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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale Mar 2021

Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Through this paper we explore women’s vulnerability during sanitation activities and the impact that household toilets have on women’s safety-related concerns. This study covers 4 cities in the state of Maharashtra– Pune, Pimpri- Chinchwad, Thane, and Kolhapur - where Shelter Associates has provided many slum households with toilets under its One Home One Toilet (OHOT) programme. A good part of the programme’s intention is to offer women an alternative to using their existing, inadequate public sanitation facilities, a problem that was highlighted during discussions with slum women themselves. Shelter Associates is a Maharashtra-based NGO established in 1993 that ...


Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick Mar 2021

Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Kishia Powell is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia, Virginia and Maryland. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Morgan State University’s Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. School of Engineering. Currently, Powell is Chief Operating Officer at DC Water, where she manages 80% of the water authority’s resources. With over 22 years of experience, Kishia Powell sheds light on the value of water, her experience as a leader and a woman in the water utilities industry, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change in this interview with The Journal of Gender and Water ...


Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos Mar 2021

Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Plastics — ubiquitous material we cannot seem to live without — are everywhere, but sadly we cannot live with plastics either, at least not peaceably, especially when you consider there will be more plastics in the ocean than fish by 2050. In the intervening years, the photodegradation of plastic resulting in microplastics pollution will be an even bigger problem, affecting every living creature in the ocean, and by extrapolation, mankind. The choices we make and the steps we take to combat the overabundance of plastics in our environment will dictate not just the next 30 years, but the fate of the world ...


Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Brianna Huber On Women In Leadership, Her2o™, And The Future Of Water, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Brianna is both the founder/executive director of Her 2O™ and director of Water Filtration at a municipal drinking water utility. She achieves her primary goal of #buildingthefutureofwater by focusing on four important facets of the water industry: women in water, internships & mentoring, smart water & analytics, and emergency management. Her 2O™ is an international 501c3 nonprofit with the vision of women equitably involved in water management in every corner of the globe. This transcript provides an interview with Brianna about her inspirational journey in the water sector.


Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty Mar 2021

Overcoming Barriers To Women’S Participation In Water Supply Through Innovative Technology, Gillian Winkler, Nisha Chakravarty

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Research from the global development sector repeatedly shows that convenient access to safe water improves women’s quality of life. Similarly, digital technology is increasingly highlighted as an essential component for increasing women’s educational, economic, and civic opportunities—yet a gender divide exists. As digital technology becomes more prevalent in managing effective and reliable safe water services, the water sector has the opportunity to both create new channels for women to engage with technology and use technology to make safe water supply more responsive to women’s needs. In this article, we will explore how technology is deployed within ...


Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das Mar 2021

Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor rural communities suffer from many socio-economic issues; however, the availability of clean and safe water is the fundamental challenge amongst all other hindrances confronted by these communities. This article focuses on the non-profit organization, Nishtha (meaning dedication) and their intervention in women empowerment for better water accessibility in rural communities of West Bengal, India. The paper will further highlight the so-called “rural ignorant women’s endeavour” in innovative thought and strategy to protect their own families and the community. The article also discusses Nishtha’s intervention during water crises and disasters using a participatory approach involving women.


Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani Mar 2021

Community Effort For Drinking Water Management Near India- China Border At Jamak Village District Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India, Kamlesh Gururani

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

In Uttarakhand, drinking water is a major problem and a burning issue for the last decade. Many natural springs that dotted the hillside have been damaged due to the climate conditions and other unplanned or illegal activities such as deforestation and human-made forest fires have affected spring catchments, resulting in reduced discharge from springs. To tackle this major problem of drinking water security, the community of mountain village Jamak, district Uttarkashi came together for community-led drinking water supply by adopting participatory planning and ownership. The village community’s participation and ownership improved the village’s drinking water situation, and villagers ...


A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté Jan 2021

A Site Vulnerability Study For Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument, Naftalia Flatté

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This vulnerability study investigates the encroaching threat of climate change and how it will exacerbate the deterioration of open-air masonry sites such as Wupatki Pueblo, Wupatki National Monument. This rubble and earthen mortar masonry site is assessed through interpretation of stabilization reports, geological surveys, climate inventories, condition assessments, and cultural resource evaluations. Likely mechanisms of deterioration are predicted through an analysis of the structure’s material sensitivities and exposure. The ramifications of projected climatic stimuli are synthesized through an assessment of material properties, identifying moisture related pathologies and deterioration due to increased wind speed as the greatest daily threats to ...


Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu Jan 2021

Preserving Collieries: A Form Of Urban Regeneration For Mining Cities In China, Yiling Hu

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Most mining cities in China were formed in the 1950s. Due to resource depletion and the single industrial structure, China's mining cities have been declining since the 1980s, and industrial transformation and urban renewal have become the priority for the development of mining cities. Meanwhile, there exists a vast amount of mining heritage that has not been fully preserved and utilized. This heritage has a unique value for use. Through sufficient preservation and adaptive use, it can enhance the vitality of cities and promote the development of related industries, which is a good opportunity to facilitate urban regeneration and ...


Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein Jan 2021

Revisiting A Past Treatment Of The Painted Interior Of San José De Tumacácori, Gabrielle Goldstein

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis analyzes the 1949 treatment of the painted plaster using polyvinyl acetate (PVAC), in the interior at the Mission Church of San José de Tumacácori. The treatment was proposed by Rutherford Gettens of the Fogg Museum and executed by Charlie Steen of the National Park Service. The PVAC was sprayed over the entire interior in order to consolidate the painted surface. The PVAC used was specifically Vinylite A, which was produced by Union Carbide. Since 2014, the Center for Architectural Conservation has been performing stabilization treatments to the interior plaster; however, the PVAC treatment has never been closely examined ...


Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis Jan 2021

Balancing Sticks & Carrots: Local Preservation Incentives For Homeowners, Allison Davis

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In the U.S. the federal, state, and local governments have initiated various regulations and incentives to encourage and implement historic preservation. Yet preservation at the local level holds the greatest regulatory strengths and plays the largest role with regard to private property and private funding sources. Although federal incentives, especially the Rehabilitation Tax Credit, are available only to income-producing properties, many states now offer tax credits to include owner-occupied properties. Local governments, however, have struggled to find the right balance of “sticks” and “carrots” to manage owner-occupied historic properties. Most literature focuses on financial or regulatory incentives, and economic ...


The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci Jan 2021

The Influence Of Fire And Water On Lime, Natural Hydraulic Lime, And Cement-Lime Mortars, Joseph Bacci

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Inspired by the devastating fire of the Notre Dame cathedral, this thesis examines lime, natural hydraulic lime, and cement-lime mortars after exposure to fire-level temperatures and subsequent quenching by water during suppression. The underlying hypothesis is that high temperatures from fire followed by quenching can affect the mechanical properties of mortars in ways that compromise their original structural performance and compatibility with architectural masonry. ASTM D3967-08 Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Intact Rock Core Specimens is carried out on three mortar types: dry hydrate lime-based mortar; natural hydraulic lime mortars; and Portland cement-lime mortars. Tensile strength testing ...


Unseen Synergies: The Intersection Of Historic Preservation & Climate Justice, Julia Marchetti Jan 2021

Unseen Synergies: The Intersection Of Historic Preservation & Climate Justice, Julia Marchetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic preservation and climate justice should be closely aligned but are not overtly so. Until now, historic preservation and climate justice have been vaguely linked through sustainability. A discussion of the intersection of preservation and climate justice is missing from the literature. This thesis seeks to illuminate the climate justice-oriented preservation work that is not always formally recognized by either field. Currently, synergies between historic preservation and climate justice are both realized and potential. Climate justice is a kind of tangible and intangible heritage preservation in the sense that it seeks to preserve communities and land through a commitment to ...


Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li Jan 2021

Embracing The World: Development Of Historic Preservation Theory In China Since The 1980s, Xin Li

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since the late 1970s, China entered an unprecedented period of urbanization, and global interaction characterizing the following decade and beyond. Historic preservation was under severe challenges in the wave of large-scale construction, which largely stimulated the development of domestic preservation theory. By ratifying the World Heritage Convention in 1985, China opened its door to the global heritage conservation society. Chinese scholars and preservationists critically accepted the universal preservation principles recognized by international organizations (such as UNESCO and ICOMOS) and responded to the global community integrating the Chinese and East Asian philosophy and experiences. In order to understand the interaction between ...


Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell Jan 2021

Towards A Rehabilitative Architecture: Sustainability And Preservation At The Midway Barn, Gregory Maxwell

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis evaluates rehabilitation design through a case study design project that addresses both contemporary preservation principles as well as environmental design tenets so that designers may better consider the integration of sustainability within contemporary preservation practice. The proposed project is the rehabilitation of one area of the Midway Barn at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin, located in Spring Green, Wisconsin. Research in the areas of architectural history, technology, sustainability, and design inform an iterative process that analyzes the site, climate, building, materials, systems, significance and character-defining elements. This serves as an analytical framework within which to consider the contemporary ...


Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez Jan 2021

Belleza Desnuda: A Conservation Assessment Of The Exterior Concrete Surfaces Of Henry Klumb’S Parroquia Nuestra Señora Del Carmen In Cataño, Puerto Rico, Hector Berdecia-Hernandez

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Parroquia Nuestra Señora del Carmen was founded in 1893 in the coastal town of Cataño, Puerto Rico. In 1957, the Dominican Catholic Order commissioned architect Henry Klumb to design a modern church, which was inaugurated in June 1962. Since its opening, the Del Carmen Church has remained relatively unchanged, yet efforts to maintain and 'improve' the building over the years, including painting the original exposed cement stucco exteriors, an important character-defining feature of its design; has contributed toward a misunderstanding and underappreciation of one of Klumb's most significant works on the island. This case study examines Henry Klumb ...


Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg Jan 2021

Flood Barriers: Evaluating Flood Preparedness Guidance For Historic Structures At Cultural Heritage Sites In The United States, Meris Westberg

Theses (Historic Preservation)

More cultural heritage sites across the United States are at risk of flooding than previously recognized due to the escalating effects of climate change. The National Flood Insurance Program, which is responsible for mapping and communicating flood risk to citizens, has had little impact on the cultural heritage stewardship community. As a result, there is generally low flood risk awareness, low flood insurance take-up rates, and minimal investment in long-term adaptation among site stewards. More sophisticated, accessible tools for understanding flood risk are now available and should be leveraged to promote a culture of flood preparedness within the field. Disaster ...


Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang Jan 2021

Midway Barn: A Visualization Plan In Support Of Reprogramming And Interpretation, Xiaoran Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

A Historic Structure Report (HSR) usually provides documentary, graphic, and physical information about a property's history and existing condition. It is recognized as an effective part of preservation planning. A heavily text based HSR is often not processed to a level where it can serve for various kinds of uses. This research updates the detailed chronology of the development of Midway Barn from that presented in the 1994 Historic Structure Report by visualizing the evolution through analysis of primary and secondary sources such as field documentation, historic photos and drawings. The modeling software SketchUp was used to visualize the ...


Reading And Writing A Garden, Materials Of A Garden Made In Germantown, Pennsylvania (1683–1719), Miranda Elizabeth Mote Jan 2021

Reading And Writing A Garden, Materials Of A Garden Made In Germantown, Pennsylvania (1683–1719), Miranda Elizabeth Mote

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation describes and interprets an example of a relationship between belief, imagination, reading, writing, and the art of gardening in colonial Pennsylvania. The chapters analyze and interpret the role and influence of Francis Daniel Pastorius’ art of gardening in early American garden culture as it was based on his own Christian Humanist and polyglot demeanor, German Pietism, early modern natural science, and the multilingual culture of the newly forming Quaker colony. The garden in question was made behind his home at, what is now, 6019 Germantown Avenue, between 1683 and 1719. His garden and garden art are reconstructed based ...


Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski Jan 2021

Monumental Mass Marketing: How The Vermont Marble Company Standardized Memorials In Early 20th Century America, Renata Lisowski

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At the turn of the 20th century, the Vermont Marble Company was the largest producer of marble goods in the United States and a critical force in the standardization and diffusion of gravestones across the country. The Vermont Marble Company utilized new modes of mass production, established a national distribution network, and embraced the use of catalogs to sell their products. This thesis examines a set of gravestone catalogs printed in 1916 and used by the Vermont Marble Company’s sales representatives in Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco. The catalogs contain hundreds of images of gravestones sold ...


Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs Jan 2021

Waiver Authority Vs. Federal Preservation Laws: A Case Study On The U.S.-Mexican Border Wall, Jennifer Boggs

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Because of federal law waivers, former President Donald J. Trump Administration’s border wall and border infrastructure project threatened the existence of the American Southwests’ natural, archaeological, and historical resources—including Native American cultural patrimony. Legislation such as the National Historic Preservation Act and the National Environmental Policy Act require lead federal agencies to consider the potential adverse impacts their project may have on cultural and environmental resources prior to project commencement. However, when waiver authority is declared by the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security federal agencies are no longer obligated to comply with existing federal preservation laws ...


A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti Jan 2021

A Comparative Analysis Of State Historic Tax Credit Programs As Tools For Affordable Housing Projects, Nicole Felicetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic tax credit (HTC) programs and similar financial incentives have historically filled a critical financing gap in the rehabilitation of historic buildings, effectively providing capital to projects that otherwise would not be economically feasible and generating development in small or economically disadvantaged communities. Specifically, state HTC programs parallel to the federal historic tax credit program leverage additional private and local investment and encourage the stewardship and rehabilitation of historic buildings. State HTC programs also generate several benefits throughout local communities, including the creation and preservation of affordable housing units. As cities seek out ways to mitigate a growing number of ...


Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam Jan 2021

Infrared Thermography As A Non-Destructive Method To Measure Moisture Patterns In Lime-Plaster Finishes Of Historic Free-Standing Exterior Adobe Walls, Namratha Kondam

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Infrared thermography (IRT) is used as a non-destructive testing method to detect subsurface features such as defects and anomalies based on temperature differences. Recent, studies showed that IRT is increasingly being used to map moisture distribution and detect areas of moisture related deterioration in structures. This thesis studied the viability of in situ infrared thermography (IRT) to identify the presence of moisture in historic lime-plastered adobe walls. The Campo Santo at Tumacácori National Historical Park in Arizona served as an experimental model for this thesis to identify the accuracy of IRT as a rapid assessment method for moisture identification. The ...


The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif Jan 2021

The Impacts Of Climate Change On Traditional Brick Masonry Construction: A Case Study Of The Sheesh Mahal Complex, Lahore Fort, Pakistan, Ifrah Asif

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Pakistan is among the 10 countries that will be most affected by climate change. While the country contributes less than 1 percent of the world's greenhouse gases responsible for causing global warming, its 200 million people are among the world's most vulnerable victims of the growing consequences of climate change. The nation is facing ever-rising temperatures, drought, and flooding that present serious threats to the country’s rich built heritage. This research explores the traditional passive climate-control strategies that have been used in Pakistan’s traditional brick masonry buildings to mitigate its hot arid climate and considers how ...


Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro Jan 2021

Interpreting Midway Barn: Understanding Frank Lloyd Wright's Agrarian Vision, Ha Leem Ro

Theses (Historic Preservation)

At first glance, Midway Barn in Spring Green, Wisconsin presents itself as another example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s distinctive, if evolving style, its horizontal massing, tilted roof planes, and natural materials echoing the hilly landscape of the farm and its environs. Analysis of the documentary record and a range of sources on Wright’s life and thought, however, points to a richer story. Part of Wright’s larger campaign to reclaim his hometown landscape after his return to the Jones Valley, Midway Barn reflects his desire to reenact the agrarian lessons learned in his youth through the Taliesin Fellowship ...


An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar Jan 2021

An Analysis Of The Window Rehabilitation Process Towards Energy Efficiency At The Bauhaus Dessau, Basak Siklar

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Considered a monument of early Modernism and one of the pioneering examples of modern academic architecture, the Bauhaus Dessau is a World Heritage Site that experienced three main phases of renovations: in 1976, between 1996-2006 and 2009-2012. This thesis examines the alterations of the building’s windows as part of these renovations in order to explore challenges related to sustainable retrofits in modern architecture. Specific emphasis is given on windows based on their critical role in energy performance as well as their extensive use throughout the building, making them character-defining elements for the Bauhaus. Preservation strategies are identified and analyzed ...


Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark Jan 2021

Extending Main Street's Reach: An Evaluation Of Pennsylvania's Elm Street Program, Hanna Stark

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Many residential neighborhoods of Pennsylvania's older cities and towns have seen disinvestment and outmigration, which prompted Representative Robert Freeman to develop the Elm Street program. This program recognizes the interdependence of healthy residential neighborhoods and robust downtown commercial districts and shares the Main Street Four-Points Approach's principle of comprehensive, community-based strategies for revitalization. Presently, there is one designation Elm Street community with seven other "practicing" organizations that were formerly designated. This study fills a literature gap on the Elm Street program by detailing its development while evaluating Elm Street organizations' characteristics to provide recommendations to broaden and enrich ...


Conflicts And Convergences Of Preservation, Modernism And Sustainability In The Richards Medical Laboratories Renovation, Di Sung Sep 2020

Conflicts And Convergences Of Preservation, Modernism And Sustainability In The Richards Medical Laboratories Renovation, Di Sung

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Louis Kahn’s Richards Medical Laboratories underwent a two-phased renovation (2013-2015 & 2019), driven by University of Pennsylvania’s Century Bond program’s energy-saving objective. A national historic landmark, a Modernism masterpiece and a heavy equipment-bearing facility, the building had to meet satisfactory results for all the criteria as strict as possible: preservation, Modernism and sustainability. Every Mid-Century rehabilitation project accommodates similar requirements, Richards’ renovation provides a stringent example for others to reference upon. Thus a prudent review on what guidelines suggested, architects and engineers proposed and executed, post-renovation data and findings yielded, are crucial in forming a holistic apprehension. In ...