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Articles 1 - 30 of 3878

Full-Text Articles in History

Truffaut’S L’Enfant Sauvage (The Wild Child, 1970): Evoking Autism & The Nascent “Eugenic Atlantic”, Joy C. Schaefer Dec 2019

Truffaut’S L’Enfant Sauvage (The Wild Child, 1970): Evoking Autism & The Nascent “Eugenic Atlantic”, Joy C. Schaefer

Ought: The Journal of Autistic Culture

This essay analyzes François Truffaut’s L’Enfant sauvage (The Wild Child, 1970) as an early representation of autism that metaphorizes the neurodiverse child as the colonial subject. The film takes place in 1798, only a decade after the French Revolution, and depicts the true events of the “wild boy of Aveyron,” a feral child found in the Southern French forest when he was twelve years old. Before the film’s production, Truffaut—who also plays the boy’s teacher, Dr. Jean-Marc Itard—collected articles and books on autism and viewed videos of autistic children to create his main character ...


Mattes J., 2019. Wissenskulturen Des Subterranen. Vermittler Im Spannungsfeld Zwischen Wissenschaft Und Öffentlichkeit. Ein Biographisches Lexikon. [The Culture Of Subterranean Knowledge. Mediators In The Field Of Tension Between Science And Public. A Biographical Lexicon], Monika Schöner Oct 2019

Mattes J., 2019. Wissenskulturen Des Subterranen. Vermittler Im Spannungsfeld Zwischen Wissenschaft Und Öffentlichkeit. Ein Biographisches Lexikon. [The Culture Of Subterranean Knowledge. Mediators In The Field Of Tension Between Science And Public. A Biographical Lexicon], Monika Schöner

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


The Bulletin: Sidney Kimmel Medical College At Thomas Jefferson University, Volume 68, Issue 2, Fall 2019 Oct 2019

The Bulletin: Sidney Kimmel Medical College At Thomas Jefferson University, Volume 68, Issue 2, Fall 2019

The Bulletin (formerly the Jefferson Medical College Alumni Bulletin)

This issue includes:

  • Dean's Column - The 195th Commencement of SKMC
  • Perspectives
  • On Campus
  • A Message from Elizabeth A. Dale - Reimagine Jefferson
  • Discovery - Know Thy Self
  • Seeing the Holistic Picture - Integrative medicine is taking techniques from the past to change the future of healthcare - and Jefferson is leading the charge
  • Faculty Profile - David Nash, MD, MBA
  • Student Profile - Carrie Walsh
  • Alumni Profile - Austin Chiang, MD, MPH, GI Fellow '18
  • Class Notes
  • Class Agent
  • In Memoriam
  • By the Numbers - The Class of 2023


Signals In The Black Stack / Geometyr Design Manual, Jason T. Scaglione Sep 2019

Signals In The Black Stack / Geometyr Design Manual, Jason T. Scaglione

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The following white paper provides a critical accompaniment to my capstone project: the GEOMEtyr Design Manual. GEOMEtyr is a virtual reality to be made accessible as a mobile and web platform for the visualization of certain systemic elements of a utopic world that parallels our own planet’s geographies, polities, and climates. As such, the GEOMEtyr virtualization is designed to derive utopian space from the informational structures of our own world. The operations by which this may be accomplished are broadly described within the accompanying GEOMEtyr manual. The white paper, Signals in the Black Stack, elaborates vital world-building characteristics of ...


Origins Of Space Food From Mercury To Apollo, Celine Chang Aug 2019

Origins Of Space Food From Mercury To Apollo, Celine Chang

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte Aug 2019

For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte

Heroism Science

This article reviews an investigation into the case of Stanley Girch (aka Girėnas) and Stephen William Darius as (multi)transfigured and transforming heroes and seeks to examine a two-fold assumption that has emerged in heroism science, namely that people create heroes mostly for the better and that learning from the past can help assess which heroes are needed. We argue that it may be beneficial to shift the focus of the analysis and follow the reverse course of a hero’s journey, tracing the impact, evolution and origin of the heroic status ascribed to the historical figures, whether individual or ...


Missed Moments: Kodak’S Failure To Define The Consumer Market For Digital Photography, Paul T. Moon Jr Aug 2019

Missed Moments: Kodak’S Failure To Define The Consumer Market For Digital Photography, Paul T. Moon Jr

History Theses

The focus of this thesis is to provide an expanded interpretation of the decline of the Eastman Kodak Company. Kodak is a company synonymous with cameras, pictures, and photography. The American photographic giant created a vast empire that was able to dominate the industry for the better part of the Twentieth Century. Yet, it missed the opportunity to develop its digital camera technology. This makes Kodak an interesting study in business decision making in the face of advancing disruptive technology.

In a historical context, there is a lack of work that deeply inspects the fall of the Kodak company in ...


A Historical Analysis Of Non-Normative Embodiment Through The Lens Of Frankenstein’S Creature, Ashley H. Hobson Aug 2019

A Historical Analysis Of Non-Normative Embodiment Through The Lens Of Frankenstein’S Creature, Ashley H. Hobson

Honors Theses

A trend to historicize the field of Disability Studies has emerged in recent years. However, little research has been done to place different societies and generations in conversation with one another. This thesis will utilize various adaptations of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in order to explore shifting anxieties concerning non-normative embodiment through the vessel of the Creature. I examine the Creature’s changing physical form next to scientific and medical literature of the period to explore connotations of disability and otherness within that society. I consider the manifestation of anxieties towards non-normative embodiment through Mary Shelley’s 1831 Frankenstein, James ...


Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic Jul 2019

Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis considers the implementation of domestic aesthetics and activities in the insane asylum at the end of the nineteenth century. Doctors sought to bring elements of the Victorian home into the asylum as part of a modern, humane regime of mental healthcare, which I call “institutional domesticity.” I argue that this process was fraught with challenges. While implementation of domesticity was relatively successful in regard to asylum activities, like labour and employment, domesticity reached its limitations in the physical asylum space. Ultimately, this thesis demonstrates the ways in which all asylum actors, including patients, staff, community members, and the ...


A Doctor's Story, Randall M. Mclaughlin, Md Jul 2019

A Doctor's Story, Randall M. Mclaughlin, Md

Jefferson Biographies

This memoir details the beginning of Randall M. McLaughlin's medical career. It begins in 1942 while he is a Pre-Med student at Penn State interviewing for medical school. From there it covers his time as a medical student at Jefferson, including classes, life in Philadelphia, and World War II. It ends at the beginning of his professional career, first with an internship at Cooper Hospital and later as a First Lieutenant in the Army.


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker Jul 2019

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Quantitative Literacy And The Mathematical Association Of America In The 2000’S: Ql Subcommittee Of Cupm , Sigmaa Ql, And Maa Notes #70, Rick Gillman Jul 2019

Quantitative Literacy And The Mathematical Association Of America In The 2000’S: Ql Subcommittee Of Cupm , Sigmaa Ql, And Maa Notes #70, Rick Gillman

Numeracy

This Roots and Seeds article is a partial history of the quantitative literacy movement in the Mathematical Association of America in the first decade of the 21st century. It focuses on the inclusion of QL in the MAA Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics’ CUPM Curriculum Guidelines (2004), the creation of the special interest group for MAA members (SIGMAA QL, 2004), and the work of that body in subsequent years, in particular, the MAA Notes #70, Current Practices in Quantitative Literacy (2006). I discuss some issues that were problematic in the QL movement in the MAA in those years ...


White-Collar Working Class: The Ambiguous Identity Of Canadian Telegraph Operators, Michael Feagan Jun 2019

White-Collar Working Class: The Ambiguous Identity Of Canadian Telegraph Operators, Michael Feagan

Western Research Forum

Were telegraph operators members of the working class or the business class? Were they skilled or unskilled? Were they labourers or executives-in-training? Was a job as a telegraph operator a temporary stepping stone or a lifelong career? Was it a job for men or for women? Telegraph operators were suspended somewhere between all these poles. The telegraph operator occupied a “liminal space” in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century economy: a transitory position between management and labour, between skilled and unskilled labour, between men’s work and women’s work, between the white-collar office and the blue-collar factory floor ...


Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine Jun 2019

Blood, Meth, And Tears: The Super Soldiers Of World War Ii, Nicholas Racine

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Day and night, soldiers in World War II were physically and mentally strained by fatigue and psychiatric distress. Consequently, many soldiers were left exhausted and demoralized. War efforts hinged on soldiers succeeding in missions, thus a fast-acting solution was needed. Development of the psychostimulant drugs Benzedrine and Pervitin in the 1920s and 30s spurred enthusiasm among scientists, the media, the public, and various governments. Potent and powerful, these drugs exert effects that promote wakefulness, elevated mood, and improved field performance. Governments quickly began researching use of stimulants to improve their war efforts. By the early 40s, both drugs had millions ...


Restraint And Patient Agency: Institutional Control At The Oregon State Hospital In The 1920s, Hudson Kennedy Jun 2019

Restraint And Patient Agency: Institutional Control At The Oregon State Hospital In The 1920s, Hudson Kennedy

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This thesis examines the experiences of female patients in mental health institutions in the early twentieth century using two patient medical files from the Oregon State Hospital in the 1920s as a case study. The two patient case files are examined for their content regarding the treatments given to patients in order to determine the rationale behind the treatments. This rationale would often cross the line between treatment and discipline. The treatments were chosen in reaction to the behaviors of the patients and were an attempt to control their bodies. The treatments examined are put into context with a comparison ...


Mental Hospitals And Their Effect On Race And Gender In The 1920s, Dayna Ragasa Jun 2019

Mental Hospitals And Their Effect On Race And Gender In The 1920s, Dayna Ragasa

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

Mental illness in the United States has been part of a complex history. Many details of mental hospitals and the treatment of its patients have been omitted from popular literature and media. These patients were subjected to harsh treatment and forced to undergo extreme therapies that doctors claimed would improve their condition. In particular, female patients were also affected by the events that occurred during the early twentieth century, namely World War I and the Great Depression, and the stigmas of race and gender that they caused. Mental illness remained an understudied topic for much of the nineteenth and twentieth ...


Immigrants, Mental Health, And The Oregon State Hospital, Andres Alvarez Jun 2019

Immigrants, Mental Health, And The Oregon State Hospital, Andres Alvarez

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This Senior thesis examines the treatment and care of immigrants who found themselves within the confines of the Oregon State Hospital in the early 20th century. During the Progressive Era (1890-1920) there was a rise in the use of mental health institutions and along with it came patients from various backgrounds. Many patients were admitted either voluntarily or by others in good faith for recovery from their mental ailments. Others however, fell victim to mental institutions being used to work against marginalized groups during this time. Two case files show individual examples of immigrants who were put in the State ...


“I Almost Hope I Get Hit Again Soon”: The Wartime Service And Medical History Of Leon C. Standifer, Wwii American Infantryman, Alexis M. Laguna May 2019

“I Almost Hope I Get Hit Again Soon”: The Wartime Service And Medical History Of Leon C. Standifer, Wwii American Infantryman, Alexis M. Laguna

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The American GI’s experience in hospital during World War II is absent from official military histories, most scholarly works, and even many oral history collections. Utilizing the papers of WWII infantryman, Leon Standifer, this thesis offers the reader a rare glimpse of WWII military hospital life and chronicles one soldier’s journey from willing obedience to subversive action.

This thesis compares the stated goals and procedures of the US Army medical department to the experience of Leon Standifer, an infantryman who served in northern France during the last year of the war and the American occupation of Bavaria, whose ...


Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock May 2019

Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

During the late 1800s, the people of England grew anxious about hereditary degeneracy. That anxiety was rooted in the medical literature of the Victorian period. Nature predetermined individuals to be either healthy or unhealthy. Unhealthy individuals were marked by degenerative mental or physical characteristics such as epilepsy. Medical professionals, including Henry Maudsley, emphasized reversion and its hereditary nature as a threat to individuals and society. All based their works and arguments on Charles Darwin’s idea of inheritance. Darwin, in turn, had adopted and modified Lamarckian inheritance to make up for the absence of an inheritance principle in his theory ...


The United States' Relationship With The Insanity Defense Before And After United States V. Hinckley, Natalie R. Peterman May 2019

The United States' Relationship With The Insanity Defense Before And After United States V. Hinckley, Natalie R. Peterman

Young Historians Conference

The United States legal system has had a fluctuating relationship with the insanity defense for decades, and the trial of United States v. Hinckley was a critical milestone for this development. Before John Hinckley, Jr. attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan in 1981 and the jury of his trial found him not guilty, American society generally agreed with the death penalty, but both the public and the government were outraged after Hinckley’s verdict. This outrage and the subsequent political backlash against the insanity defense were motivated by progress in the area of mental illness treatment in the United States ...


Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu May 2019

Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu

Young Historians Conference

Modern practice of medicine is reliably grounded in thorough observation and experimental study before application in a clinical setting. Yet before the universality of verifiable scientific justification, theoretical—and generally fallacious—models for the workings of the human body predominated, including the philosophy of the four elemental humors introduced by Hippocrates and Galen. In France, the decline of humorism’s supremacy did not occur until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the same time period during which the long-standing convention of absolute monarchy was violently eradicated by the French Revolution. How, if at all, was the ending of humoral ...


An Analysis Of The Evolution Of Medicine In Nineteenth Century England Via The Development Of The Anatomical Model Per Human Dissection, Isabelle C. Freeman May 2019

An Analysis Of The Evolution Of Medicine In Nineteenth Century England Via The Development Of The Anatomical Model Per Human Dissection, Isabelle C. Freeman

Young Historians Conference

An Analysis of the Evolution of Medicine in Nineteenth Century England via The Development of the Anatomical Model per Human Dissection

The development of the human anatomical model was, through a modern lens, an incredibly inhumane process. In England, during the nineteenth century, the bodies of many common folk and criminals were used as cadavers without their consent; either sold, stolen, and/or killed. Though many medical advancements were made, such as the development of more invasive surgeries; there was a huge moral cost. The purpose of this paper is to create a timeline regarding the evolution of the human ...


Depiction And Function Of Madness In Elizabethan And Jacobean Literature, Yeiji Seo May 2019

Depiction And Function Of Madness In Elizabethan And Jacobean Literature, Yeiji Seo

Young Historians Conference

Since the ancient times of Israel, Greece, and Rome, people with mental illnesses have been regarded as different from others in society. This paper aims to analyze the motives of authors of medical and dramatic texts of Elizabethan and Jacobean literature in regards to mental illness by specifically observing William Shakespeare’s King Lear and Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy. This paper also considers the views of other scholars of the field to compose a complete insight on Shakespeare and Burton’s goals in depicting mental illness and finally advocates further research and understanding to positively contribute towards ...


Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818, Samantha Destefano May 2019

Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818, Samantha Destefano

Transcription Collection

John Syng Dorsey (1783-1818) was a Philadelphia surgeon and the author of The Elements of Surgery (1813), the first American textbook of surgery. He was also the author of Poems, 1805-1818 (UPenn Ms. Coll. 251), a forty-page collection that reveals his interests in spirituality, the history of science and medicine, and classical and eighteenth-century British poetry. Decades after Dorsey’s death, his son Robert Ralston Dorsey (1808-1869) revised his father’s poems, identified classical sources with Latin and Italian quotations, and completed Dorsey’s final, unfinished poem. This project analyzes Dorsey’s literary, scientific, and biblical allusions and contextualizes his ...


From Spacewar! To Twitch.Tv: The Influence Of Competition In Video Games And The Rise Of Esports, Robert Boyle May 2019

From Spacewar! To Twitch.Tv: The Influence Of Competition In Video Games And The Rise Of Esports, Robert Boyle

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Since their inception in the 1950s, video games have come a long way; with that advancement came more popularity, a growing demand, and an evolving culture. The first person shooter (FPS) video game genre and the competitive scene that was born out of it is an ideal case study to analyze this change over time. To understand how video games became so popular, one must examine their history: specifically, their development, impacts the games have had on society, and economic trajectories. Similar to traditional professional sports, video games experienced a cultural shift around their lucrative profit margins and unfolding professionalization ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Treasure Hunters, Adventurers, Sport Divers, And Archaeologists: Influences On Early Underwater Archaeology, Henry Kennell May 2019

Treasure Hunters, Adventurers, Sport Divers, And Archaeologists: Influences On Early Underwater Archaeology, Henry Kennell

Honors Scholar Theses

This thesis shall explore the role treasure hunters and academic archaeologists played in developing the field of underwater archaeology in the 1950s and 1960s and the relationships they had with each other. The phrase “treasure hunters” refers to amateur divers and salvagers who took an interest in uncovering underwater archaeological artifacts while having no official academic qualifications for archaeology. On the contrary, the phrase “academic archaeologists” refers to those who received professional degrees in archaeology through the traditional academic methods as well as those working for various research institutions. While treasure hunting has and continues to be a hindrance on ...


Culture And Code: The Evolution Of Digital Architecture And The Formation Of Networked Publics, Geoffrey Gimse May 2019

Culture And Code: The Evolution Of Digital Architecture And The Formation Of Networked Publics, Geoffrey Gimse

Theses and Dissertations

Culture and Code traces the construction of the modern idea of the Internet and offers a potential glimpse of how that idea may change in the near future. Developed through a theoretical framework that links Sheila Jasanoff and Sang-Hyun Kim’s theory of the sociotechnical imaginary to broader theories on publics and counterpublics, Culture and Code offers a way to reframe the evolution of Internet technology and its culture as an enmeshed part of larger socio-political shifts within society. In traveling the history of the modern Internet as detailed in its technical documentation, legal documents, user created content, and popular ...


Selling Childhood: How The Middle Class Used Children In The Anti-Tuberculosis Movement (1930s-1940s), Hannah Fisher May 2019

Selling Childhood: How The Middle Class Used Children In The Anti-Tuberculosis Movement (1930s-1940s), Hannah Fisher

Senior Theses

During the anti-tuberculosis movement of the 1930s and 1940s, children were chosen as focal points, with their roles shaped by society’s changing view of childhood, the emergence of the middle class, and the socioeconomic and political climate. Children were used by middle-class reformers as conduits through which to disseminate information and enact controls on the working class. Health education in schools had two main goals: (1) for educated children to become educated adults, and (2) for educated children to transform the behaviors of adults around them. Although researchers have studied middle-class interventions into children’s health, few have analyzed ...


The Crusader And The Dictator: An Exploration Of Ideology And Neurodivergence In Contemporary Technology Practice, David J. Williams May 2019

The Crusader And The Dictator: An Exploration Of Ideology And Neurodivergence In Contemporary Technology Practice, David J. Williams

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A common theme in public discourse is the recognition that technology in general, and digital technology specifically, has an enormous impact on the everyday lives of people from all walks of modern life, in almost every corner of the globe. This thesis interrogates the connection between neurodivergence—the presence of neurological variations considered outside the cognitive norm— and individualistic ideology within the information technology industries. Through the biographies, substantial record of activities, public statements, and writings surrounding two influential figures in the contemporary practice of computer science, Richard Stallman and Linus Torvalds, it conducts an investigation into this convergence and ...