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Theses (Historic Preservation)

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Demolition And Reconstruction As Urban Preservation In China: The Case Of Liaocheng City, Chuxuan Zhang Jan 2022

Demolition And Reconstruction As Urban Preservation In China: The Case Of Liaocheng City, Chuxuan Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis studies the large-scale “oxymoron” projects/policies (demolition and reconstruction activities) that occurred in China, especially in LiaoCheng City to understand the design of the policies/projects, the factors at play, and their effects on preservation efforts in historic Chinese cities. This study shows that large-scale “oxymoron” projects/policies are mainly affected by four aspects. Firstly, how to maintain the authenticity of historical heritage during the preservation process is still controversial due to China's unique cultural background. Secondly, the land finance, the rapid economic development, and the continuous expansion of the cities have made the land value of the historical centers rise …


Soot In The Mortar: Climate Crisis Interpretation At The Elms, Aislinn Eyre Pentecost-Farren Jan 2022

Soot In The Mortar: Climate Crisis Interpretation At The Elms, Aislinn Eyre Pentecost-Farren

Theses (Historic Preservation)

As climate change effects increase, historic sites with connections to the fossil fuel industry assume new meaning. These sites offer opportunities to grow public recognition of climate change history and the ways our cultural values and economic systems feed the climate crisis. This thesis investigates The Elms, coal magnate Edward Berwind’s 1901 mansion in Newport, Rhode Island, as an especially apt case study for interpreting the history of the climate crisis at historic sites and industrialist house museums. The thesis begins with an overview of recent literature on the interpretation of “hidden” and “difficult” histories at historic sites, climate change …


Vaults Speak: A History And Material Analysis Of Guastavino Akoustolith Tile, Jose Carlos Hernandez Cruz Jan 2022

Vaults Speak: A History And Material Analysis Of Guastavino Akoustolith Tile, Jose Carlos Hernandez Cruz

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since antiquity, reverberation has been linked to monumental interiors. Roman temples and medieval Gothic cathedrals produced a recognizable soundscape that was considered as natural as gravity. Vaults, domes, pendentives, and other large concave surfaces produced reverberant spaces that enriched the medieval latin chant but was detrimental to the clarity of the modern Protestant sermon. At the turn of the twentieth-century, Wallace Clement Sabine and Rafael Guastavino Jr. responded to a demand to quiet Protestant cathedrals. Together, they patented two acoustical products, a clay-based tile named “Rumford” and an artificial stone named “Akoustolith.” These were structural, imitated traditional masonry, and absorbed …


Tactical Preservation For Climate Emergency: Adaptive Reuse Of 20th C. Public Schools In Puerto Rico, Hillary Morales Robles Jan 2022

Tactical Preservation For Climate Emergency: Adaptive Reuse Of 20th C. Public Schools In Puerto Rico, Hillary Morales Robles

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Puerto Rico has experienced three major disasters in the last five years, the hurricanes María and Irma in 2017 and earthquake swarms in the winter of 2020. Post-disaster vulnerabilities studies have concluded that municipalities in rural Puerto Rico present high exposure and risk in future disasters. Parallel to this context, thousands of 20th-century public schools were closed in the last decade due to damage and disinvestment in public infrastructure on the island. Not only has this reduced educational resources but also available emergency shelters. This thesis has studied vacant 20th-century public schools in Puerto Rico as an opportunity to reclaim …


Activating Our Tools: A Qualitative Analysis Of Statewide Historic Preservation Plans, Anne Greening Jan 2022

Activating Our Tools: A Qualitative Analysis Of Statewide Historic Preservation Plans, Anne Greening

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, State Historic Preservation Offices have been required to create and implement Statewide Historic Preservation Plans on a recurring cycle. Despite this longstanding requirement, State Plans have been overlooked in academic research and there have been few comprehensive evaluations of the planning process, the written plans, and their implementation. This thesis begins to fill that gap in research and suggests further areas of study for future researchers. Through interviews with staff at the National Park Service, an online survey of SHPOs in U.S. states, territories, and Freely Associated States, and …


An Evaluation Of Shelter Coating As A Preventive Conservation Method For Earthen Sites, Alison Cavicchio Jan 2022

An Evaluation Of Shelter Coating As A Preventive Conservation Method For Earthen Sites, Alison Cavicchio

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Shelter coating is a global practice implemented as one form of protection at earthen sites to reduce surface erosion of adobe. At Fort Union National Monument, the largest adobe site in the United States, shelter coating has been used since the 1980s and of various formulations and application methods. Current shelter coat practices at Fort Union consist of a two-coat system of an unamended layer of similar composition to the original adobe walls, followed by a second amended mud layer modified with a stabilizing agent (Rhoplex™ E-330) to enhance the exterior layer’s water resistance and weatherability. Rhoplex™ E-330, an acrylic …


Strathglass Park: Strategies For The Revitalization Of A Rural Mill Town Community, Heather Megan Hendrickson Jan 2022

Strathglass Park: Strategies For The Revitalization Of A Rural Mill Town Community, Heather Megan Hendrickson

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Built in 1902 for Oxford Paper Company mill workers, Strathglass Park is one of the finest examples of twentieth century industrial worker housing still extant today. The rural town of Rumford Falls, Maine experienced a radical population boom during the last decade of the nineteenth century when the small agrarian village was transformed into a thriving industrial pulp-and-paper company town, resulting in a major housing shortage. Brainchild of Hugh J. Chisholm (1847-1912), founder of the Oxford Paper Company, Strathglass Park consisted of 51 red-brick architect-designed duplexes organized in a professionally planned park-like setting surrounded by a granite wall. The well-constructed, …


Developing A Methodology For The Conservation Of A Tserkva: Examining The Structural And Decorative Composite Of The Church Of The Exaltation Of The Holy Cross, Drohobych, Ukraine, Blair Horton Jan 2022

Developing A Methodology For The Conservation Of A Tserkva: Examining The Structural And Decorative Composite Of The Church Of The Exaltation Of The Holy Cross, Drohobych, Ukraine, Blair Horton

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In January 2020, a multi-year project was initiated to preserve the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (CEHC), a historic wooden church in Western Ukraine. Building upon preliminary documentation, this thesis responds to the conservation challenge presented by the polychrome wall-paintings where the icons and motifs used in the religious liturgy were painted directly onto the structural timbers. This thesis proposes a methodology for their joint conservation informed by examination of the church’s heritage values, regional agents of deterioration, and conservation discourse around the larger typology. Through developed preservation principles and a phased timeline, the site-specific needs of …


Revisiting The Past Treatments And Condition Assessment Of The Painted Sanctuary At Tumacacori, Yifei Yang Jan 2022

Revisiting The Past Treatments And Condition Assessment Of The Painted Sanctuary At Tumacacori, Yifei Yang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis focuses on the painted walls in the Sanctuary of the Mission Church of San Jose de Tumacacori, which has been managed by the National Park Service since 1918 and has been treated several times in the past years. The treatments from different periods overlaid on the surface of the Sanctuary offer interesting evidence of different types of conservation treatments conducted on in situ murals and decorative paintings over the past century. However, these treatments have never been closely examined nor distinguished as individual campaigns of treatment. This thesis intends to differentiate and analyze the treatments and materials applied …


Formulation And Evaluation Of A Biophilic Protective Surface Treatment For Stone Substrates, Caitlin Siobhan Livesey Jan 2022

Formulation And Evaluation Of A Biophilic Protective Surface Treatment For Stone Substrates, Caitlin Siobhan Livesey

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis develops and preliminarily tests a biophilic adhesive filler for the fossilized tree stumps at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO), which are rapidly deteriorating due to the impacts of precipitation and freeze-thaw cycling. At the crown of Stump P47, lichens have been observed to have a consolidating effect, preventing further fragmentation. Recent conservation research confirms that in certain environments, with specific substrates and organisms, microflora and macroflora can act as protective and consolidating agents for stone substrates. This thesis explores these benefits by considering potential materials for the formulation of a biophilic adhesive filler, which could be used …


Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu Jan 2021

Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Most mining cities in China were formed in the 1950s. Due to resource depletion and the single industrial structure, China's mining cities have been declining since the 1980s, and industrial transformation and urban renewal have become the priority for the development of mining cities. Meanwhile, there exists a vast amount of mining heritage that has not been fully preserved and utilized. This heritage has a unique value for use. Through sufficient preservation and adaptive use, it can enhance the vitality of cities and promote the development of related industries, which is a good opportunity to facilitate urban regeneration and industrial …


A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti Jan 2021

A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic tax credit (HTC) programs and similar financial incentives have historically filled a critical financing gap in the rehabilitation of historic buildings, effectively providing capital to projects that otherwise would not be economically feasible and generating development in small or economically disadvantaged communities. Specifically, state HTC programs parallel to the federal historic tax credit program leverage additional private and local investment and encourage the stewardship and rehabilitation of historic buildings. State HTC programs also generate several benefits throughout local communities, including the creation and preservation of affordable housing units. As cities seek out ways to mitigate a growing number of …


The Ghost Of Slavery Exorcised Once And For All: Romantic Nationalism And White Blindness In Hermon Atkins Macneil’S Civil War Soliders And Sailors Memorial, Joshua Lewis Jan 2021

The Ghost Of Slavery Exorcised Once And For All: Romantic Nationalism And White Blindness In Hermon Atkins Macneil’S Civil War Soliders And Sailors Memorial, Joshua Lewis

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The plethora of monuments produced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a phenomenon dubbed ‘statue mania’ by the scholar Erika Doss, continue to vex today. Removed from original time and context, they can provoke wildly variant readings or simply elude notice altogether, hidden in plain sight. Using various lenses, including urban planning, art history, and the dynamics of memory and history in the half century following the Civil War, this thesis seeks to demonstrate the value of analyzing these everyday monuments. This is done through close and thick examination of one case study: the Civil War Soldiers and …


Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski Jan 2021

Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At the turn of the 20th century, the Vermont Marble Company was the largest producer of marble goods in the United States and a critical force in the standardization and diffusion of gravestones across the country. The Vermont Marble Company utilized new modes of mass production, established a national distribution network, and embraced the use of catalogs to sell their products. This thesis examines a set of gravestone catalogs printed in 1916 and used by the Vermont Marble Company’s sales representatives in Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco. The catalogs contain hundreds of images of gravestones sold by …


A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté Jan 2021

A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This vulnerability study investigates the encroaching threat of climate change and how it will exacerbate the deterioration of open-air masonry sites such as Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument. This rubble and earthen mortar masonry site is assessed through interpretation of stabilization reports, geological surveys, climate inventories, condition assessments, and cultural resource evaluations. Likely mechanisms of deterioration are predicted through an analysis of the structure’s material sensitivities and exposure. The ramifications of projected climatic stimuli are synthesized through an assessment of material properties, identifying moisture related pathologies and deterioration due to increased wind speed as the greatest daily threats to the …


Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs Jan 2021

Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Because of federal law waivers, former President Donald J. Trump Administration’s border wall and border infrastructure project threatened the existence of the American Southwests’ natural, archaeological, and historical resources—including Native American cultural patrimony. Legislation such as the National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act require lead federal agencies to consider the potential adverse impacts their project may have on cultural and environmental resources prior to project commencement. However, when waiver authority is declared by the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security federal agencies are no longer obligated to comply with existing federal preservation laws. The U.S. …


Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam Jan 2021

Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Infrared thermography (IRT) is used as a non-destructive testing method to detect subsurface features such as defects and anomalies based on temperature differences. Recent, studies showed that IRT is increasingly being used to map moisture distribution and detect areas of moisture related deterioration in structures. This thesis studied the viability of in situ infrared thermography (IRT) to identify the presence of moisture in historic lime-plastered adobe walls. The Campo Santo at Tumacácori National Historical Park in Arizona served as an experimental model for this thesis to identify the accuracy of IRT as a rapid assessment method for moisture identification. The …


Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis Jan 2021

Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In the U.S. the federal, state, and local governments have initiated various regulations and incentives to encourage and implement historic preservation. Yet preservation at the local level holds the greatest regulatory strengths and plays the largest role with regard to private property and private funding sources. Although federal incentives, especially the Rehabilitation Tax Credit, are available only to income-producing properties, many states now offer tax credits to include owner-occupied properties. Local governments, however, have struggled to find the right balance of “sticks” and “carrots” to manage owner-occupied historic properties. Most literature focuses on financial or regulatory incentives, and economic studies …


Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell Jan 2021

Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis evaluates rehabilitation design through a case study design project that addresses both contemporary preservation principles as well as environmental design tenets so that designers may better consider the integration of sustainability within contemporary preservation practice. The proposed project is the rehabilitation of one area of the Midway Barn at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin, located in Spring Green, Wisconsin. Research in the areas of architectural history, technology, sustainability, and design inform an iterative process that analyzes the site, climate, building, materials, systems, significance and character-defining elements. This serves as an analytical framework within which to consider the contemporary preservation …


Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark Jan 2021

Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Many residential neighborhoods of Pennsylvania's older cities and towns have seen disinvestment and outmigration, which prompted Representative Robert Freeman to develop the Elm Street program. This program recognizes the interdependence of healthy residential neighborhoods and robust downtown commercial districts and shares the Main Street Four-Points Approach's principle of comprehensive, community-based strategies for revitalization. Presently, there is one designation Elm Street community with seven other "practicing" organizations that were formerly designated. This study fills a literature gap on the Elm Street program by detailing its development while evaluating Elm Street organizations' characteristics to provide recommendations to broaden and enrich the program's …


Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein Jan 2021

Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis analyzes the 1949 treatment of the painted plaster using polyvinyl acetate (PVAC), in the interior at the Mission Church of San José de Tumacácori. The treatment was proposed by Rutherford Gettens of the Fogg Museum and executed by Charlie Steen of the National Park Service. The PVAC was sprayed over the entire interior in order to consolidate the painted surface. The PVAC used was specifically Vinylite A, which was produced by Union Carbide. Since 2014, the Center for Architectural Conservation has been performing stabilization treatments to the interior plaster; however, the PVAC treatment has never been closely examined. …


Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro Jan 2021

Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At first glance, Midway Barn in Spring Green, Wisconsin presents itself as another example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s distinctive, if evolving style, its horizontal massing, tilted roof planes, and natural materials echoing the hilly landscape of the farm and its environs. Analysis of the documentary record and a range of sources on Wright’s life and thought, however, points to a richer story. Part of Wright’s larger campaign to reclaim his hometown landscape after his return to the Jones Valley, Midway Barn reflects his desire to reenact the agrarian lessons learned in his youth through the Taliesin Fellowship. Viewed in this …


Protecting Suzhou: Study Of The Conservation Of Cultural Heritage In The Cities Along China’S Grand Canal, Dairong Qiu Jan 2021

Protecting Suzhou: Study Of The Conservation Of Cultural Heritage In The Cities Along China’S Grand Canal, Dairong Qiu

Theses (Historic Preservation)

With economic and social development, China has lifted its people out of poverty and is continuing to work hard on the road to a well-off society for all. In such a historical period, China is paying increasing attention to cultural construction while developing the economy. How to protect China’s cultural heritage and create economic and social benefits at the same time is a huge concern of the national government. Nowhere is the tension between China’s cultural preservation and economic development more apparent than at the country’s World Heritage List sites. The Grand Canal, known as the Jing- Hang Grand Canal …


Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang Jan 2021

Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

A Historic Structure Report (HSR) usually provides documentary, graphic, and physical information about a property's history and existing condition. It is recognized as an effective part of preservation planning. A heavily text based HSR is often not processed to a level where it can serve for various kinds of uses. This research updates the detailed chronology of the development of Midway Barn from that presented in the 1994 Historic Structure Report by visualizing the evolution through analysis of primary and secondary sources such as field documentation, historic photos and drawings. The modeling software SketchUp was used to visualize the Barn …


Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li Jan 2021

Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since the late 1970s, China entered an unprecedented period of urbanization, and global interaction characterizing the following decade and beyond. Historic preservation was under severe challenges in the wave of large-scale construction, which largely stimulated the development of domestic preservation theory. By ratifying the World Heritage Convention in 1985, China opened its door to the global heritage conservation society. Chinese scholars and preservationists critically accepted the universal preservation principles recognized by international organizations (such as UNESCO and ICOMOS) and responded to the global community integrating the Chinese and East Asian philosophy and experiences. In order to understand the interaction between …


Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez Jan 2021

Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Parroquia Nuestra Señora del Carmen was founded in 1893 in the coastal town of Cataño, Puerto Rico. In 1957, the Dominican Catholic Order commissioned architect Henry Klumb to design a modern church, which was inaugurated in June 1962. Since its opening, the Del Carmen Church has remained relatively unchanged, yet efforts to maintain and 'improve' the building over the years, including painting the original exposed cement stucco exteriors, an important character-defining feature of its design; has contributed toward a misunderstanding and underappreciation of one of Klumb's most significant works on the island. This case study examines Henry Klumb's original …


The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif Jan 2021

The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Pakistan is among the 10 countries that will be most affected by climate change. While the country contributes less than 1 percent of the world's greenhouse gases responsible for causing global warming, its 200 million people are among the world's most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change. The nation is facing ever-rising temperatures, drought, and flooding that present serious threats to the country’s rich built heritage. This research explores the traditional passive climate-control strategies that have been used in Pakistan’s traditional brick masonry buildings to mitigate its hot arid climate and considers how these design solutions can …


The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci Jan 2021

The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Inspired by the devastating fire of the Notre Dame cathedral, this thesis examines lime, natural hydraulic lime, and cement-lime mortars after exposure to fire-level temperatures and subsequent quenching by water during suppression. The underlying hypothesis is that high temperatures from fire followed by quenching can affect the mechanical properties of mortars in ways that compromise their original structural performance and compatibility with architectural masonry. ASTM D3967-08 Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens is carried out on three mortar types: dry hydrate lime-based mortar; natural hydraulic lime mortars; and Portland cement-lime mortars. Tensile strength testing …


An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar Jan 2021

An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Considered a monument of early Modernism and one of the pioneering examples of modern academic architecture, the Bauhaus Dessau is a World Heritage Site that experienced three main phases of renovations: in 1976, between 1996-2006 and 2009-2012. This thesis examines the alterations of the building’s windows as part of these renovations in order to explore challenges related to sustainable retrofits in modern architecture. Specific emphasis is given on windows based on their critical role in energy performance as well as their extensive use throughout the building, making them character-defining elements for the Bauhaus. Preservation strategies are identified and analyzed from …


Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg Jan 2021

Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg

Theses (Historic Preservation)

More cultural heritage sites across the United States are at risk of flooding than previously recognized due to the escalating effects of climate change. The National Flood Insurance Program, which is responsible for mapping and communicating flood risk to citizens, has had little impact on the cultural heritage stewardship community. As a result, there is generally low flood risk awareness, low flood insurance take-up rates, and minimal investment in long-term adaptation among site stewards. More sophisticated, accessible tools for understanding flood risk are now available and should be leveraged to promote a culture of flood preparedness within the field. Disaster …