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Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

The Velocity Of Risk, Sridhar Ramamoorti, James H. Wanserski, Richard Stover Apr 2019

The Velocity Of Risk, Sridhar Ramamoorti, James H. Wanserski, Richard Stover

Accounting Faculty Publications

Only a few decades ago, the onset of problematic risk events often was slow, and organizations handled the corresponding aftermath over a manageable time frame. Organizations armed with extensive public relations resources responded to most postevent crises after planning and analyzing thoughtful responses. Additionally, organizations carefully calculated their transparency with stakeholders regarding the event to manage its impact on the organization. Fast forward to today, and the pace of information is almost instantaneous. For example, when a popular U.S. fast food restaurant chain experienced an outbreak of E. coli-infected lettuce, its stock price decreased 44 percent within 90 days ...


Coin-Operated Capitalism, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman, Jeremy Sklaroff, David A. Wishnick Jan 2019

Coin-Operated Capitalism, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman, Jeremy Sklaroff, David A. Wishnick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article presents the legal literature’s first detailed analysis of the inner workings of Initial Coin Offerings. We characterize the ICO as an example of financial innovation, placing it in kinship with venture capital contracting, asset securitization, and (obviously) the IPO. We also take the form seriously as an example of technological innovation, where promoters are beginning to effectuate their promises to investors through computer code, rather than traditional contract. To understand the dynamics of this shift, we first collect contracts, “white papers,” and other contract-like documents for the fifty top-grossing ICOs of 2017. We then analyze how such ...


Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula Sep 2018

Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

With the vast array of resources available to instructors, one would think that instruction and teaching would yield success for all learners. Now, well into the 21st century has much changed in the classroom? Certainly, movable desks and chairs, advanced audio and visual equipment, and a plethora of all types of technologies which might be able to enhance training and education. Over the last several decades research on individualized instruction, cognitive science, educational psychology, and multimedia instruction (to name a few) have permeated the literature on instruction. With all the research and the vast array of studies on improving ...


Reading Between The Lines: Not All Csr Is Good Csr, David K. Ding, Christo Ferreira, Udomsak Wongchoti Aug 2018

Reading Between The Lines: Not All Csr Is Good Csr, David K. Ding, Christo Ferreira, Udomsak Wongchoti

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate whether corporate social responsibility (CSR), as evidenced in annual financial reports, is associated with a firm’s financial performance in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: A word count approach of several key CSR indicators found in the audited financial reports of NZX50 constituent firms is used. Several variables are constructed that measure the presence of CSR within the annual report such as sustainability, responsibility, social, environment, diversity, employee and community, and eight other variables within the annual report that measure the penetration of stakeholder engagement. Control variables and alternative measures of CSR are also ...


Cross-Country Evidence On The Role Of Independent Media In Constraining Corporate Tax Aggressiveness, Kiridaran Kanagaretnam, Jimmy Lee, Chee Yeow Lim, Gerald J. Lobo Jul 2018

Cross-Country Evidence On The Role Of Independent Media In Constraining Corporate Tax Aggressiveness, Kiridaran Kanagaretnam, Jimmy Lee, Chee Yeow Lim, Gerald J. Lobo

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using an international sample of firms from 32 countries, we study the relation between media independence and corporate tax aggressiveness. We measure media independence by the extent of private ownership and competition in the media industry. Using an indicator variable for tax aggressiveness when the firm’s corporate tax avoidance measure is within the top quartile of each country-industry combination, we find strong evidence that media independence is associated with a lower likelihood of tax aggressiveness, after controlling for other institutional determinants, including home-country tax system characteristics. We also find that the effect of media independence is more pronounced when ...


Can Banks Placate Knowledgeable Depositors By Offering Higher Interest Rates During A Banking Crisis?, Glenn Boyle, Roger D. Stover, Amrit Tiwana, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy Apr 2018

Can Banks Placate Knowledgeable Depositors By Offering Higher Interest Rates During A Banking Crisis?, Glenn Boyle, Roger D. Stover, Amrit Tiwana, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy

Economics Working Papers

Using a conjoint analysis of 417 finance professionals from six countries, we find no evidence that higher interest rates cause knowledgeable depositors to moderate their withdrawals during a banking crisis. In fact, intended withdrawals are positively correlated with expected interest rate changes. After accounting for endogeneity, this relationship disappears, consistent with the attractiveness of higher returns being offset by increased doubts about bank solvency. The withdrawal decisions of finance professionals are also independent of their personal characteristics, but they appear to place considerable store on deposit insurance generosity and the presence of a formal insurance fund.


Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd Apr 2018

Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Risk Consumption, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Rick Stover Apr 2018

Risk Consumption, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Rick Stover

Accounting Faculty Publications

Understanding the difference between risk appetite and risk tolerance can deter organizations from digesting too much risk.

The concepts of risk appetite and risk tolerance were introduced in 2004 in The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission’s (COSO’s) Enterprise Risk Management–Integrated Framework. Specifically, COSO defines risk appetite as “the amount of risk — on a broad level — that an entity is willing to accept in pursuit of value.” Naturally, organizations will have different risk appetites depending on their industry, management philosophy, operating style, culture, and objectives. Therefore, a range of appetites potentially exist for distinct risks ...


Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti Oct 2017

Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti

Accounting Faculty Publications

Because the term materiality arose within the context of financial reporting and statement assurance, internal auditors have been challenged in adapting or creating a definition that is relevant for themselves and their stakeholders. In the context of financial reporting, materiality is relevant to three stakeholder groups: 1) preparers of financial statements, 2) auditors, and 3) users of financial statements. Although materiality decisions are made by only two of these three groups--preparers and auditors--most internal auditors' conception of materiality likely has a user orientation. The auditor might ask, "How would a reasonably prudent investor react to the magnitude of misstatement (under- ...


People, Planet, Profit: Benefit And B Certified Corporations - Comprehension And Outlook Of Business Students, Arlene J. Nicholas, Samuel Sacco Apr 2017

People, Planet, Profit: Benefit And B Certified Corporations - Comprehension And Outlook Of Business Students, Arlene J. Nicholas, Samuel Sacco

Faculty and Staff - Articles & Papers

This paper is an overview of the emergence of Benefit and Certified B Corporations that aim to realize a profit and make a positive impact on society as measured by some third party standard. In this way, these corporations differ in corporate purpose from traditional C corporations. Directors and managers are accountable for that defined public benefit. Considerations of sustainable business practices have existed in many industries for several years. However, the recent growth in legislation to create a legal framework for Benefit Corporations is newly emergent. An examination of recent literature explains the rise of these socially responsible organizations ...


On The Foundations Of Corporate Social Responsibility, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog Apr 2017

On The Foundations Of Corporate Social Responsibility, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

A firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice and its country’s legal origin are strongly correlated. This relation is valid for various CSR ratings coming from several large datasets that comprise more than 23,000 large companies from 114 countries. We find that CSR is more strongly and consistently related to legal origins than to “doing good by doing well”-factors, and most firm and country characteristics such as ownership concentration, political institutions, and degree of globalization. In particular, companies from common law countries have lower level of CSR than companies from civil law countries, and Scandinavian civil law ...


A Strategy For Teaching Critical Thinking: The Sellmore Case, Joseph F. Castellano, Susan Lightle, Bud Baker Apr 2017

A Strategy For Teaching Critical Thinking: The Sellmore Case, Joseph F. Castellano, Susan Lightle, Bud Baker

Accounting Faculty Publications

The importance of teaching and applying critical thinking skills is apparently matched by its difficulty in doing so. Sara Rimer, writing for the January 18, 2011, edition of The Hechinger Report, discussed a study by Richard Arum that followed several thousand undergraduates from when they entered college in fall 2005 to when they graduated in spring 2009. Arum’s research, published in his book Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses, found that large numbers of students did not learn critical thinking, complex reasoning, and written communication skills. Arum used testing data and student surveys from 24 colleges and universities ...


Who Bleeds When The Wolves Bite? A Flesh-And-Blood Perspective On Hedge Fund Activism And Our Strange Corporate Governance System, Leo E. Strine Jr. Apr 2017

Who Bleeds When The Wolves Bite? A Flesh-And-Blood Perspective On Hedge Fund Activism And Our Strange Corporate Governance System, Leo E. Strine Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper examines the effects of hedge fund activism and so-called wolf pack activity on the ordinary human beings—the human investors—who fund our capital markets but who, as indirect of owners of corporate equity, have only limited direct power to ensure that the capital they contribute is deployed to serve their welfare and in turn the broader social good.

Most human investors in fact depend much more on their labor than on their equity for their wealth and therefore care deeply about whether our corporate governance system creates incentives for corporations to create and sustain jobs for them ...


Auditing Organizational Governance: Internal Audit Has An Integral Role To Play In Improving The Organization's Strategic Performance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried, P. Alan White Feb 2017

Auditing Organizational Governance: Internal Audit Has An Integral Role To Play In Improving The Organization's Strategic Performance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried, P. Alan White

Accounting Faculty Publications

Organizational governance is a broad concept that ensures superior strategy formulation, development, and execution in ways that balance performance, conformance, and accountability. It includes systems, controls, and associated processes that promote ethics and values, performance and accountability, and risk communication and coordination among the board, external and internal auditors, and management in meeting and exceeding stakeholder expectations. Internal audit’s role in organizational governance has always been recognized and valued, but it has become increasingly important in the wake of governance failures in financial and public sectors throughout the world. As a result, more and more boards as well as ...


The Importance Of Being An Ethical Company, Singapore Management University Jan 2017

The Importance Of Being An Ethical Company, Singapore Management University

Research@SMU: Connecting the Dots

Firms must fine-tune their corporate governance mechanisms to prevent unethical behaviour and take quick action once they are found, says Professor Cheng Qiang.

See the papers:


Restatement Vs Revision: A Case Study, Benoit N. Boyer, Danny A. Pannese, Alan L. Delfavero Jan 2017

Restatement Vs Revision: A Case Study, Benoit N. Boyer, Danny A. Pannese, Alan L. Delfavero

WCOB Faculty Publications

There had been many recent cases of restatements of financial statements by US Corporations. Recently an article in the Wall Street Journal mentioned restatements by Bank of America, Nike and Alphabet among the 663 companies that filed financial revisions or restatements last year. Interestingly the frequency of these errors has more than doubled since 2002, when the Sarbanes-Oxley corporate governance law was enacted, partly to increase managerial accountability. We will also examine what are the differences between restatements and revisions. We will examine what are the most common mistakes. Over half of last year's corrections involved debt and equity ...


"What Would Peace In Vietnam Mean For You As An Investor?" Business Executives And The Antiwar Movement, 1967-75, Eric Smith Jan 2017

"What Would Peace In Vietnam Mean For You As An Investor?" Business Executives And The Antiwar Movement, 1967-75, Eric Smith

Faculty Publications & Research

On May 21, 1968, while the warring parties in Vietnam held peace talks in Paris, twenty-four business executives engaged in a heated exchange with Republican Illinois senator Everett Dirksen in his Washington, D.C., office. As described by the Chicago Daily News reporter Betty Flynn, the fifteenminute meeting began with a plea by the business delegation to a "Republican candidate not persisting in hawkish attitudes" to push for a military withdrawal from Vietnam. The delegation misjudged Dirksen's outlook. Although he was arguably a press favorite, Dirksen was also critical of congressional doves. Insisting that "whether we like it or ...


In Pursuit Of Good & Gold: Data Observations Of Employee Ownership & Impact Investment, Christopher Geczy, Jessica S. Jeffers, David K. Musto, Anne M. Tucker Jan 2017

In Pursuit Of Good & Gold: Data Observations Of Employee Ownership & Impact Investment, Christopher Geczy, Jessica S. Jeffers, David K. Musto, Anne M. Tucker

Faculty Publications By Year

A startup's path to self-sustaining profitability is risky and hard, and most do not make it. Venture capital (VC) investors try to improve these odds with contractual terms that focus and sharpen employees' incentives to pursue gold. If the employees and investors expect the startup to balance the goal of profitability with another goal - the goal of good - the risks are likely to both grow and multiply. They grow to the extent that profits are threatened, and they multiply to the extent that balancing competing goals adds a dimension to the incentive problem. In this Article, we explore contracting ...


Why Audit Teams Need The Confidence To Speak Up, Susan Lightle, Joseph F. Castellano, Bud Baker Jan 2017

Why Audit Teams Need The Confidence To Speak Up, Susan Lightle, Joseph F. Castellano, Bud Baker

Accounting Faculty Publications

A climate of psychological safety is an important prerequisite for effective interpersonal relationships among audit team members and for audit teams to properly meet their fiduciary responsibilities. Audit processes can be more effective and the quality of audits can be improved if auditors understand the concept of psychological safety and its application for audit teams. The failure to create a climate of psychological safety among audit team members can have harmful effects on audit quality, but fortunately CPA firms can take steps to enhance psychological safety and enable more effective audit processes and audit work.


Socially Responsible Firms, Allen Ferrell, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog Dec 2016

Socially Responsible Firms, Allen Ferrell, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

In the corporate finance tradition, starting with Berle and Means (1932), corporations should generally be run to maximize shareholder value. The agency view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) considers CSR an agency problem and a waste of corporate resources. Given our identification strategy by means of an instrumental variable approach, we find that well-governed firms that suffer less from agency concerns (less cash abundance, positive pay-for-performance, small control wedge, strong minority protection) engage more in CSR. We also find that a positive relation exists between CSR and value and that CSR attenuates the negative relation between managerial entrenchment and value.


Socially Responsible Firms, Allen Ferrell, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog Aug 2016

Socially Responsible Firms, Allen Ferrell, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

In the corporate finance tradition starting with Berle & Means (1923), corporations should generally be run so as to maximize shareholder value. The agency view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) considers CSR as an agency problem and a waste of corporate resources. Given our identification strategy by means of an IV approach, we find that well-governed firms who suffer less from agency concerns (less cash abundance, positive pay-for-performance, small control wedge, strong minority protection) engage more in CSR. We also find a positive relation between CSR and value and that CSR attenuates the negative relation between managerial entrenchment and value.


Governance And Post-Repurchase Performance, Gary Caton, Choo Yong, Jeremy Goh, Yen Teik Lee, Scott Linn Aug 2016

Governance And Post-Repurchase Performance, Gary Caton, Choo Yong, Jeremy Goh, Yen Teik Lee, Scott Linn

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Payout policies based on share repurchase programs provide greater flexibility than do those based on cash dividends. We develop and test an empirical model in which strongly governed companies outperform weakly governed companies after announcing share repurchase programs. Our findings include positive associations between strong governance and both post-announcement adjusted operating performance and abnormal stock returns. The results are robust to sample selection bias, different sample criteria, governance measurement, and various control variables. In addition, governance strength is associated with larger post-announcement changes in CEO incentive compensation and merger and acquisition activity, both of which we argue are consistent with ...


The Impact Of Ceo Long-Term Equity-Based Compensation Incentives On Economic Growth In Collectivist Versus Individualist Countries, Cynthia J. Campbell, Rosita P. Chang, Jack C. Dejong Jr., Robert Doktor, Lars Oxelheim, Trond Randoy Jul 2016

The Impact Of Ceo Long-Term Equity-Based Compensation Incentives On Economic Growth In Collectivist Versus Individualist Countries, Cynthia J. Campbell, Rosita P. Chang, Jack C. Dejong Jr., Robert Doktor, Lars Oxelheim, Trond Randoy

Finance Publication

This study examines the impact of the prevalence of long-term equity-based chief executive officer (CEO) compensation incentives on GDP growth, and we address the moderating role of individualist versus collectivist cultures on this relationship. We argue that long-term incentives given to CEOs in some firms may convey to other CEOs that they too may be able to receive such incentives and rewards if they emulate the incentivized and rewarded CEOs. In a longitudinal study across 22 nations over a 5-year period, we find that the higher proportion of CEOs in a country are awarded long-term equity-based incentive compensation, the greater ...


Internal Governance And Real Earnings Management, Qiang Cheng, Jimmy Lee, Terry J. Shevlin Jul 2016

Internal Governance And Real Earnings Management, Qiang Cheng, Jimmy Lee, Terry J. Shevlin

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We examine whether internal governance affects the extent of real earnings management in U.S. corporations. Internal governance refers to the process through which key subordinate executives provide checks and balances in the organization and affect corporate decisions. Using the number of years to retirement to capture key subordinate executives’ horizon incentives and using their compensation relative to CEO compensation to capture their influence within the firm, we find that the extent of real earnings management decreases with key subordinate executives’ horizon and influence. The results are robust to alternative measures of internal governance and to various approaches used to ...


The Influence Of Ethical Leadership On Managerial Performance: Mediating Effects Of Mindfulness And Corporate Social Responsibility, John Joseph Williams, Alfred E. Seaman Jun 2016

The Influence Of Ethical Leadership On Managerial Performance: Mediating Effects Of Mindfulness And Corporate Social Responsibility, John Joseph Williams, Alfred E. Seaman

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In a continuing world of corporate misdeeds and unscrupulous decision making, much of the management and academic literatures points to the incomplete knowledge of the consequences of ethics leadership. One of the bastions of ethics gatekeeping in the firm is the CFO but remarkably scant information can be found on their perceptions concerning ethics leadership. This study addresses this void by examining mindfulness and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives as new mediating linkages in comprehending the influence of ethics leadership on managerial performance. Findings reveal that ethical leadership is positively associated with CSR initiatives which, in turn, operate to enhance ...


Divestitures, Emilie R. Feldman, Patia J. Mcgrath May 2016

Divestitures, Emilie R. Feldman, Patia J. Mcgrath

Management Papers

This article provides an introduction to divestitures and the research streams that examine these deals. Divestitures are defined as the removal of one or more of a company’s lines of business via selloff or spinoff. In this article, we describe how research on divestitures has evolved in the finance and strategy literatures, and we explain how to design and conduct empirical research studies on this topic. We also discuss the implications of divestitures for organization design, and outline some directions for future research in this domain.


The Downside Of The Network Ties Between Ceo/Cfos And Auditors Through External Directorships: Evidence From Auditor Selection And Subsequent Audit Quality, Jaeyoon Yu, Byungjin Kwak, Myung Seok Park, Yoonseok Zang May 2016

The Downside Of The Network Ties Between Ceo/Cfos And Auditors Through External Directorships: Evidence From Auditor Selection And Subsequent Audit Quality, Jaeyoon Yu, Byungjin Kwak, Myung Seok Park, Yoonseok Zang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study examines whether the professional ties of Chief Executive Officers/Chief Financial Officers (CEO/CFOs) to auditors through external directorships affect auditor selection and subsequent audit quality. Professional ties to auditors arise when the CEO/CFO of a firm (referred to as the home firm) serves as an outside director of another firm that hires an auditor (a connected auditor). Using a sample of firms with auditor switches over the period 2003-2012, we find that home firms are more likely to appoint connected auditors. Furthermore, utilizing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that home firms appointing connected auditors experience a ...


Public Corruption: Causes, Consequences & Countermeasures, Victor Hartman, Sridhar Ramamoorti Mar 2016

Public Corruption: Causes, Consequences & Countermeasures, Victor Hartman, Sridhar Ramamoorti

Accounting Faculty Publications

The article discusses the cause and consequences of public corruption in the U.S. It mentions several countermeasures against public corruption which include strengtening the organizational commitment, behaviour, and emphasizing code of ethics. The article also mentions the conflict of interests, challenges on law enforcement, and asset misappropriation.


Promoting And Supporting Effective Organizational Governance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried Jan 2016

Promoting And Supporting Effective Organizational Governance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried

Accounting Faculty Publications

Internal audit’s role in organizational governance has become increasingly important in the wake of the recent global financial crisis and the continuing spate of governance failures in both financial and public sectors throughout the world. Informed observers and commentators have asked initially, “Where were the external auditors?” then “Where was the audit committee?” and finally, “Where was internal audit in all this?” This report draws on survey responses from internal auditors in 166 countries to take stock of the current role of internal audit in the governance process and learn how internal audit can better position itself to contribute ...


Keynote Address, Regulating Corporate Governance In The Public Interest: The Case Of Systemic Risk, Steven L. Schwarcz Jan 2016

Keynote Address, Regulating Corporate Governance In The Public Interest: The Case Of Systemic Risk, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

There’s long been a debate whether corporate governance law should require some duty to the public. The accepted wisdom is not to require such a duty—that corporate profit maximization provides jobs and other public benefits that exceed any harm. This is especially true, the argument goes, because imposing specific regulatory requirements and making certain actions illegal or tortious can mitigate the harm without unduly impairing corporate wealth production. Whether that is true in other contexts, this paper—delivered as the keynote address at the June 2016 National Business Law Scholars Conference at The University of Chicago Law School ...