on-track for graduation.

This study ...


A Phenomenological Study Of A Combined Mindfulness And Social-And-Emotional Learning Intervention As Delivered By A Counselor-Consultant To Early-Childhood Educators, Alfredo F. Palacios Aug 2018

A Phenomenological Study Of A Combined Mindfulness And Social-And-Emotional Learning Intervention As Delivered By A Counselor-Consultant To Early-Childhood Educators, Alfredo F. Palacios

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Mindfulness is an emerging tool that is growing in use in early childhood educational settings. This project identified a high needs area of Albuquerque New Mexico and implemented a mindfulness-based intervention with teachers in a Head Start setting. This study took place over a school year where teachers met weekly with researchers for training in mindfulness and social emotional learning. This study employed a phenomenological inquiry into the perceived experiences of teachers learning these pedagogical tools to be used in their classrooms. Implications are made for early childhood educators and professional counselors that serve in a consultation role in these ...


Analyzing Social Construction Of Knowledge And Social Networks In Online Discussion Forums In Spanish, David R. Gomez Jul 2018

Analyzing Social Construction Of Knowledge And Social Networks In Online Discussion Forums In Spanish, David R. Gomez

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

This mixed methods research project examined social construction of knowledge and social networks in three non-structured student centered online discussion forums, which were part of a graduate online course on web conferencing in Spanish within the Mexican sociocultural context. The purpose of the study was to identify interaction patterns among twenty-one graduate students by analyzing discussion forum posts, measuring student centrality, and generating social network diagrams in order to explain the characteristics of posts and social networks that may contribute to social construction of knowledge.

The researcher used a sequential approach, starting with the application of an interaction analysis model ...


Decolonial Gestures Of Andean Bilingual College Students Promoting Quechua: Community-Based Participatory Research With Photovoice, Yuliana H. Kenfield Jul 2018

Decolonial Gestures Of Andean Bilingual College Students Promoting Quechua: Community-Based Participatory Research With Photovoice, Yuliana H. Kenfield

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

Andean college students in Cusco, Peru, struggle to overcome discrimination against bilingualism during their pursuit of higher education. To examine this situation and possibilities for change, I employed a participatory method, photovoice (Wang & Burris, 1994) within a community-based participatory research framework, to facilitate Quechua-Spanish bilingual college students’ exploration of Quechuan practices in their university. Participatory research methodology promoted critical dialogues to challenge ideologies that have obstructed the revitalization, maintenance, development of the Quechua language in higher education. Although university policies in Cusco formally promote inclusion of indigenous knowledge and practices, bilingual Spanish-Quechua practices on campus have remained largely symbolic.

Andean ...


An Analysis Of The Results Of Court Of Arbitration For Sport Doping Awards Involving Athletes Between 1994 And 2008., Genevieve F.E. Birren Esq. Jul 2018

An Analysis Of The Results Of Court Of Arbitration For Sport Doping Awards Involving Athletes Between 1994 And 2008., Genevieve F.E. Birren Esq.

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

The purpose of this study was to create a database of Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) awards coded for a variety of factors and then examine those factors to determine whether they had any relationship to the outcome of the CAS awards involving athletes and doping. The initial pool of awards was downloaded from the CAS website and then each award was read and coded for certain information, specifically case name, year, date decided, division, sport, party role, party name, issue, rule applied, sex, decision, and arbitrators deciding. Once this coding was complete the result was a database of ...


Autophagy Is Stimulated By Acute High Intensity Interval Exercise In Human Skeletal Muscle And Electrical Pulse Stimulation In C2c12 Myotubes In Vitro, Kurt A. Escobar Jul 2018

Autophagy Is Stimulated By Acute High Intensity Interval Exercise In Human Skeletal Muscle And Electrical Pulse Stimulation In C2c12 Myotubes In Vitro, Kurt A. Escobar

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

Purpose: 1) To compare the effects of an acute bout of HIIT exercise (treadmill running) on autophagy to MICT exercise in human skeletal muscle 3 hours post exercise, and 2) to test an in vitro model of muscle contraction-induced autophagy using electrical pulse stimulation in C2C12 myotubes. Methods: Study 1: Ten recreationally active males and females completed a bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) exercise in a fasted state. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken pre and 3 hours post-exercise. Muscle tissue was analyzed for protein expression of markers of ...


Building A Call To Action: Social Action In Networks Of Practice, Damien M. Sánchez Jul 2018

Building A Call To Action: Social Action In Networks Of Practice, Damien M. Sánchez

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

The three research papers completed as part of this dissertation explore how people contributing to #BlackLivesMatter build knowledge, using social construction of knowledge (SCK), and what they are building knowledge about, using critical consciousness, because understanding how these processes play out on Twitter provides a way for others to understand this social movement. Paper 1 describes a new methodological approach to combining social network analysis (SNA) and social learning analytics to assess SCK. The sequential mixed method design begins by conducting a content analysis according to the Interaction Analysis Model (IAM). The results of the content analysis yield descriptive data ...


Pre-Boomer Students On Campus: An Exploratory Study Of How Students Born Before 1946 Experience The Youth-Oriented Campus Culture At Unm, Elinor Sue Coates Phd Jul 2018

Pre-Boomer Students On Campus: An Exploratory Study Of How Students Born Before 1946 Experience The Youth-Oriented Campus Culture At Unm, Elinor Sue Coates Phd

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

Older learners have been studied thoroughly, except for those born before 1946, preceding the post-war "population bulge" (Carlson, 2008; Laditka, Fischer, Laditka, & Segal, 2004; Verstynen, 2011). Most such studies define "older" as over 25 or over 40, and fail to separate the subject group from those who came later. Defining a group by numerical age is problematic because it changes every year and soon omits the group's defining life experiences (Pilcher, 1994), which for this group include the Great Depression, World War II, the polio epidemic, and life before television. To address that gap this critical ethnography explored the experience of ...


Laterality In The Power Five And Group Of Five Conferences In Women's College Softball, Jon C. Nachtigal Jul 2018

Laterality In The Power Five And Group Of Five Conferences In Women's College Softball, Jon C. Nachtigal

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

Females in sport are under-represented in data and analysis when compared to their male counterparts. This disparity also applies to women’s softball in comparison to men’s baseball. To help fill this gap, this study evaluated the extent and impact of laterality in women’s college softball’s Power Five and Group of Five conferences from 2015-2017.

This study focused on the extent of a left-sided lateral preference in women’s college softball, possible interactions between throwing hand and batting preference, to what extent the platoon effect exists in the sport, and the extent of positional bias in the ...


Effect Of Undergraduate Research Programs On Retention Of Hispanic Students, Kiyoko N. Simmons Jul 2018

Effect Of Undergraduate Research Programs On Retention Of Hispanic Students, Kiyoko N. Simmons

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

The Hispanic population in the United States has been increasing, which is affecting the number of Hispanic student population in the higher education. In spite of the rapid increase of Hispanic student population, little empirical research has been conducted on the Hispanic student’s college success. This study investigated the effect of participating in holistic undergraduate research programs on retention outcome of Hispanic students at The University of New Mexico. UNM is a public Hispanic-Serving Institution where 47.3 percent of undergraduate students are Hispanic in 2016.

The Vincent Tinto’s theory of student departure and the five critical factors ...


American Indian Student Motivation At A Tribal College, Rebecca L. Izzo Jul 2018

American Indian Student Motivation At A Tribal College, Rebecca L. Izzo

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between motivational characteristics of American Indian college students attending a tribal college. The Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) was utilized to identify motivational constructs. The literature in general continues to portray American Indian students as the lowest academically achieving subgroup as well as having a lack of persistence and high dropout rate in higher education. This study identified areas that support motivation to attend college, which then can be shared with the tribal college to develop programs and innovations to recruit and sustain American Indian students in education, as well as ...


The Pedagogical Impacts Of The Common Core State Standards On Elementary Mathematics Teachers Of The Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Nathan E. Harrison Jul 2018

The Pedagogical Impacts Of The Common Core State Standards On Elementary Mathematics Teachers Of The Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Nathan E. Harrison

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

This study explored the intersection of the Common Core State Standards and the field of Deaf Education, specifically the impact of the Common Core on the pedagogy of elementary mathematics teachers of the deaf. Pedagogy was defined as the union of the philosophy and methodology of teaching a teacher uses.

This study made use of an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design, which included a phase of quantitative data collection through a survey of elementary mathematics teachers in Deaf Schools in Common Core states and a phase of qualitative data collection through interviews with a sub-sample of participants from the ...


A Case Study Of The Characteristics For Successful First Time Passing Of The National Physical Therapy Exam In The University Of New Mexico Doctor Of Physical Therapy 2012-2017 Cohorts, Beth-Anne Moody Jones Jul 2018

A Case Study Of The Characteristics For Successful First Time Passing Of The National Physical Therapy Exam In The University Of New Mexico Doctor Of Physical Therapy 2012-2017 Cohorts, Beth-Anne Moody Jones

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

Abstract

A Case Study of the Characteristics for Successful First Time Passing of

the National Physical Therapy Exam in

The University of New Mexico Doctor of Physical Therapy 2012-2017 Cohorts

Name:

Beth Moody Jones

Degrees:

B.S., Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, 1982

M.S., Orthopedic Physcial Therapy,Old Dominion University, 1994

D.P.T., A.T.Still University of Health Sciences, 2004

Ed.D., University of New Mexico, 2018

Not passing the National Physical Therapy Exam (NPTE) has significant consequences. If a student does not pass the NPTE on the first attempt they can retake the examination, however a ...


Diné Epistemology: Sa’Ah Naaghái Bik’Eh Hózhóón Teachings, Vangee Nez Jul 2018

Diné Epistemology: Sa’Ah Naaghái Bik’Eh Hózhóón Teachings, Vangee Nez

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

Sa’ah Naaghái Bik’eh Hózhóón (SNBH) is Diné epistemology, a complex system of knowledge encompassing two paradigms: Beauty Way (Hózhóójii-female) and Protection Way (Naayée’ k’egho-male), with hózhó at its core. The study examines personal narratives of SNBH through lived experiences toward hózhó. The literature review looks at Diné worldview from the perspective of published Diné scholars on SNBH for Diné youth. This qualitative case study approach, using Indigenous epistemology and Indigenous research methodology framework, allowed for intensive descriptions and analysis of SNBH. The interviews explored participants’ lived experiences using narrative inquiry to understand SNBH. The findings ...


The Support Needs Of First Generation Immigrant Families With Sons And Daughters With Disabilities, George Jacob May 2018

The Support Needs Of First Generation Immigrant Families With Sons And Daughters With Disabilities, George Jacob

Special Education ETDs

This study examined the support needs of four first generation immigrant families with sons and daughters with disabilities from a city in the South West of the United States and gave them a voice to add to the knowledge base that can inform the development of supports and policies for families. Parents talked about their separation from extended families and being alone in an unfamiliar country without knowledge and information on how to raise a child with a disability. Spouse and children were the closest forms of support, but for a single parent, the needs multiplied. All families shared the ...


Emotion And Metacognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Emotion In The Development Of Learning Beliefs, Robert Craig Hoy May 2018

Emotion And Metacognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Emotion In The Development Of Learning Beliefs, Robert Craig Hoy

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Educators have daily experience with how students' emotional states influence their behaviors and levels of motivation. What is more poorly understood and even counterintuitive in effect is the subtler role of emotion in the role of metacognitive monitoring in the form of learning belief development. The research driving current understanding in this area is limited and fragmented across disciplines. The purpose of the current quantitative, cross-sectional study was to contribute to our understanding of the role that emotion plays in metacognitive monitoring. The study used self-report measures given before and after a video-based learning task. Metrics included measures of emotional ...


How Brief Motivational Interventions Impact Math Beliefs In Undergraduate University Students, Ayesha Lynn Livingston Phd May 2018

How Brief Motivational Interventions Impact Math Beliefs In Undergraduate University Students, Ayesha Lynn Livingston Phd

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Despite best efforts, students in U.S. schools still underperform in mathematics compared to many other developed countries, and the achievement gap persists. Teachers play a most important role in student success, yet the knowledge about adult beliefs (and how they can be changed) concerning one’s ability to learn math, the value one has for math, and one’s understanding about how math anxiety derails learning still falls short in informing efforts to best train/support pre-service or in-service teachers. A group of undergraduate university students (N=123) participated in a fully online intervention measuring each of the components ...


Video Games And Virtual Reality As Classroom Literature: Thoughts, Experiences, And Learning With 8th Grade Middle School Students, Miles M. Harvey May 2018

Video Games And Virtual Reality As Classroom Literature: Thoughts, Experiences, And Learning With 8th Grade Middle School Students, Miles M. Harvey

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

This qualitative study utilized video games and virtual reality in an eighth-grade public middle school media literacy elective classroom in which the head researcher was also the official teacher for the students in the study. The nineteen students and their teacher used video games in small groups for five consecutive weeks. The teacher and nineteen students recorded data about their thoughts, experiences, and learning as they played in the classroom. Students responded to open-ended reader-response questions about their experiences after playing video games each day for forty-five minutes. Students reflected about their experiences in a thought journal. The teacher responded ...