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A Study Of Literacy Efficacy And Student Achievement Among Beginning Middle School Teachers In An Urban Context, Michael J. Mustain Jul 2006

A Study Of Literacy Efficacy And Student Achievement Among Beginning Middle School Teachers In An Urban Context, Michael J. Mustain

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

Many U.S. school districts are addressing concerns in the areas of literacy education, teacher shortages, and overall student achievement. Teacher preparation in the area of literacy education and the ability of core subject teachers to include literacy components in their daily lessons appears vital to student achievement. Teacher shortages, particularly in high need, "hard to staff'' urban schools, are a serious problem that alternative preparation programs help to address. Alternative preparation programs can provide highly qualified teachers in urban schools. The Transition to Teaching (TTT) trained teachers provided literacy education that in turn helped improve benchmark tests, end-of-year tests ...


Balanced Literacy Versus Basal Reading Instruction For Urban African-American, Title I Third-Grade Students, Julie Ann Perkins Apr 2006

Balanced Literacy Versus Basal Reading Instruction For Urban African-American, Title I Third-Grade Students, Julie Ann Perkins

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study compared third-grade reading achievement of urban African-American, Title I students using a basal reading series with those using a balanced literacy program to determine whether the highly structured skills-based methods advocated by The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act actually foster or impede reading achievement in an urban school setting.

Two hundred forty-five third-grade African-American, Title I students from an urban elementary school in southeastern Virginia served as subjects for the study. Subjects were studied as intact groups to avoid disruption in the educational setting. Participants in the control group were third-grade classes of urban African-American, Title I ...


Effect Of Instructional Styles And The Duration Of Class Time On The Sense Of Classroom Community Of Military Urban Graduate Students, William J. Davis Jr. Jan 2005

Effect Of Instructional Styles And The Duration Of Class Time On The Sense Of Classroom Community Of Military Urban Graduate Students, William J. Davis Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study measured the effect that instructional style, duration of class time, and repeated administrations of the Classroom Community Scale (CCS) had on the sense of classroom community of military urban graduate students (N = 263). The Instructional Styles Inventory (ISI) was used to determine instructional style, and the CCS was utilized to measure sense of classroom community. In addition, this research contained qualitative data that were extracted from a random sampling of participants during small focus groups.

Quantitative analysis of the data showed that duration of class time and instructional style had an effect on sense of classroom community. The ...


The Impact Of Place Of Residence On The Academic Achievement And Retention Of First-Time-In-College Students At An Urban Commuter University, Tameria Lee Vickerson Apr 2003

The Impact Of Place Of Residence On The Academic Achievement And Retention Of First-Time-In-College Students At An Urban Commuter University, Tameria Lee Vickerson

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study explored the impact of place of residence on the academic achievement and retention of full-time, first-time-in-college students at an urban, public, primarily commuter university in the Southeast. Three groups of subjects were compared to ascertain if any group differences existed in regard to mean freshman grade point average, grades earned in a common course taken (Freshman English I), and retention into the second year of study. The three subject groups that were compared included residential learning community, traditional residence hall, and commuter students.

The subject groups were matched on the demographic characteristics of age, gender, and ethnicity and ...


Facility Administrator Perceptions Of The External Environmental Constituencies Shaping Urban Advanced Technology Centers, Daniel Robert Smith Jul 2002

Facility Administrator Perceptions Of The External Environmental Constituencies Shaping Urban Advanced Technology Centers, Daniel Robert Smith

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to develop a list of the most relevant external environmental constituencies and responses to those elements that should be used by facility administrators of urban advanced technology centers. A three-round Delphi research method was conducted to garner the perceptions of the panel participants. The President's Advisory Council and the Board of Directors of the National Coalition of Advanced Technology Centers were asked to nominate facility administrators of urban advanced technology centers to serve as expert panel participants. Of the 17 facility administrators nominated, nine agreed to participate and completed all three rounds of ...


Variables Associated With A Sense Of Classroom Community And Academic Persistence In An Urban Community College Online Setting, Cynthia P. Cadieux Apr 2002

Variables Associated With A Sense Of Classroom Community And Academic Persistence In An Urban Community College Online Setting, Cynthia P. Cadieux

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Technology On Urban High School Students' Sense Of Classroom Community, Mervyn J. Wighting Apr 2002

The Effects Of Technology On Urban High School Students' Sense Of Classroom Community, Mervyn J. Wighting

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study measured the sense of classroom community among students from two different grades in an independent urban high school (N = 181). A standardized instrument was used to compare sense of community in classes whose teachers used computers frequently and consistently in their instruction with others in which the teachers seldom or never included computer use in the classroom. Quantitative analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between the classes in terms of one of the sub-scales of the instrument; students whose teachers used computers frequently and consistently scored higher on the learning sub-scale of the sense of community ...


A Study Of Professional Development School Program Graduates Through Their First Year As Urban School Teachers, Amy J. Vereen Apr 2002

A Study Of Professional Development School Program Graduates Through Their First Year As Urban School Teachers, Amy J. Vereen

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This year-long study focused on three first-year teachers-in order to examine how they adjusted to their first year, how they developed professionally, and how they changed as teachers. Each teacher possessed characteristics for success in urban schools, and had completed a Professional Development School internship.

Using a self-efficacy test, interviews, and a teacher survey, the three teachers were measured throughout the academic year with regard to their level of readiness to teach, the impact of their Professional Development School training on their work as teachers, self-efficacy, and willingness to continue teaching in an urban setting.

Regarding their level of readiness ...


They Did Not Teach: Veterans' Experiences In A Mid-Career Transition Program At An Urban University, Joseph Franklyn Shipes Jan 2002

They Did Not Teach: Veterans' Experiences In A Mid-Career Transition Program At An Urban University, Joseph Franklyn Shipes

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This descriptive phenomenology examines the lived experiences of veterans who attempted a mid-career transition into teaching. The study identifies and describes experiences that led to the outcome decisions of 22 men who enrolled in a Military Career Transition Program (MCTP), completed a Master's Degree in Education, but did not become public school teachers. Self-descriptions of their experience were collected in multiple, open-ended interviews and analyzed using Moustakas's (1994) protocols.

Participants described a transition in four stages (a) preliminary conditions for change, (b) socialization and adjustment, (c) refocusing career goals, and (d) reflective assessment. Planning for career change began ...


Post Doi Moi Urban Higher Education In The Socialist Republic Of Vietnam: The Case Of Hong Duc University, Jeanne Beth Natali Jan 2001

Post Doi Moi Urban Higher Education In The Socialist Republic Of Vietnam: The Case Of Hong Duc University, Jeanne Beth Natali

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is experiencing unprecedented peace and prosperity. Although Vietnam's war-damaged economy continued to decline for ten years after hostilities ended in 1975, everything changed in 1986 when doi moi, a moderate economic reform program, was introduced. Doi moi put enormous stress on higher education, whose function in the past had been to train workers for the state sector. Suddenly, higher education had to respond to the changing needs of Vietnamese society.

A 1992 educational sector study found that higher education was irrelevant to the needs of the transitional Vietnamese society. Universities were too small and ...


The Influence Of Selected Noncognitive Variables On The Academic Success Of Urban Black High School Males In An Enrichment Pre-College Program, Leon Rouson Jan 2000

The Influence Of Selected Noncognitive Variables On The Academic Success Of Urban Black High School Males In An Enrichment Pre-College Program, Leon Rouson

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The thrust of this study was to examine the influence of selected noncognitive variables on the academic success of urban Black high school males in an enrichment Pre-College Program. The major research question was: Which of the selected noncognitive variables are most useful in predicting academic success for urban Black high school males?

This study reinvestigated Sedlacek and Brooks' (1976) proposed set of seven noncognitive variables related to academic success: (a) self-concept; (b) realistic self-appraisal; (c) understanding of and ability to deal with racism; (d) preference for long-term goals over more immediate, short-term needs; (e) availability of a strong support ...


The Effects Of School Uniforms On Student Behavior And Perceptions In An Urban Middle School, Jacqueline M. Mccarty Jul 1999

The Effects Of School Uniforms On Student Behavior And Perceptions In An Urban Middle School, Jacqueline M. Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

Public opinion polls have consistently highlighted the prevalence of violence in America's schools. Specifically, school personnel have witnessed increased assault and theft related to the wearing of expensive clothing. Concomitantly, administrators have noted decreased attendance rates triggered by clothing issues. Given the gravity of these problems, school officials nationwide have enacted uniform policies in hopes of improving school safety and student behavior. However, current research establishing the effectiveness of these policies is largely anecdotal. The few studies utilizing empirical measures mainly highlight short-term outcomes and often fail to address student perceptions regarding clothing-related problems.

By contrast, this study investigated ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Multicultural Education On The Racial Attitudes Of Pre-K Through Grade 12 Students: A Comparison Of Curricular Intervention And Reinforcement Dimensions In Suburban And Urban Educational Settings, Ogochukwu Nkeiruka N. Okoye-Johnson Jul 1999

A Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Multicultural Education On The Racial Attitudes Of Pre-K Through Grade 12 Students: A Comparison Of Curricular Intervention And Reinforcement Dimensions In Suburban And Urban Educational Settings, Ogochukwu Nkeiruka N. Okoye-Johnson

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This meta-analysis examined the effects of multicultural education on the racial attitudes of students in prekindergarten through twelfth grade. Multicultural education, which evolved as a direct result of the push for ethnic studies in schools, was operationalized for this study as programs and curricula dealing with racial and cultural diversity.

The findings of thirty selected studies were synthesized in this meta-analysis to examine whether students exposed to multicultural education developed more positive racial attitudes than students who did not. This meta-analysis compared the effect sizes of two dimensions of multicultural education, curricular intervention and reinforcement, to see the relative effectiveness ...


Cognitive Complexity And Empathy As Predictors Of Leadership Style In An Urban College Student Population, Scott B. Harrison Apr 1999

Cognitive Complexity And Empathy As Predictors Of Leadership Style In An Urban College Student Population, Scott B. Harrison

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The amount of variation in leadership style predicted by cognitive complexity and empathy was investigated. Differences in cognitive complexity and empathic ability according to students' educational levels and leadership styles was also tested. Leadership style was determined by Fiedler's (1967) Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) measure; cognitive complexity was defined by the Cognitive Complexity Index (CCI), a subscale of the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP; Moore, 1987) instrument which measures Perry's (1998) scheme of intellectual and ethical development; and empathy was measured by Hogan's Scale of Empathy (1969) as scored on the Hogan/Em subscale of the California Psychological ...


The Effects Of Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities On Urban Fourth-Grade General Education Students, Brenda E. Cox Apr 1999

The Effects Of Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities On Urban Fourth-Grade General Education Students, Brenda E. Cox

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study examined the impact of fully included students with learning disabilities on the academic achievement and classroom behavior of urban elementary fourth grade students. To achieve these purposes, data were collected by using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Multilevel Battery (ITBS) of general education students and students with at-risk profiles, Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement (KTEA) of students with disabilities, completed Individualized Education Program (IEP) objectives of students with disabilities, report card grades of all students, and referrals to principal for inappropriate behavior of all students. Staff and parent surveys and student interviews were another source of data ...


An Analysis Of Practicum Student Attitudes In Urban Professional Development School And Urban Traditional School Programs, Ira Carroll Starling Jan 1999

An Analysis Of Practicum Student Attitudes In Urban Professional Development School And Urban Traditional School Programs, Ira Carroll Starling

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study compares practicum student attitudes (N = 46) in urban Mature PDS, urban Newly Established PDS, and urban Traditional Schools on five professional attributes: diversity, collaboration, reflection, theory-to-practice, and motivation/efficacy. The researcher also compared practicum expectations of students, principals and clinical faculty to identify differences in attitudes among the three practicum environments.

With regard to the five professional attributes, the Mature PDS environment was most successful in encouraging positive professional attitudes, the Traditional School environment was moderately successful, and the Newly Established PDS was least successful. Qualitative findings showed that the clinical faculty in the Mature PDS environment were ...


Urban University Adjunct Faculty Perceptions Of Professional Development Needs, Merodie Anne Hancock Apr 1998

Urban University Adjunct Faculty Perceptions Of Professional Development Needs, Merodie Anne Hancock

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine Old Dominion University adjunct faculty members' perceptions of their professional development needs. A three-round Delphi technique was employed as the primary research tool. An initial stratified sample of 120 current adjunct faculty members was selected by college associate deans. The research was conducted with 57 adjunct faculty members completing all three rounds of the study.

The first research question was to ascertain Old Dominion University adjunct faculty members' perceptions of their professional development needs toward teaching for an urban university. Sixteen development needs were derived representing all of the inputs from respondents ...


The Influence Of An Early Childhood Program On The Academic Achievement, Attendance, And Attitudes Of Urban At-Risk Students, Daisy Mccray Murphy Mar 1998

The Influence Of An Early Childhood Program On The Academic Achievement, Attendance, And Attitudes Of Urban At-Risk Students, Daisy Mccray Murphy

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of an early childhood preschool program on the achievement, attendance, and attitudes of at-risk students in an urban Southeastern school division in Virginia. The study compared two groups of Title I eligible four-year-olds, those who participated (n = 88) and those who did not non-participate (n = 54), in a preschool program. A review of the literature revealed that early intervention efforts have addressed the school success dilemma for at-risk students with varying degrees of effectiveness. Increased attention toward the implementation of developmentally appropriate learning environments have afforded at-risk students academic gains ...


The Effects Of Applied Technology Instruction On Mathematics Achievement And Career Interests Of Urban Seventh-Grade Students, Eric M. Fischer Jan 1997

The Effects Of Applied Technology Instruction On Mathematics Achievement And Career Interests Of Urban Seventh-Grade Students, Eric M. Fischer

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The present study has been implemented to provide insight as to how, given limited resources, Technology Education curricula might be developed to best support the unique goals of an urban middle school aerospace magnet program. It was hypothesized that applied academic strategies, including interdisciplinary hands-on aerospace and computer-assisted instructional activities, would affect larger gains in mathematics achievement and would enhance career-interest development of urban seventh-grade students to a greater degree than would non-participation in such instruction. A randomized subjects, pretest-posttest control group design was used to assess treatment effects upon 71 urban seventh-grade students. Dependent variables were measured using the ...


Patterns Of Giving To Urban Public Higher Education Among Corporate Foundations In Virginia And Select Others Which Have A Significant Presence In Virginia, Grace Aine Porter Jan 1997

Patterns Of Giving To Urban Public Higher Education Among Corporate Foundations In Virginia And Select Others Which Have A Significant Presence In Virginia, Grace Aine Porter

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This study examines patterns of giving among the corporate foundations in Virginia and select others which have a significant presence in Virginia. The purpose is to better understand how and why they give as they do. In addition to investigating trends in giving, the amounts given, and motivations for giving, the study compares these data with prior research that has indicated corporate favoritism toward private and public "specialized" or "elite" higher education (Reich, 1992; Council for Aid to Education, 1994). "Specialized" is defined by the Council for Aid to Education as medical schools and science research institutions. One utilitarian purpose ...


The Influence Of Reading Comprehension And Other Selected Factors On Student Dropouts In An Urban Southeastern School District In Virginia, Viola Garris Morgan Jan 1997

The Influence Of Reading Comprehension And Other Selected Factors On Student Dropouts In An Urban Southeastern School District In Virginia, Viola Garris Morgan

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of reading achievement on the dropout status. The major research question was to determine to what extent does reading comprehension influence the dropout rate after controlling for demographic and performance characteristics?

The target population consisted of 677 urban twelfth-grade students attending schools in an urban southeastern school district in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Of the 677 students, 142 were dropouts, and 535 were nondropouts. Simple and partial correlations were used to determine the relationship between variables after partialing out performance and demographic variables. In addition, the discriminant analyses were used ...


A Comparison Of White Male College Students Attending An Urban Black University And An Urban White University: White Racial Identity And Perceived Comfort With Blacks, Cheryl Lorraine Evans Jan 1997

A Comparison Of White Male College Students Attending An Urban Black University And An Urban White University: White Racial Identity And Perceived Comfort With Blacks, Cheryl Lorraine Evans

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in White Racial Identity and degree of tolerance for Blacks between two samples of White male undergraduate students attending an urban Black university and those attending an urban White university. The theoretical framework for this study was based in Social Contact Theory as a contributor to racial tolerance and Racial Identity Development Theory as a factor in human growth toward increasing acceptance of diversity. This was a quasi-experimental post-hoc design using intact groups.

The study analyzed the responses of 182 White male undergraduates using three instruments. A Background Questionnaire, designed ...


A Study To Determine The Effects Of Marketing Occupational Experience On Urban Secondary Marketing Teachers' Perceptions Of Curriculum Priorities, K. Denise Threlfall Apr 1996

A Study To Determine The Effects Of Marketing Occupational Experience On Urban Secondary Marketing Teachers' Perceptions Of Curriculum Priorities, K. Denise Threlfall

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of marketing occupational work experience on urban marketing teachers' prioritization of curriculum content areas delivered through instruction. This study tested a hypothesis of difference, using the variable of years of experience in marketing occupations as the catalyst for four research questions. By identifying the effect of occupational experience in marketing and its relationship to the prioritization of curriculum content for urban secondary marketing programs, the importance of occupational experience on curriculum content could be explored from an educational viewpoint.

This research assessed seventy-five secondary marketing educators and a twelve member ...


The Impact Of Total Quality Management On Student Achievement And School Improvement Team Performance In An Urban Elementary Setting, Jennette Ann Straus Apr 1996

The Impact Of Total Quality Management On Student Achievement And School Improvement Team Performance In An Urban Elementary Setting, Jennette Ann Straus

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between TQM and student achievement, and TQM and faculty scores on the High PERFORMing Team Survey.

Currently, there exists no research which indicates that TQM can solve the problems of the urban schools. TQM is recommended by experts when the staff is highly educated, when management supports TQM, when team leaders can run meetings effectively, and when the organization can afford lost time and productivity while its team learns necessary skills.

The TQM schools used in this study began the transition to TQM in 1991. Reading comprehension and mathematics scores ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Effect Of Computer-Assisted Instruction On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Grades 6 Through 12: A Comparison Of Urban, Suburban, And Rural Educational Settings, Edwin Patrick Christmann Apr 1995

A Meta-Analysis Of The Effect Of Computer-Assisted Instruction On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Grades 6 Through 12: A Comparison Of Urban, Suburban, And Rural Educational Settings, Edwin Patrick Christmann

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This meta-analysis analyzed grades 6 through 12 school students' academic achievement effect sizes from experimental, quasi-experimental, and correlational studies that examined the effects of microcomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the academic achievement of urban, suburban, and rural students across various subjects. Those studies compared secondary students who were exposed to CAI with those who were exposed to traditional instructional strategies.

A total of 3,476 students participated in 24 studies which resulted in 35 conclusions. The sample size ranged from 28 to 425; the mean sample size was 140 students.

The mean effect sizes of urban, suburban, and rural students ...


Effects Of Direct Reading Instruction On Literacy Achievement In Urban, Literature Based Classrooms, Steven M. Scarcelli Jan 1995

Effects Of Direct Reading Instruction On Literacy Achievement In Urban, Literature Based Classrooms, Steven M. Scarcelli

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This research examined two similar groups of first grade students and two different approaches to reading instruction within a whole language/literature based curriculum. The sample population for this research was drawn from four randomly assigned first grade classes attending an elementary school with urban characteristics. Teacher selection was based on results from the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile. Teachers in the experimental group implemented an approach that utilized a daily format for reading instruction developed by Dr. Patricia Cunningham. This approach involved strategies including phonics, writing, teacher directed, and self selected reading instruction. Teachers in the control group used ...


An Urban Education Study: Implementing Problem-Solving Strategies In Mathematics As A Function Of Teacher's Learning Styles, Mary Lou Meinhold Fogarty Oct 1994

An Urban Education Study: Implementing Problem-Solving Strategies In Mathematics As A Function Of Teacher's Learning Styles, Mary Lou Meinhold Fogarty

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This qualitative research was designed to ascertain the impact of teachers' learning styles on an active teaching program. Using grounded theory procedures, the researcher explored the second-year implementation of Moretti and associates' Problem Solver Program by 67 second- through fifth-grade teachers in order to gain information on the major research question: How effective are teachers with different learning styles in implementing problem-solving strategies in mathematics that require an active teaching style? Three Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) instruments were used in this study. Two quantitative instruments were used: The Stages of Concern (CBAM) to determine the degree of program implementation ...


Attributions For Change In Attitude Among Urban Elementary Parochial School Teachers Toward Children Who Speak Nonstandard English, Charles A. Saglio Jr. Apr 1993

Attributions For Change In Attitude Among Urban Elementary Parochial School Teachers Toward Children Who Speak Nonstandard English, Charles A. Saglio Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

A comparatively large number of African American children fail in urban schools. Hundreds of research studies concerning interpersonal expectations suggest a link between teacher expectancies and pupil performance. Researchers have found that teachers expect less of students who speak nonstandard English. Attempts to modify teachers' culturo-linguistic attitudes and expectations have been unsuccessful. While teachers' beliefs, theories, and attitudes change over time as a function of teaching experience, the mechanisms for change are unclear.

This study has attempted to uncover events to which teachers attribute a change in their culturo-linguistic attitudes. Once causal conditions for change have been identified, then those ...


A Study Of The Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Instructional Delivery Schedules For Adult Achievement, Wendy A. Gee Jan 1993

A Study Of The Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Instructional Delivery Schedules For Adult Achievement, Wendy A. Gee

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect altering the instructional delivery schedule would have on student achievement and knowledge retention. The independent variable was the training week schedule which was comprised of two treatment conditions. The first level consisted of the conventional five-day training week and the second level was the compressed four-day training week. The dependent variables of the study were student achievement and student descriptive/demographic collateral data.

A quasi-experimental study was employed to compare the two delivery schedules. Two treatment groups were established. Both groups received instruction from the same instructors. Student subjects (N ...


Sleep Patterns And The Behavior Of Children In The Second-, Third-, And Fourth-Grades In Urban Public Schools, Yolanda Cardelli Hampel Oct 1991

Sleep Patterns And The Behavior Of Children In The Second-, Third-, And Fourth-Grades In Urban Public Schools, Yolanda Cardelli Hampel

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This investigation examined the relationship between nocturnal sleep patterns and behaviors in the classroom of seventy-four girls and fifty-nine boys from second-, third-, and fourth-grades attending five urban public schools in Norfolk, Virginia.

The dependent variables were the classroom behavior that was subdivided into five personality areas for objective assessment of the student's adjustment areas labeled self, social, school, home, and physical. The objective assessment was observed and documented on a seventy-eight item questionnaire by their primary classroom teachers who were familiar with the subjects behavior. The parents observed and recorded data on a sleep log listing independent variables ...