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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Creating A Multipurpose Digital Institutional Repository, Suzanne A. Cohen, Deborah J. Schmidle Mar 2007

Creating A Multipurpose Digital Institutional Repository, Suzanne A. Cohen, Deborah J. Schmidle

Articles and Chapters

DigitalCommons@ILR is a multipurpose institutional repository (IR) for scholarship produced by faculty at the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. Unlike most IRs, it also functions as a subject-based repository for workplace-related information. This paper will discuss the issues involved in the implementation of DigitalCommons@ILR, including the choice of software, collection scope and policies, organization, and staffing. Keys to success in developing repository content, including building administrative support and developing partnerships, will be noted.


The Role Of Employers In Phased Retirement: Opportunities For Phased Retirement Among White-Collar Workers, Robert M. Hutchens, Jennjou Chen Jan 2007

The Role Of Employers In Phased Retirement: Opportunities For Phased Retirement Among White-Collar Workers, Robert M. Hutchens, Jennjou Chen

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] While the labor market for older workers has many unusual features, the small number of phased retirements is certainly one of the more curious. The basic idea of phased retirement is that an older worker remains with his or her employer while gradually shifting from full-time work to full-time retirement. For decades experts have proclaimed the advantages of this type of retirement. Moreover, employees often express an interest in taking a phased retirement. In a recent national survey of the older population, more than half of the respondents age 55 to 65 said they would prefer to gradually reduce ...


Two Paths To The High Road: The Dynamics Of Coalition Building In Seattle And Buffalo, Ian Greer, Barbara Byrd, Lou Jean Fleron Jan 2007

Two Paths To The High Road: The Dynamics Of Coalition Building In Seattle And Buffalo, Ian Greer, Barbara Byrd, Lou Jean Fleron

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Labor-community coalitions are not a new concept. Unions approach such coalitions now, as in the past, as one way to enhance their bargaining power with an employer. Such coalitions are temporary and often issue-based. In recent years, however, some local labor movements have begun to look at coalitions in a broader way – as a means of improving their public image and building power in the political arena. This broad-based approach requires the development of coalitions for the longer run, not just for temporary expediency. This paper develops the notion of a high road social infrastructure as a way to ...


Ilr Impact Brief – Diversity And Inclusion: Is There Really A Difference?, Quinetta M. Roberson Nov 2006

Ilr Impact Brief – Diversity And Inclusion: Is There Really A Difference?, Quinetta M. Roberson

Policy & Issue Briefs

By almost any measure, workforce heterogeneity is increasing. With more women, ethnic and racial. minorities, and people with different lifestyles and learning styles holding down jobs, employers are searching for strategies that effectively and efficiently put these varied skills and perspectives to maximal use. Traditional approaches to diversity management include targeted recruitment, career development, mentoring, and education and training. Some organizations, however, take a broader view and seek to eliminate barriers to full utilization of varied worker competencies. This latter approach stresses inclusion, rather than diversity, and typically involves initiatives that focus on employee participation, enhanced communication, and stronger community ...


Knowledge Gathering, Team Capabilities, And Project Performance In Challenging Work Environments, Martine R. Haas Aug 2006

Knowledge Gathering, Team Capabilities, And Project Performance In Challenging Work Environments, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

Knowledge gathering can create problems as well as benefits for project teams in work environments characterized by overload, ambiguity, and politics. This paper proposes that the value of knowledge gathering in such environments is greater under conditions that enhance team processing, sensemaking, and buffering capabilities. The hypotheses were tested using independent quality ratings of 96 projects and survey data from 485 project team members collected during a multi-method field study. The findings reveal that three capability-enhancing conditions moderated the relationship between knowledge gathering and project quality: slack time, organizational experience, and decision-making autonomy. More knowledge gathering helped teams to perform ...


Community Colleges Go Outside To Fill Key Posts, Barbara Viniar Jun 2006

Community Colleges Go Outside To Fill Key Posts, Barbara Viniar

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Ask one community college leader if hiring individuals who haven’t come through the ranks makes sense, and he will say absolutely not, the cultural adjustment is too difficult. Ask another, and she will say that with the right guidance and orientation, “outsiders” make excellent hires. Ask another, and you’ll hear that there is an adequate by underrepresented pool of potential leaders among women and minorities already in community colleges, why go outside?


Retesting In Selection: A Meta-Analysis Of Practice Effects For Tests Of Cognitive Ability, John P. Hausknecht, Jane A. Halpert, Nicole T. Di Paolo, Meghan O. Moriarty Gerrard Jun 2006

Retesting In Selection: A Meta-Analysis Of Practice Effects For Tests Of Cognitive Ability, John P. Hausknecht, Jane A. Halpert, Nicole T. Di Paolo, Meghan O. Moriarty Gerrard

Articles and Chapters

Previous studies indicate that as many as 25-50% of applicants in organizational and educational settings are retested with measures of cognitive ability. Researchers have shown that practice effects are found across measurement occasions such that scores improve when these applicants retest. This study uses meta-analysis to summarize the results of 50 studies of practice effects for tests of cognitive ability. Results from 107 samples and 134,436 participants revealed an adjusted overall effect size of .26. Moderator analyses indicated that effects were larger when practice was accompanied by test coaching, and when identical forms were used. Additional research is needed ...


Los Angeles Labor Negotiations Study, Sjoberg Evashenk Consulting, Inc, Cornell University, School Of Industrial And Labor Relations May 2006

Los Angeles Labor Negotiations Study, Sjoberg Evashenk Consulting, Inc, Cornell University, School Of Industrial And Labor Relations

Research Studies and Reports

[Excerpt] Sjoberg Evashenk Consulting and Cornell University have completed a study of the City of Los Angeles’ labor negotiation policies, processes and practices, under contract with the City Controller’s Office. The objectives of the study are to: • Review negotiations executed within the last three years for "lessons learned," as well as review negotiations currently underway. • Evaluate and "map" the City’s current collective bargaining process. • Conduct a nationwide search for promising practices the City could incorporate into the collective bargaining process. • Evaluate the fiscal impacts of labor negotiations. • Evaluate the role of and incentives for each party in the ...


Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo May 2006

Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo

Articles and Chapters

We integrate psychological theories of individual creativity with organizational theories of exploration versus exploitation in order to examine the relationship between past success and creativity over time. A key prediction derived from this theoretical integration is that successful people should be more likely to generate new ideas, but these ideas will tend to be less divergent as they favor the exploitation of familiar knowledge at the expense of the exploration of new domains. This prediction departs from the often-held view that people who generate more ideas will also generate ideas that are more divergent. Analyses of patenting in the hard ...


Acquiring And Applying Knowledge In Transnational Teams: The Roles Of Cosmopolitans And Locals, Martine R. Haas Mar 2006

Acquiring And Applying Knowledge In Transnational Teams: The Roles Of Cosmopolitans And Locals, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

"This paper examines the roles of cosmopolitans and locals in transnational teams that work on knowledge-intensive projects. I propose that cosmopolitan and local team members can help their teams to acquire and apply knowledge more effectively, by bringing both internal and external knowledge to their teams and enabling them to more successfully transform this knowledge into improved project performance. Findings from a study of 96 project teams at an international development agency reveal that the roles of cosmopolitans and locals were complex and sometimes valuable, but cosmopolitans offered greater benefits than locals and too many of each could hurt. Implications ...


International Labor Standards, Soft Regulation, And National Government Roles, Sarosh C. Kuruvilla, Anil Verma Feb 2006

International Labor Standards, Soft Regulation, And National Government Roles, Sarosh C. Kuruvilla, Anil Verma

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this article, we briefly describe the different approaches to the regulation of international labor standards, and then argue for a new role for national governments based on soft rather than hard regulation approaches. We argue that this new role shows potential for significantly enhancing progress in international labor standards, since it enables governments to articulate a position without having to deal with the enforcement issues that hard regulation mandates. We justify this new role for governments based on the increasing use of soft regulation in the international arena. Of course, this approach is not without its own problems ...


Institute For Community College Development Addresses Leadership Crisis, Barbara Viniar Jan 2006

Institute For Community College Development Addresses Leadership Crisis, Barbara Viniar

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is projected that between 2001 and 2007, 47 percent of community college presidents will have left their positions. At a time when challenges are growing more complex, the senior administrators who typically moved into presidencies are also "aging out," leaving fewer qualified individuals in the pipeline. The Institute for Community College Development (ICCD), a partnership between the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell, was founded by a group of community college presidents to respond to this leadership crisis. ICCD has been part of ILR since 2001.


The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors, Christopher J. Collins Jan 2006

The Interactive Effects Of Recruitment Practices And Product Awareness On Job Seekers’ Employer Knowledge And Application Behaviors, Christopher J. Collins

Articles and Chapters

In this paper, I draw on research from the literatures on marketing and recruitment to identify how recruitment practices and company product awareness are related to job seekers’ application behaviors through three aspects of job seekers’ employer knowledge. Based on results from a within-subjects design with data from 123 recruiting companies and 456 student job seekers, my findings suggested the relationships between recruitment strategies and application intentions and decisions are moderated by product awareness. Specifically, low-information recruitment practices are significantly and positively related to application behaviors through employer familiarity and employer reputation when product awareness is low rather than high ...


Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron Jan 2006

Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In a country where worker representatives lack broadly institutionalized roles as "social partners," how can they play a constructive role in solving the problems of regional development? In Buffalo, New York, regularized, labor-inclusive procedures of problem solving involving multiple coalition partners – what we call a high-road social infrastructure – has emerged. Socially engaged researchers and educators have played a role in spreading lessons and organizing dialogue. Despite the emergence of regional cooperation, however, successful development politics are hampered by many of the same problems seen in European regions, including uncertainty about the best union strategy, hostility from business and political ...


Organizing Women: The Nature And Process Of Union Organizing Efforts Among U.S. Women Workers Since The Mid-1990s, Kate Bronfenbrenner Oct 2005

Organizing Women: The Nature And Process Of Union Organizing Efforts Among U.S. Women Workers Since The Mid-1990s, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

The relationship between American working women and the U.S. labor movement can neither be easily described nor categorized. In part, this is because women’s participation and experience in the labor movement differ so greatly across industry, region, union, occupation, and ethnic background. But mostly, it is a consequence of the inevitable contradictions that arise when the proportion of women in the labor movement continues to grow at an escalating pace, whereas for most unions and labor federations, the proportion of women in top leadership and staff positions has increased incrementally at best, even in unions where women predominate.


Labor And Urban Crisis In Buffalo, New York: Building A High Road Infrastructure, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron Mar 2005

Labor And Urban Crisis In Buffalo, New York: Building A High Road Infrastructure, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron

Conference Proceedings, Presentations, and Speeches

With inequality growing and competitive market forces on the march, can unions play a constructive role in solving the problems of capitalist economic development? Should they try? In this study of coalition building in Buffalo, New York we find that regular procedures of problem solving involving multiple coalition partners – what we call a high-road social infrastructure – have developed in the city. We discuss the progression of union approaches to economic development, including in-plant and regional labor-management partnership, community coalitions and the creation of labor-led nonprofit organizations. In response to long-term economic and social crisis, a group of union leaders has ...


Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas Jan 2005

Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas

Management Papers

Drawing on sociological role theory, this chapter introduces and explains the distinction between cosmopolitan and local role orientations as status categories in international teams. Qualitative data from a multimethod field study conducted at a leading international development agency illustrates that the high status of cosmopolitans and locals in this setting was based on expectations that these team members would enable their teams to more effectively interpret knowledge obtained from outside sources. The possible dynamics of status rivalry and deference in teams with cosmopolitan and local membership are explored, and their implications for team performance are addressed. Thus, status in groups ...


When Using Knowledge Can Hurt Performance: The Value Of Organizational Capabilities In A Management Consulting Company, Martine R. Haas, Morten T. Hansen Jan 2005

When Using Knowledge Can Hurt Performance: The Value Of Organizational Capabilities In A Management Consulting Company, Martine R. Haas, Morten T. Hansen

Articles and Chapters

This paper explores the possibility that utilizing the firm’s knowledge resources to complete important tasks can backfire and undermine competitive performance. Drawing on organizational capabilities and knowledge sharing research, we develop a situated performance view that holds that the value of obtaining and using knowledge within a firm depends on the task situation. Using a data set of 182 sales proposals for client work in a management consulting company, we show that sales teams that had varying needs to learn and differentiate themselves from competitors derived different levels of value from obtaining and using electronic documents and advice from ...


Building And Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built To Win?, Jeff Grabelsky Dec 2004

Building And Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built To Win?, Jeff Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The evidence of labor's declining power in the economic and political arenas is increasingly clear. Despite the tenacious efforts of talented leaders over the past ten years, the labor movement has still failed to turn the proverbial cornet. Some labor leaders now believe that a dramatic change in strategic direction may be necessary to revitalize labor's fortunes. The emerging debate about labor's future touches every sector of the movement. The building and construction trades are no exception.


Unemployment Rates In The European Union And Selected Member Countries Cvilian Labor Force Basis (1), Seasonally Adjusted, 1990-2004, Bureau Of Labor Statistics Oct 2004

Unemployment Rates In The European Union And Selected Member Countries Cvilian Labor Force Basis (1), Seasonally Adjusted, 1990-2004, Bureau Of Labor Statistics

Federal Publications

No abstract provided.


Exploring Applicant Pool Quantity And Quality: The Effects Of Early Recruitment Practice Strategies, Corporate Advertising, And Firm Reputation, Christopher J. Collins, Jian Han Sep 2004

Exploring Applicant Pool Quantity And Quality: The Effects Of Early Recruitment Practice Strategies, Corporate Advertising, And Firm Reputation, Christopher J. Collins, Jian Han

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on marketing and recruitment theory, we examined relationships between early recruitment practices, organizational factors, and organization-level recruitment outcomes, predicting that low-involvement recruitment practices, high-involvement recruitment practices, corporate advertising, and firm reputation would positively affect the quantity and quality of organizations’ applicant pools. We also predicted that corporate advertising and firm reputation would moderate the effects of the two recruitment strategies. Data for 99 organizations collected from multiple sources provided some evidence that early recruitment practices, corporate advertising, and firm reputation each had direct effects on applicant pool quantity and quality. More importantly, we found that low-involvement recruitment practices were ...


Changing To Organize: A National Assessment Of Union Organizing Strategies, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Robert Hickey Jan 2004

Changing To Organize: A National Assessment Of Union Organizing Strategies, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Robert Hickey

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter we seek to answer the following questions: Why has it been so difficult for unions to turn the organizing efforts and initiatives of the last six years into any significant gains in union density? Why have a small number of unions been able to make major gains through organizing? And most importantly, which organizing strategies will be most effective in reversing the tide of the labor movement's organizing decline? What our findings will show is that while the political, legal, and economic climate for organizing continues to deteriorate, and private sector employers continue to mount ...


Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?, Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn Dec 2003

Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?, Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn

Articles and Chapters

Using microdata from the 1994-8 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) for nine countries, we examine the role of cognitive skills in explaining higher wage inequality in the United States. We find that while the greater dispersion of cognitive test scores in the United States plays a part in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality, higher labor market prices (i.e., higher returns to measured human capital and cognitive performance) and greater residual inequality still play important roles, and are, on average, quantitatively considerably more important than differences in the distribution of test scores in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality.


Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas Sep 2003

Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on sociological role theory, this chapter introduces and explains the distinction between cosmopolitan and local role orientations as status categories in international teams. Qualitative data from a multi-method field study conducted at a leading international development agency illustrate that the high status of cosmopolitans and locals in this setting was based on expectations that these team members would enable their teams to more effectively interpret knowledge obtained from outside sources. The possible dynamics of status rivalry and deference in teams with cosmopolitan and local membership are explored, and their implications for team performance are addressed. Status in groups thus ...


Out Of The Ashes: The Steelworkers’ Global Campaign At Bridgestone/Firestone, Tom Juravich, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jan 2003

Out Of The Ashes: The Steelworkers’ Global Campaign At Bridgestone/Firestone, Tom Juravich, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The purpose of this chapter is to examine how unions and their allies can build global networks in the face of multinational company (MNC) efforts to deny workers their rights to representation and destroy the very unions that represent them. In particular, we examine the strike and the global contract campaign organized by the United Steelworkers of America (USWA) against the Japanese-owned Bridgestone/Firestone company.


The Impacts Of School-Business Partnerships On The Early Labor-Market Success Of Students, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane Jan 2003

The Impacts Of School-Business Partnerships On The Early Labor-Market Success Of Students, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter examines the effects of improved signaling of student achievement in high school on the labor market success of recent high-school graduates. The chapter is organized into three sections. In the first section, we reproduce the argument that Bishop put forth in 1985 that better signaling of student achievement to employers would improve the quality of the jobs that recent high-school graduates could obtain and strengthen incentives to learn. In the second section, we analyze longitudinal data on eight graders in 1988 and attempt to measure the effect of school-employer partnerships on their subsequent success in the labor ...


The Relationship Between Early Recruitment-Related Activities And The Application Decisions Of New Labor-Market Entrants: A Brand Equity Approach To Recruitment, Christopher J. Collins, Cynthia Kay Stevens Dec 2002

The Relationship Between Early Recruitment-Related Activities And The Application Decisions Of New Labor-Market Entrants: A Brand Equity Approach To Recruitment, Christopher J. Collins, Cynthia Kay Stevens

Articles and Chapters

We used theory and research from the marketing literature on customer-based brand equity to predict how positive exposure to four early recruitment-related activities—publicity, sponsorships, word-of-mouth endorsements, and advertising—may affect the application decisions of engineering students. Similar to prior marketing findings, our results suggested that early recruitment-related activities were related to intentions and decisions indirectly through two dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes. The relationships between word-of-mouth endorsements and the two dimensions of brand image were particularly strong. In addition, we found that early recruitment-related activities interacted with one another such ...


Creating Inclusive Organizations: Aligning Systems With Diversity, Susan Woods Jan 2002

Creating Inclusive Organizations: Aligning Systems With Diversity, Susan Woods

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Diversity and inclusion are often used interchangeably. However, for the purpose of this inquiry, diversity denotes the spectrum of human similarities and differences. Diversity is about people. Inclusion, on the other and, is about organization. It's about operationalizing diversity. Inclusion describes the way an organization configures opportunity, interaction, communication and decision-making to utilize the potential of its diversity.


Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla Sep 2001

Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Before the school-to-work (STW) movement began improving communication between schools and employers in the past decade, high-school achievement counted little in hiring decisions, because recent graduates could not signal skills and discipline to employers. Most requests for high school transcripts went unanswered, and employers hired workers with demonstrated job skills, freezing most graduates out of the primary labor market. Relegated to the secondary, unskilled market, graduates with strong basic skills saw a long delay before good job performance improved their income. Consequently, high-school students saw little relation between studying and labor-market rewards. Since they observed recent graduates with good ...


Academic Education And Occupational Training, John H. Bishop Jun 2001

Academic Education And Occupational Training, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

“Most of the young people entering professional, technical, and managerial occupations start their occupational training in a school. Higher education is predominantly occupational education and is becoming more 80 each year. In 1980-81, only 17 percent of rnaster9s degrees and 33 percent of bachelor's degrees were in traditional liberal arts fields. Many of those who get these degrees remain in school to get a Ph.D., M.D., D.D.S. or L.L.B., all of which certify three or more years of intensive occupational training. Consequently, almost all college graduates obtain training for a particular occupation before ...