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Theses (Historic Preservation)

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A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté Jan 2021

A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This vulnerability study investigates the encroaching threat of climate change and how it will exacerbate the deterioration of open-air masonry sites such as Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument. This rubble and earthen mortar masonry site is assessed through interpretation of stabilization reports, geological surveys, climate inventories, condition assessments, and cultural resource evaluations. Likely mechanisms of deterioration are predicted through an analysis of the structure’s material sensitivities and exposure. The ramifications of projected climatic stimuli are synthesized through an assessment of material properties, identifying moisture related pathologies and deterioration due to increased wind speed as the greatest daily threats to ...


Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu Jan 2021

Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Most mining cities in China were formed in the 1950s. Due to resource depletion and the single industrial structure, China's mining cities have been declining since the 1980s, and industrial transformation and urban renewal have become the priority for the development of mining cities. Meanwhile, there exists a vast amount of mining heritage that has not been fully preserved and utilized. This heritage has a unique value for use. Through sufficient preservation and adaptive use, it can enhance the vitality of cities and promote the development of related industries, which is a good opportunity to facilitate urban regeneration and ...


Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein Jan 2021

Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis analyzes the 1949 treatment of the painted plaster using polyvinyl acetate (PVAC), in the interior at the Mission Church of San José de Tumacácori. The treatment was proposed by Rutherford Gettens of the Fogg Museum and executed by Charlie Steen of the National Park Service. The PVAC was sprayed over the entire interior in order to consolidate the painted surface. The PVAC used was specifically Vinylite A, which was produced by Union Carbide. Since 2014, the Center for Architectural Conservation has been performing stabilization treatments to the interior plaster; however, the PVAC treatment has never been closely examined ...


Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis Jan 2021

Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In the U.S. the federal, state, and local governments have initiated various regulations and incentives to encourage and implement historic preservation. Yet preservation at the local level holds the greatest regulatory strengths and plays the largest role with regard to private property and private funding sources. Although federal incentives, especially the Rehabilitation Tax Credit, are available only to income-producing properties, many states now offer tax credits to include owner-occupied properties. Local governments, however, have struggled to find the right balance of “sticks” and “carrots” to manage owner-occupied historic properties. Most literature focuses on financial or regulatory incentives, and economic ...


The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci Jan 2021

The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Inspired by the devastating fire of the Notre Dame cathedral, this thesis examines lime, natural hydraulic lime, and cement-lime mortars after exposure to fire-level temperatures and subsequent quenching by water during suppression. The underlying hypothesis is that high temperatures from fire followed by quenching can affect the mechanical properties of mortars in ways that compromise their original structural performance and compatibility with architectural masonry. ASTM D3967-08 Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens is carried out on three mortar types: dry hydrate lime-based mortar; natural hydraulic lime mortars; and Portland cement-lime mortars. Tensile strength testing ...


Unseen Synergies: The Intersection Of Historic Preservation & Climate Justice, Julia Marchetti Jan 2021

Unseen Synergies: The Intersection Of Historic Preservation & Climate Justice, Julia Marchetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic preservation and climate justice should be closely aligned but are not overtly so. Until now, historic preservation and climate justice have been vaguely linked through sustainability. A discussion of the intersection of preservation and climate justice is missing from the literature. This thesis seeks to illuminate the climate justice-oriented preservation work that is not always formally recognized by either field. Currently, synergies between historic preservation and climate justice are both realized and potential. Climate justice is a kind of tangible and intangible heritage preservation in the sense that it seeks to preserve communities and land through a commitment to ...


Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li Jan 2021

Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since the late 1970s, China entered an unprecedented period of urbanization, and global interaction characterizing the following decade and beyond. Historic preservation was under severe challenges in the wave of large-scale construction, which largely stimulated the development of domestic preservation theory. By ratifying the World Heritage Convention in 1985, China opened its door to the global heritage conservation society. Chinese scholars and preservationists critically accepted the universal preservation principles recognized by international organizations (such as UNESCO and ICOMOS) and responded to the global community integrating the Chinese and East Asian philosophy and experiences. In order to understand the interaction between ...


Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell Jan 2021

Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis evaluates rehabilitation design through a case study design project that addresses both contemporary preservation principles as well as environmental design tenets so that designers may better consider the integration of sustainability within contemporary preservation practice. The proposed project is the rehabilitation of one area of the Midway Barn at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin, located in Spring Green, Wisconsin. Research in the areas of architectural history, technology, sustainability, and design inform an iterative process that analyzes the site, climate, building, materials, systems, significance and character-defining elements. This serves as an analytical framework within which to consider the contemporary ...


Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez Jan 2021

Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Parroquia Nuestra Señora del Carmen was founded in 1893 in the coastal town of Cataño, Puerto Rico. In 1957, the Dominican Catholic Order commissioned architect Henry Klumb to design a modern church, which was inaugurated in June 1962. Since its opening, the Del Carmen Church has remained relatively unchanged, yet efforts to maintain and 'improve' the building over the years, including painting the original exposed cement stucco exteriors, an important character-defining feature of its design; has contributed toward a misunderstanding and underappreciation of one of Klumb's most significant works on the island. This case study examines Henry Klumb ...


Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg Jan 2021

Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg

Theses (Historic Preservation)

More cultural heritage sites across the United States are at risk of flooding than previously recognized due to the escalating effects of climate change. The National Flood Insurance Program, which is responsible for mapping and communicating flood risk to citizens, has had little impact on the cultural heritage stewardship community. As a result, there is generally low flood risk awareness, low flood insurance take-up rates, and minimal investment in long-term adaptation among site stewards. More sophisticated, accessible tools for understanding flood risk are now available and should be leveraged to promote a culture of flood preparedness within the field. Disaster ...


Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang Jan 2021

Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

A Historic Structure Report (HSR) usually provides documentary, graphic, and physical information about a property's history and existing condition. It is recognized as an effective part of preservation planning. A heavily text based HSR is often not processed to a level where it can serve for various kinds of uses. This research updates the detailed chronology of the development of Midway Barn from that presented in the 1994 Historic Structure Report by visualizing the evolution through analysis of primary and secondary sources such as field documentation, historic photos and drawings. The modeling software SketchUp was used to visualize the ...


Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski Jan 2021

Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At the turn of the 20th century, the Vermont Marble Company was the largest producer of marble goods in the United States and a critical force in the standardization and diffusion of gravestones across the country. The Vermont Marble Company utilized new modes of mass production, established a national distribution network, and embraced the use of catalogs to sell their products. This thesis examines a set of gravestone catalogs printed in 1916 and used by the Vermont Marble Company’s sales representatives in Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco. The catalogs contain hundreds of images of gravestones sold ...


Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs Jan 2021

Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Because of federal law waivers, former President Donald J. Trump Administration’s border wall and border infrastructure project threatened the existence of the American Southwests’ natural, archaeological, and historical resources—including Native American cultural patrimony. Legislation such as the National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act require lead federal agencies to consider the potential adverse impacts their project may have on cultural and environmental resources prior to project commencement. However, when waiver authority is declared by the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security federal agencies are no longer obligated to comply with existing federal preservation laws ...


A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti Jan 2021

A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic tax credit (HTC) programs and similar financial incentives have historically filled a critical financing gap in the rehabilitation of historic buildings, effectively providing capital to projects that otherwise would not be economically feasible and generating development in small or economically disadvantaged communities. Specifically, state HTC programs parallel to the federal historic tax credit program leverage additional private and local investment and encourage the stewardship and rehabilitation of historic buildings. State HTC programs also generate several benefits throughout local communities, including the creation and preservation of affordable housing units. As cities seek out ways to mitigate a growing number of ...


Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam Jan 2021

Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Infrared thermography (IRT) is used as a non-destructive testing method to detect subsurface features such as defects and anomalies based on temperature differences. Recent, studies showed that IRT is increasingly being used to map moisture distribution and detect areas of moisture related deterioration in structures. This thesis studied the viability of in situ infrared thermography (IRT) to identify the presence of moisture in historic lime-plastered adobe walls. The Campo Santo at Tumacácori National Historical Park in Arizona served as an experimental model for this thesis to identify the accuracy of IRT as a rapid assessment method for moisture identification. The ...


The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif Jan 2021

The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Pakistan is among the 10 countries that will be most affected by climate change. While the country contributes less than 1 percent of the world's greenhouse gases responsible for causing global warming, its 200 million people are among the world's most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change. The nation is facing ever-rising temperatures, drought, and flooding that present serious threats to the country’s rich built heritage. This research explores the traditional passive climate-control strategies that have been used in Pakistan’s traditional brick masonry buildings to mitigate its hot arid climate and considers how ...


Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro Jan 2021

Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At first glance, Midway Barn in Spring Green, Wisconsin presents itself as another example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s distinctive, if evolving style, its horizontal massing, tilted roof planes, and natural materials echoing the hilly landscape of the farm and its environs. Analysis of the documentary record and a range of sources on Wright’s life and thought, however, points to a richer story. Part of Wright’s larger campaign to reclaim his hometown landscape after his return to the Jones Valley, Midway Barn reflects his desire to reenact the agrarian lessons learned in his youth through the Taliesin Fellowship ...


An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar Jan 2021

An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Considered a monument of early Modernism and one of the pioneering examples of modern academic architecture, the Bauhaus Dessau is a World Heritage Site that experienced three main phases of renovations: in 1976, between 1996-2006 and 2009-2012. This thesis examines the alterations of the building’s windows as part of these renovations in order to explore challenges related to sustainable retrofits in modern architecture. Specific emphasis is given on windows based on their critical role in energy performance as well as their extensive use throughout the building, making them character-defining elements for the Bauhaus. Preservation strategies are identified and analyzed ...


Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark Jan 2021

Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Many residential neighborhoods of Pennsylvania's older cities and towns have seen disinvestment and outmigration, which prompted Representative Robert Freeman to develop the Elm Street program. This program recognizes the interdependence of healthy residential neighborhoods and robust downtown commercial districts and shares the Main Street Four-Points Approach's principle of comprehensive, community-based strategies for revitalization. Presently, there is one designation Elm Street community with seven other "practicing" organizations that were formerly designated. This study fills a literature gap on the Elm Street program by detailing its development while evaluating Elm Street organizations' characteristics to provide recommendations to broaden and enrich ...


Conflicts And Convergences Of Preservation, Modernism And Sustainability In The Richards Medical Laboratories Renovation, Di Sung Sep 2020

Conflicts And Convergences Of Preservation, Modernism And Sustainability In The Richards Medical Laboratories Renovation, Di Sung

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Louis Kahn’s Richards Medical Laboratories underwent a two-phased renovation (2013-2015 & 2019), driven by University of Pennsylvania’s Century Bond program’s energy-saving objective. A national historic landmark, a Modernism masterpiece and a heavy equipment-bearing facility, the building had to meet satisfactory results for all the criteria as strict as possible: preservation, Modernism and sustainability. Every Mid-Century rehabilitation project accommodates similar requirements, Richards’ renovation provides a stringent example for others to reference upon. Thus a prudent review on what guidelines suggested, architects and engineers proposed and executed, post-renovation data and findings yielded, are crucial in forming a holistic apprehension. In ...


“For The Stones Will Cry Out”: An Analysis And Interpretation Of The Landscape Of Enslavement At Historic Brattonsville, York County, South Carolina, Gabriel Harper Sep 2020

“For The Stones Will Cry Out”: An Analysis And Interpretation Of The Landscape Of Enslavement At Historic Brattonsville, York County, South Carolina, Gabriel Harper

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the landscape of enslavement at Historic Brattonsville located in York County, South Carolina and propose an interpretive framework to be utilized by caretakers of the site as well as future scholarship of American slavery and related topics. The development of the Bratton Plantation largely reflects both a regional and nationwide socio-economic dependence on the institution of slavery. “Brattonsville” would grow to become one of the largest cotton plantations in South Carolina, at one-point enslaving 139 peoples. Due in part to the extensive history of slavery at the site, Historic Brattonsville offers a ...


"Mansions Of Mud": Los Angeles And The Adobe Revival, Elizabeth Sexton Sep 2020

"Mansions Of Mud": Los Angeles And The Adobe Revival, Elizabeth Sexton

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis examines the beginnings of the Adobe Revival (c. 1894-1948) in Los Angeles. It presents an analysis of the economic, cultural, political, and environmental factors that worked together to shift biases and generate renewed interest in adobe’s practical applicability for modern housing in the early twentieth century. By 1920, several architects, builders, and developers – most of whom were transplants to the state – began to experiment with adobe construction as a residential design solution for the rapidly expanding city. Prompted by a shortage of wood and resulting price surge following World War I, these individuals embraced adobe, claiming it ...


Evaluation And Summary Of Pa Site Deaccession By Phmc, Sarah Knauer Sep 2020

Evaluation And Summary Of Pa Site Deaccession By Phmc, Sarah Knauer

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis evaluated the process by which the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC) deaccessed its publicly owned historical sites through the Blue-Ribbon Report (1981) and the Blue Ribbon Committee (1997) to determine sites response and determine which typology of deaccession was the Most, Less, and Least successful. As a direct result of drastic budgets cuts by the Commonwealth PHMC’s sites that it directly administrated and operated dropped from 57 in 1981 to 14 in 2019. The first report in 1981 split the 57 sites into three groups of importance (Most, Less and Least ) based on integrity, significance, and ...


Receivership As A Tool For Preservation And Revitalization, Amanda Stevens Sep 2020

Receivership As A Tool For Preservation And Revitalization, Amanda Stevens

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Many neighborhoods are faced with the complex issues of blight and vacant properties, and, if left unaddressed, abandoned properties continue to deteriorate and are subject to demolition by neglect. Prolonged vacancy not only threatens the retention of historic urban fabrics, but also the safety and economic capacity of the surrounding areas. One option to remediate property abandonment is receivership, or the process where a court-appointed party takes control of a neglected property and is given the responsibility to stabilize, rehabilitate or demolish the structure in order to address seriously blighting conditions that the owner has been unwilling or unable to ...


Pink And Papered: The John And Bartha Moulton Homestead And Its Relationship To Broader Trends In Rural, Mormon, And Domestic Architecture In The American West, Noah Yoder Sep 2020

Pink And Papered: The John And Bartha Moulton Homestead And Its Relationship To Broader Trends In Rural, Mormon, And Domestic Architecture In The American West, Noah Yoder

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The John and Bartha Moulton Homestead is one of six remaining homesteads settled by Mormon families along “Mormon Row,” an early 20th century ranching community in Grand Teton National Park. Built in 1938, the Moulton family’s home is known as the “Pink House” for its striking pink exterior. It is a standout relic of late-stage homesteading and has become a popular tourist attraction. The house has been unoccupied since 1990 and has been passively conserved by The National Park Service. As such, the building retains a high degree of integrity and still showcases original hardware, wallpaper, paint, and other ...


Sanitary Acculturation: The Social History Of Progressive Era Public Bath Houses In Philadelphia, Sarah Lerner Sep 2020

Sanitary Acculturation: The Social History Of Progressive Era Public Bath Houses In Philadelphia, Sarah Lerner

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In 1895 the Public Bath Association of Philadelphia (PBA) was formed for the purpose of, “establishing and maintaining public baths and affording the poor facilities for bathing and the promotion of cleanliness.” In 1898 the PBA opened America’s first public bath house that offered both bathing and laundry facilities. This thesis illustrates how the organizational structure, geographic location, architectural aesthetics, function of space and technology, and advertising of Philadelphia’s public bathhouse embodies the social, cultural, economic, and political of environment of the city at the turn of the century. To properly understand the formation of the Public Bath ...


Short-Term Rental As A Tool For Historic Preservation: Case-Studies In San Francisco, Boston, And New Orleans, Xue Fei Lin Jan 2020

Short-Term Rental As A Tool For Historic Preservation: Case-Studies In San Francisco, Boston, And New Orleans, Xue Fei Lin

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In recent years, short-term rentals through online booking platforms such as Airbnb, has experienced increasing popularity as alternative tourist accommodations. The growing maturity of online hosting platforms under the expansion of peer-to-peer network and the context of sharing economy allow this innovative accommodation model to flourish. It is noted a significant proportion of listings are operated in historic properties. Historic-related keywords often appear in the names and descriptions of short-term rental listings as ways to attract interested guests. Despite its popularity, short-term rental is frequently criticized for its adverse impacts on local housing market and neighborhood characters. In the past ...


The Balance Shifts: The Change In Town-Gown Relations In Princeton Nj As Reflected By Residential Property Development Between 1890 And 1910, Adrian Trevisan Jan 2020

The Balance Shifts: The Change In Town-Gown Relations In Princeton Nj As Reflected By Residential Property Development Between 1890 And 1910, Adrian Trevisan

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Early boosters of Princeton, NJ, sought to enhance its long-term success by making the town a nexus of education and transportation. By 1865, however, the turnpike and canal had been supplanted by the railroad, and wartime straightening of the rail line had left the town at the end of an unimportant spur line, leaving the town dependent on the College of New Jersey for its future. Between 1890 and 1910 the population of the town grew by fifty percent as the university expanded and affluent alumni seeking a cosmopolitan version of “country life” built mansions and estates there. As local ...


A Comparative Study Of Infrared Thermography (Irt) And Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) As Methods To Measure Moisture Levels In Adobe Walls, Chongke Wu Jan 2020

A Comparative Study Of Infrared Thermography (Irt) And Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) As Methods To Measure Moisture Levels In Adobe Walls, Chongke Wu

Theses (Historic Preservation)

vation professionals to aid them in diagnosing building damage. Infrared thermography (IRT) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are increasingly used to map moisture distribution and identify areas with anomalous moisture content in structures. Compared with embedded or extracted quantitative sample analysis, IRT and RFID moisture sensors are a better alternative to measure moisture content levels due to their non/low destructive nature and ability to provide large scale moisture patterns. This thesis reviews current methods to locate and measure moisture in historical buildings, and then examines the application of IRT and RFID techniques to quantitatively measure moisture content in adobe ...


20-Century Building Adaptive-Reuse: Office Buildings Converted To Apartments., Yujia Zhang Jan 2020

20-Century Building Adaptive-Reuse: Office Buildings Converted To Apartments., Yujia Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Adaptive re-use is a solution to avoiding the obsolescence of buildings in urban development. It is beneficial for the city, for the culture, for the environment, and for the building itself. Recently in the United States, historical office buildings converted into apartments have demonstrated a way to extend the life of these buildings. This thesis aims to analyze 20-century office buildings in New York City converted to apartments in order to examine the possibility of this kind of adaptive-reuse solution for historic office buildings in China. It investigates the history, policy, and design of adaptive-reuse of 20th-Century New York City ...